2010 G20 Toronto summit

The 2010 G20 Toronto summit was the fourth meeting of the G20 heads of state/government, to discuss the global financial system and the world economy, which took place at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, during June 26–27, 2010. The summit's priorities included evaluating the progress of financial reform, developing sustainable stimulus measures,[1] debating global bank tax,[2] and promoting open markets.[3] Alongside the twenty-one representatives of the G20 major economies, leaders of six invited nations, and eight additional intergovernmental organizations also took part in the summit.

Prior to the summit, Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that the theme would be "recovery and new beginnings," referring to an anticipated economic stimulus from the impact of the ongoing world recession.[4] Harper initially proposed to hold the summit in Huntsville, Ontario, where the 36th G8 summit was scheduled immediately prior. Organizers later deemed the town insufficient to provide hospitality for the large number of G20 delegates and journalists, favouring Toronto as the host location.[5]

Organizers formed an Integrated Security Unit, consisting of police officers from several regional departments, to provide security during the summit in Downtown Toronto.[6] The event was part of the largest and most expensive security operation in Canadian history.[7] The total combined cost between the 36th G8 summit in Huntsville and the G20 summit in Toronto including security, infrastructure, and hospitality, was determined to be approximately C$858 million.[8]

2010 G20 Toronto summit
2010 G-20 Toronto summit logo
Official photo session - 4763025214
Host countryCanada
DateJune 26–27, 2010
Venue(s)Metro Toronto Convention Centre
CitiesToronto, Ontario
Follows2009 G20 Pittsburgh summit
Precedes2010 G20 Seoul summit
WebsiteOfficial website


Many leaders of the G20 disagreed about which issues should be discussed at the summit.[9] The prime focus of the summit discussions was the recovery from the ongoing global recession and the European debt crisis. Summit leaders were divided over which strategies would be best for tackling these problems. The European Union emphasized the need to cut their deficits by focusing on austerity measures. In contrast, the United States emphasized the importance of maintaining economic stimulus spending in order to encourage growth.[10] In summit discussions, the countries of the European Union explained projected reductions in spending and balanced budgets. Alternatively, China, India, and the United States argued in favor of increased stimulus funding to mitigate the effects of recession. Among the specifics proposed by the European Union were a global bank tax and a Robin Hood tax, but the United States and Canada opposed these plans.[11] Other topics of concern were international development and continuing international aid to Africa and other developing nations.[12] Some invitees expressed criticism of Israel's Gaza strip blockade and of the nuclear programs of North Korea and the United States raised issues of corruption and security in Afghanistan.



Fences Are Up Toronto 2010
Security fencing erected along the middle of Wellington Street

Security officials began preparing for summit security in Toronto in February 2010.[13] General policing and patrolling was provided by the Toronto Police Service, the Ontario Provincial Police, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and the Canadian Forces, while the Peel Regional Police aided in policing at Toronto Pearson International Airport in Mississauga during the arrivals of delegates. The five departments formed an Integrated Security Unit (ISU), similar to the one created for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Additional officers were deployed from York Regional Police, Halton Regional Police Service,[14] Barrie Police Service, Waterloo Regional Police Service, Niagara Regional Police Service, Hamilton Police Service, Ottawa Police Service,[15] and Service de police de la Ville de Montréal. Calgary Police Service supplied 150 volunteer police officers a week before the summit.[16]

According to an early estimate by The Globe and Mail, 25,000 uniformed police officers, 1,000 security guards from Commissionaires Great Lakes, and several Canadian military forces were to be deployed during the summit.[17] The North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) conducted Amalgam Virgo exercises on May 6 and 7 across the Greater Toronto Area using CF-18 Hornet jets, CH-124 Sea Kings, and CH-146 Griffon helicopters at low altitudes.[18] The total cost for security at both the G8 and the G20 summits was determined to be $1.8 billion,[19] paid entirely by the federal Crown-in-Council, excluding the costs of any possible damage to local business.[20]

The ISU created a security perimeter, beginning with the outer boundary, specifically bordered by King Street to the north, Lake Shore Boulevard to the south, Yonge Street to the east, and Spadina Avenue to the west, where vehicles would be restricted during the summit dates.[17] Residents who lived within the security zone were issued registration cards prior to the summit and other pedestrians who wished to enter the security zone were only able to do so at one of 38 checkpoints, where they were required to present two pieces of photo identification and provide justification for entry.[21] The area surrounding the Metro Toronto Convention Centre itself was fenced and off-limits to civilians and protesters.[22] The 3-metre (10 ft) high fence, contracted to SNC-Lavalin by Public Works and Government Services Canada and installed by two Gormley, Ontario-based companies,[23] was built at a cost of $5.5-million and installation began on June 7.[24] The Toronto Police Service installed 77 additional closed-circuit television security cameras in the area and purchased four Long Range Acoustic Devices which were to be in use exclusively during the summit.[25] The ISU decided on also using water cannons for riot control.[26] The security perimeter even extended into the waters of Lake Ontario and included a Maritime Security Operation with numerous Police vessels and the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Griffon patrolling to discourage international demonstrators from unlawful entry into Canada.


A former film studio located on Eastern Avenue was designated as a temporary detention centre for individuals arrested during the summit.[27] Toronto Police Service announced that Trinity Bellwoods Park would be the designated protest area, but following opposition from local residents, police relocated the designated protest zone to the northern part of Queen's Park.[28] Canada Post declared that it would remove post boxes in the security zone.[29] Toronto Parking Authority removed some parking meters as well. Small trees along sidewalks around the convention centre were removed to prevent them from being used as weapons by protesters.[30][31] Other removed municipal properties include 745 newspaper boxes, 200 public trash cans, 70 mailboxes, 29 bus shelters, and 5 public information boards.[32]

G-20 Toronto June 2010 (1)
Shops near King subway station boarded up windows to prevent vandalism from protests

Canada's largest banks, which are headquartered in Downtown Toronto, made plans to have employees work at alternate sites outside their downtown facilities, such as at home or in other branches.[33] The Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO) announced the closure of seven liquor stores in the downtown core during the summit as a precaution to looting.[34] The PATH,[21] CN Tower,[35] University of Toronto,[36] Art Gallery of Ontario,[37] and the Ontario Legislative Building[38] were also closed to public during the summit dates.

A three-game Major League Baseball series between the Toronto Blue Jays and the Philadelphia Phillies, scheduled June 25 to 27 at the Rogers Centre, was relocated to Citizens Bank Park in Philadelphia, after much discussion by league officials and amidst discontentment from fans, who highly anticipated the return of former Blue Jays pitcher Roy Halladay to Toronto after being traded to the Phillies;[39][40][41] because the American League Blue Jays was still officially the "home" team, the series marked the first time in Major League history that the designated hitter was used in a National League ballpark during the regular season. Mirvish Productions cancelled performances of two musicals at its theatres, Rock of Ages and Mamma Mia!, during the week of the summit.[42] Similarly, the Factory Theatre cancelled shows during the summit week.[43]

Highway 427 and the Gardiner Expressway, the route from Toronto Pearson International Airport in Mississauga to the Convention Centre in downtown, periodically closed down for motorcades, and police jammed wireless reception along the two highways.[44] Exits to Yonge Street and Bay Street from the Gardiner Expressway were closed during the summit dates.[21] Toronto Transit Commission announced that subway stations near the convention centre would remain open and operational, despite some detoured bus routes and the closure of Queens Quay Station.[45] Via Rail announced that it would not operate at Union Station during the summit dates,[46] instead providing shuttle bus service from the Yorkdale and Scarborough Centre bus terminals to the Brampton and Oshawa stations respectively.[21] Nav Canada announced that it would place restrictions on the airspace in Toronto, making it limited to commercial flights only while all others would be restricted within a 30-nautical-mile (56 km) radius.[47] Porter Airlines received permission to continue flights to and from Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport.[48] The Toronto District School Board and Toronto Catholic District School Board cancelled school bus services to six Downtown schools on June 25, affecting 45,000 students, 10,000 of whom were physically disabled.[49]

Summit organizers established a media centre for international media personnel, journalists, and press reporters at the Direct Energy Centre at the Exhibition Place.[50] The Federal and Ontario governments constructed a 20,000-square-foot (1,858 m2) pavilion, called Experience Canada or Canadian Corridor in the media centre to promote Canadian tourism internationally.[51] The pavilion included three life-sized government-funded displays: Cityscape, which showcased successful Canadian businesses and innovation; The Bridge, which included information kiosks for media personnel as well as large high-definition screens that televised the 2010 FIFA World Cup games; and Northern Ontario Oasis, an artificial lakefront based on Muskoka region's cottage country.[52][53] The Northern Ontario Oasis included donated canoes, a shoreline with deck chairs for journalists to cool off, and a mobile phone recharging station. The background was a large screen that portrayed various images of the Muskoka region.[54] The cost of the international media centre, the Experience Canada pavilion, and artificial lake, which were $23 million, $1.9 million, and $57,000 respectively, was the target of controversies.[55]


Group photo of the 2010 G-20 Toronto summit family photo
Leaders pose for a group photo at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre

Participants of the Toronto summit were announced by Stephen Harper on May 8, 2010. Harper extended invitations to the leaders of Ethiopia and Malawi to further represent the continent of Africa along with South Africa, a G20 member.[56] He also invited leaders of the Netherlands, Spain, Vietnam, and Nigeria.[57]

Toronto Pearson International Airport was the port of entry for delegates attending both the G8 and G20 summits. French president Nicolas Sarkozy and Chinese president Hu Jintao were the first of the G20 leaders to arrive. The arrival of Hu coincided with his state visit to Canada, hosted by Governor General of Canada Michaëlle Jean in Ottawa.[58] Presidents Jacob Zuma of South Africa and Goodluck Jonathan of Nigeria arrived on June 24.[59] British prime minister David Cameron arrived on June 25, following a short visit in Halifax to celebrate the centennial of the Canadian Forces Maritime Command. Remaining leaders with the G8 also arrived on the same day.[60]

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the International Labour Organization, as well as Ethiopia, Malawi, Nigeria, and Vietnam made their first G20 summit appearances in Toronto.[4] Recently designated heads of government, namely Cameron and Japanese prime minister Naoto Kan, made the G8 and G20 summits their first international conferences. Australia's deputy prime minister, Wayne Swan, attended the summit on behalf of Julia Gillard, whose appointment as prime minister occurred on June 24.[60] Brazilian president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva cancelled his trip to remain in his country due to the then-recent flooding in northeastern Brazil; in his place, Guido Mantega, Brazil's finance minister, headed the nation's delegation.[61] After the G8 summit in Huntsville, Ontario ended, Cameron, whose aircraft was grounded due to weather conditions, shared transportation to Toronto in Marine One with US President, Barack Obama.[62]

Obama and Cameron in Toronto 2010
Barack Obama (right) and David Cameron (centre) arrive after travelling together on Marine One from Huntsville
  • G20 members
  • Host nation and leader are indicated in bold text
Member Represented by Title
Argentina Argentina Cristina Fernández de Kirchner[63] President
Australia Australia Wayne Swan[64] Deputy Prime Minister
Brazil Brazil Guido Mantega[65] Finance Minister
Canada Canada Stephen Harper[66] Prime Minister
China People's Republic of China Hu Jintao[67] President
France France Nicolas Sarkozy[68] President
Germany Germany Angela Merkel[69] Chancellor
India India Manmohan Singh[70] Prime Minister
Indonesia Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono[69] President
Italy Italy Silvio Berlusconi[69] Prime Minister
Japan Japan Naoto Kan[69] Prime Minister
Mexico Mexico Felipe Calderón[71] President
Russia Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev[69] President
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz[72][73] King
South Africa South Africa Jacob Zuma[69] President
South Korea Republic of Korea (South Korea) Lee Myung-bak[74] President
Turkey Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan[75][76] Prime Minister
United Kingdom United Kingdom David Cameron[69] Prime Minister
United States United States Barack Obama[69] President
European Union European Commission José Manuel Barroso[76] President
European Council Herman Van Rompuy[69] President
Invited nations
Nation Represented by Title
Ethiopia Ethiopia[77] Meles Zenawi[69] Prime Minister
Malawi Malawi[77] Bingu wa Mutharika[69] President
Netherlands Netherlands[77] Jan Peter Balkenende[78] Prime Minister
Nigeria Nigeria[57] Goodluck Jonathan[69] President
Spain Spain[77] José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero[79] Prime Minister
Vietnam Vietnam[77] Nguyen Tan Dung[67] Prime Minister[80]
International organizations
Organization Represented by Title
African Union Bingu wa Mutharika[69][81][82] Chairperson
ASEAN Surin Pitsuwan[83] Secretary General
Nguyen Tan Dung[83] Summit President
Financial Stability Board Mario Draghi[84] Chairman
International Labour Organization Juan Somavía[85] Director-General
International Monetary Fund Dominique Strauss-Kahn[68] Managing Director
NEPAD Meles Zenawi[69] Chairman
OECD José Ángel Gurría[86] Secretary General
United Nations United Nations Ban Ki-moon[87] Secretary General
World Bank Group Robert Zoellick[86] President
World Trade Organization Pascal Lamy[68] Director-General


G-20 Toronto June 2010 (20)
Demonstrators holding signs with slogans against the G20

Major protests occurred in downtown Toronto during the week of the summit, which abruptly escalated during the days of the summit. Early opposition to the G20 included an incident in Ottawa where a bank was firebombed by anarchists, who claimed they would be present during the G20 summit in Toronto.[88] The perceived security threat caused the Integrated Security Unit to increase security measures.[89]

Protests began one week ahead of the summit, organized by groups including Oxfam Canada and the Ontario Coalition Against Poverty. Issues such as poverty,[90] gay rights,[91] capitalism and globalization,[92] indigenous rights,[93] and controversial issues with the summit itself were the object of protests.[94] Despite a few arrests, protests over the week were mainly determined to be peaceful.[95]

As the first day of the summit approached, protesters grew in numbers. Several streets were closed to demonstrations on the debut of the summit. Peaceful protests were followed by black bloc tactics as individuals dressed in black dispersed from the crowd and began damaging the windows of particular businesses across downtown Toronto, mostly fast food chains, retail stores and banks, as well as local businesses.[96] Police cruisers were set on fire and vehicles of media corporations were damaged.[97] Nearby hospitals, shopping centres, and hotels were put in lockdown mode while public transit services were diverted from downtown to other locations.[98]

As security was further tightened and forces increased in presence the following day, protests against police brutality occurred in front of the Eastern Avenue temporary detention centre, where nearly 500 arrested individuals were kept from the previous day's riots.[99] A group of protesters was also "kettled" for several hours through the night after black bloc protesters were believed to be in the crowd.[100] Over 1100 people were confirmed to be arrested over the week.[101] The ISU performed sweeping arrests within a specific boundary from the summit venue.[102] Individuals arrested during the protests condemned the treatment they received from police.[103]


Leaders at the 2010 G-20 Toronto summit
Leaders confer at the Metro Toronto Convention Centre on June 27

Prior to the Toronto summit, it was speculated that it would not see the same outcome as previous summits. This was partially due to most countries' entering recovery mode from the global economic recession after the past G20 summits; thus, the likelihood of new issues being raised was minimal.[104]

During the working dinner for G20 leaders on the evening of June 26, South African president [Jacob Zuma] promoted more partnership between the international community and Africa for the development in the continent. "As Africa we bring to the G20 Summit the key message that we must, together as the developing and developed worlds, promote stronger and more effective and equal international partnerships for growth and development," he remarked.[105]

At the summit, the US president Barack Obama warned that global recovery was still "fragile." In hopes of boosting American exports, he proposed a free trade agreement between the United States and South Korea.[106] A key agreement the leaders of developed nations made was to cut annual budget deficits in half by 2013.[107] The leaders also agreed on reducing debt-to-GDP ratio in each economy by 2016.[107] The debate on imposing a tax on financial institutions was settled as the group agreed that financial institutions would be required to make fair contributions to recover costs from the financial sector reform,[108] but the manner of collecting the contributions would be left to each government.[109] Participants also decided that the institutions would be required to keep a higher amount of financial capital in case of future financial shocks.[110] Climate change and food security were also discussed; the leaders reiterated their commitment to a "greener growth".[111]

The G20 Toronto Summit Declaration, which was released shortly after the summit concluded, stated that "serious challenges remain." According to the document, the challenges include high unemployment rates in various economies and the concurrent existence of the impact of the financial crisis. The International Monetary Fund, in its post-summit document, indicated that a speedy cut in deficits may substantially slow growth. In a publication entitled Top Ten Commandments for Fiscal Adjustment in Advanced Economies, the organization insisted that balanced public spending could stabilize bond markets, reduce interest rates from less government spending, and encourage private investment. It also recommended that emerging economies such as China, which has largely benefited from trade surpluses, rely less on developed nations and increase their own spending in order to promote domestic demand.[112]


Financial costs

$246,000 was spent on a Green wall for G20.[113]

The financial costs of hosting the G8 and G20 summits was the topic of several political debates and the target of criticism by local groups.[114] The reasons for the large price for both summits were questioned by some politicians and local groups. Members of Parliament Olivia Chow and Mark Holland labelled the initially claimed budget of $1.1-billion for hosting the summits as "obscene" and "insane" while others argued that the money could have been used for long-pending municipal projects in Canada,[115][116] such as Transit City.[117] The security cost for the two summits was believed to be more expensive than the combined security costs of the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia, which were $878 million.[116] However, according to final calculations from the House of Commons of Canada as of October 2010, the exact cost for holding both summits was $857,901,850.31, making it less expensive than the security costs for the 2010 Winter Olympics.[8]

It was initially claimed that the summits stand as the most expensive ever held, with security costs for the London and Pittsburgh reported as having been only $30 million and $18 million, respectively.[115] However, the Canadian Parliamentary Budget Officer, Kevin Page, stated in his official report on the costs of the Huntsville and Toronto gatherings that other countries had not been as open about the full price for the similar meetings held there and that the $18 million figure for the Pittsburgh summit was merely for overtime pay for local police and the cost of law enforcement brought from other regions.[118] Ward Elcock, former Canadian Security Intelligence Service director and the chief of the Integrated Security Units for the Winter Olympics and the G8/G20 summits, claimed that the security costs were in fact "comparable" with those of previous summits.[115] Finance minister Jim Flaherty defended the security cost, claiming "it's necessary to spend substantially to have security. It's Canada's turn, and it's necessary that we either don't take our turn or pay the appropriate price to have the security that is necessary so that everyone is safe here in Toronto."[119]

The creation of the $23-million international media centre, which included the $1.9 million Experience Canada pavilion and $57,000 artificial lake, at the Exhibition Place was widely opposed and criticized by politicians as "a waste of taxpayers' money."[120] Criticism mainly targeted Stephen Harper and Canada's Conservative government. Some protesting groups gave names to the artificial lake, such as "Harper's Folly".[121] In a debate in the House of Commons, member Mark Holland said, "Instead of hosting world leaders, maybe the government should consider party planning for Lady Gaga."[122] According to some critics, the spending misled the objective of the summits into showing off Canada's attributes instead of promoting the summits' agendas.[123] New Democratic Party leader Jack Layton condemned the Harper government, saying, "we've got a government here that has to create an artificial lake when Canada has more lakes than just about any other country in the world. It is the taxpayers who are going to end up at the bottom of the fake lake." Transport minister John Baird defended the artificial lake, saying that the summits gave a "chance to showcase the very best that [Canada] has to offer." Foreign affairs minister Lawrence Cannon said it was "normal practice" for a country to showcase its attributes while hosting world events.[123] Harper also defended by saying, "This is a classic attempt for us to be able to market the country."[124] Upon its opening, the artificial lake received mostly negative reviews from Canadian reporters.[125]

Economic impact

The summit's economic impact was a major concern of a few local politicians and citizens. The municipal government of Toronto, as well as some public representatives, previously argued that the G20 summit should be held at an isolated venue, such as the Exhibition Place, rather than the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, which is located in the city's central business district.[126] As a result, during the aftermath of the protests during the summit, when several business and properties in Downtown Toronto were damaged, mayor David Miller urged the federal government to compensate for all the damages. It was initially outlined by the government that only damages to businesses within the security zone would be compensated. However, all damages occurred outside of the security zone. Some businesses in the downtown core suffered financially as a result.[127] According to Member of Parliament John McCallum, "Stephen Harper made a huge mistake in holding this summit in downtown Toronto." According to the Toronto Star, at least 40 stores in the Downtown Yonge Business Improvement Area suffered damages and one repair firm performed up to $750,000 in repairs.[128]

International response

On June 17, the United States Department of State issued a travel alert for Toronto, warning tourists of the expected traffic disruptions and potentially violent protests during the G20 summit. The alert, which was expected to expire on the last day of the summit, stated that "Even demonstrations that are meant to be peaceful can become violent and unpredictable." Toronto Mayor David Miller described the warning as an "over-reaction."[129]

During the summit, a few overseas reporters commented on Canada and the summits. A reporter of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) made positive remarks about Canada's economy, saying "The Canadians, it seems, have answers for even the toughest puzzles and they are keen to share their strategies with the rest of the world. Why in this economy, we all want to be Canadian." A writer in The New York Times made positive comments about the summits' preparations and natural beauty of the Muskoka region. The Times of India and The Hindu commented on impacts on city life in Toronto due to the G20 summit and the "unprecedented" security measures taken in Canada. A Reuters reporter, on the other hand, condemned the international media centre's artificial lake.[130]

Looking forward, French president Nicolas Sarkozy announced that the costs for hosting the proposed 2011 G20 Cannes summit and 37th G8 summit in France would be one-tenth of Canada's.[131]

See also


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External links

2010 G20 Seoul summit preparations

The 2010 G20 Seoul summit preparations encompass all the work which preceded the 2010 G20 Seoul summit.

2010 G20 Toronto summit preparations

2010 G20 Toronto summit preparations had already begun in advance of the announcement of the meeting venue. Preparations for the important topics to be discussed at the summit evolved in tandem with practical planning for the meeting as a venue and as an event.

Plans for the gathering of G8 leaders in Muskoka included an early and continuing investment in security projections which encompassed Toronto and Pearson International Airport. When subsequent decision-making caused Toronto to be named as a site for a G20 summit, some plans needed modification.

Potential protestors were also engaged in planning in advance of the summit.

2010 G20 Toronto summit protests

Public protesting and demonstrations began one week ahead of the 2010 G20 Toronto summit, which took place in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on 26−27 June. The protests were for various causes, including poverty and anti-capitalism.

Protests mainly consisted of peaceful demonstrations and rallies but also took form of a riot as a group of protesters using black bloc tactics caused vandalism to several businesses in Downtown Toronto. More than 20,000 police, military, and security personnel were involved in policing the protests, which at its largest numbered 10,000 protesters. While there were no deaths, 97 officers and 39 arrestees were injured, and at least 40 shops were vandalised, constituting at least C$750,000 worth of damage.Over 1000 arrests were made, making it the largest mass arrest in Canadian history. In the aftermath of the protests, the Toronto Police Service and the Integrated Security Unit (ISU) of the G20 Toronto summit were heavily criticized for brutality during the arrests and eventually went under public scrutiny by media and human rights activists. There has been legal action in the form of a class action lawsuit towards the Toronto police on behalf of all whom were arrested despite the Toronto Police's several attempts to stop court proceedings by appealing the case. As of November 10, 2016 The Supreme Court of Canada ruled that it will not hear the Toronto Police Services Board's appeal and court proceedings may go on.

2013 G20 Saint Petersburg summit

The 2013 G20 Saint Petersburg summit was the eighth meeting of the G20 heads of government/heads of state. The hosting venue was the Constantine Palace in Saint Petersburg, Russia, on 5–6 September 2013.

Agent provocateur

An agent provocateur (French for "inciting agent") is a person who commits or who acts to entice another person to commit an illegal or rash act or falsely implicate them in partaking in an illegal act, so as to ruin the reputation or entice legal action against the target or a group they belong to. An agent provocateur may be a member of a law enforcement agency acting out of their own sense of duty or under orders, or other entity. They may target any group, such as a peaceful protest or demonstration, a union, a political party or a company.

Prevention of infiltration by agents provocateurs, is part of the duty of demonstration marshals, also called stewards, deployed by organizers of large or controversial assemblies.

Bank tax

A bank tax, or a bank levy, is a tax on banks which was discussed in the context of the financial crisis of 2007–08. On 16 April 2010, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) put forward three possible options to deal with the crisis., which were presented in response to an earlier request of the G20 leaders, at the September 2009 G20 Pittsburgh summit, for an investigative report on options to deal with the crisis. The IMF opted in favour of the "financial stability contribution" (FSC) option, which many media have referred to as a "bank tax". Both before and after that IMF report, there was considerable debate among national leaders as to whether such a "bank tax" should be global or semi-global, or whether it should be applied only in certain nations.

Barack Obama

Barack Hussein Obama II ( (listen); born August 4, 1961) is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American to be elected to the presidency. He previously served as a U.S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008.

Obama was born in Honolulu, Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. He represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004, when he ran for the U.S. Senate. He received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, and his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton. He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months later, he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate.

During his first two years in office, Obama signed many landmark bills into law. The main reforms were the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (often referred to as "Obamacare", shortened as the "Affordable Care Act"), the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, and the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U.S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi; Gaddafi was killed by NATO-assisted forces. He also ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki.

After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans. His administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional (United States v. Windsor and Obergefell v. Hodges); same-sex marriage was fully legalized in 2015 after the Court ruled that a same-sex marriage ban was unconstitutional in Obergefell. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U.S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, and normalized U.S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling significantly improved.Evaluations of his presidency among historians and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and currently resides in Washington, D.C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years.


CBLA-FM is a Canadian radio station. It is the flagship station of the CBC Radio One network, broadcasting at 99.1 FM in Toronto, Ontario. CBLA's studios are located at the Canadian Broadcasting Centre, while its transmitter is located atop the First Canadian Place.

Coronation Park (Toronto)

Coronation Park is a park and veteran's memorial in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Coronation Park was built to honour the coronation of King George VI in 1937. Trees are planted to honour the Canadian men and women who participated in World War I and earlier wars. Built during the Great Depression, the construction used many workers on relief. It is constructed on landfill on the shore of Lake Ontario. The park also has the Victory-Peace World War II monument located at water's edge. To the east is HMCS York, the naval barracks. To the north is Fort York and the Fort York Armoury. To the west is Exhibition Place, once the site of New Fort York.

David Cameron

David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016. He was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Witney from 2001 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016. He identifies as a one-nation conservative, and has been associated with both economically liberal and socially liberal policies.

Born in London to an upper-middle-class family, Cameron was educated at Heatherdown School, Eton College, and Brasenose College, Oxford. From 1988 to 1993 he worked at the Conservative Research Department, assisting the Conservative Prime Minister John Major, before leaving politics to work for Carlton Communications in 1994. Becoming an MP in 2001, he served in the opposition shadow cabinet under Conservative leader Michael Howard, and succeeded Howard in 2005. Cameron sought to rebrand the Conservatives, embracing an increasingly socially liberal position. The 2010 general election led to Cameron becoming Prime Minister as the head of a coalition government with the Liberal Democrats – the youngest holder of the office since the 1810s. His premiership was marked by the ongoing effects of the late-2000s financial crisis; these involved a large deficit in government finances that his government sought to reduce through austerity measures. His administration introduced large-scale changes to welfare, immigration policy, education, and healthcare. It privatised the Royal Mail and some other state assets, and legalised same-sex marriage in Great Britain.

Internationally, his government intervened militarily in the Libyan Civil War and later authorised the bombing of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; domestically, his government oversaw the referendum on voting reform and Scottish independence referendum, both of which confirmed Cameron's favoured outcome. When the Conservatives secured an unexpected majority in the 2015 general election he remained as Prime Minister, this time leading a Conservative-only government. To fulfil a manifesto pledge, he introduced a referendum on the UK's continuing membership of the EU. Cameron supported continued membership; following the success of the Leave vote, he resigned to make way for a new Prime Minister and was succeeded by Theresa May.Cameron has been praised for modernising the Conservative Party and for decreasing the United Kingdom's national deficit. Conversely, he has been criticised by figures on both the left and right, and has been accused of elitism and political opportunism.

Fairmont Royal York

The Fairmont Royal York, formerly and commonly known as the Royal York, is a large historic luxury hotel in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Located along Front Street West, the hotel is situated at the southern end of the Financial District, in Downtown Toronto. The Royal York was designed by Ross and Macdonald, in association with Sproatt and Rolph, and built by the Canadian Pacific Railway company. The hotel is presently managed by Fairmont Hotels and Resorts.

Opened on 11 June 1929, the Châteauesque-styled building is 124-metre-tall (407 ft), and contains 28 floors. It is considered one of Canada's grand railway hotels. After its completion, the building was briefly the tallest building in Toronto, as well as the tallest building in the country, and the British Empire, until the nearby Canadian Bank of Commerce Tower was built the following year. The building has undergone several extensive renovations since it first opened, with its first major renovation in 1972. An underground walkway linking the hotel with the Royal Bank Plaza and Union Station form part of the Toronto's PATH underground city system.

G20 protests

G20 protests may refer to:

2009 G20 London summit protests

2010 G20 Toronto summit protests

2017 G20 Hamburg summit protests

Geography of Toronto

The geography of Toronto, Ontario, covers an area of 630 km2 (243 sq mi) and is bounded by Lake Ontario to the south; Etobicoke Creek, Eglinton Avenue, and Highway 427 to the west; Steeles Avenue to the north; and the Rouge River and the Scarborough–Pickering Townline to the east. In addition to Etobicoke Creek and the Rouge River, the city is trisected by two minor rivers and their tributaries, the Humber River in the west end and the Don River east of downtown. Both flow southward to Lake Ontario at Humber Bay and Toronto Harbour respectively, which are part of the longer Waterfront, as well as Etobicoke Creek and the Rouge River.

The concentration and protection of Toronto's ravines allows for large tracts of densely forested valleys with recreational trails within the city. Approximately 26–28% of Toronto is covered with over 10 million trees, a fairly high percentage within a large city in North America and there are ambitious proposals to double the coverage.

The shoreline of the former Lake Iroquois is a major west−east geological feature, which was formed at the end of the last glacial period. In the west end, Davenport Road follows the ancient shoreline with the steps to Casa Loma rising above and downtown skyscrapers clearly visible to the southeast. It merges with the current Lake Ontario shoreline at the Scarborough Bluffs promontory.

The Toronto Islands are the only group of islands located on the western shores of Lake Ontario and were formed from the erosion of the Scarborough Bluffs. The Toronto Islands were originally a sand spit until a major storm separated them from the mainland during the 19th century.

Toronto's immediate neighbours are Mississauga and Brampton within the Regional Municipality of Peel, Vaughan and Markham within the Regional Municipality of York, and Pickering within the Regional Municipality of Durham. The Greater Toronto Area (GTA) includes the regional municipalities of Halton, Peel, York and Durham.

The GTA is part of a larger, natural ecosystem known as the Greater Toronto Bioregion. This ecosystem is bounded by Lake Ontario, the Niagara Escarpment, and the Oak Ridges Moraine, and includes many watersheds that drain into Lake Ontario. Some parts of Toronto, such as High Park and the lower Humber River, are located in the northernmost parts of the Carolinian forest zone found in North America.

In March 2005, the Government of Ontario unveiled the boundaries of a greenbelt around the Greater Toronto Area, a 7,200 km2 (2,800 sq mi) area stretching from Niagara Falls to Peterborough. The green belt is designed to curb urban sprawl and to preserve valuable natural areas and farmland surrounding the city. However, some types of development including detached single residential, quarries and commercial facilities continue to get approved, exerting pressure and population growth on the Greenbelt. Toronto is among the latest in a line of cities that have implemented growth boundaries of some kind as a method of restricting urban growth, including Ottawa; Portland, Oregon; Frankfurt; Melbourne; Seoul and London.

List of state visits made by Prime Ministers of India

The following is a list of international prime ministerial trips made by Prime Ministers of India in reverse chronological order.

Militarization of police

Militarization of police refers to the use of military equipment and tactics by law enforcement officers. This includes the use of armored personnel carriers, assault rifles, submachine guns, flashbang grenades, grenade launchers, sniper rifles, and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams. The militarization of law enforcement is also associated with intelligence agency-style information gathering aimed at the public and political activists, and a more aggressive style of law enforcement. Criminal justice professor Peter Kraska has defined militarization of police as "the process whereby civilian police increasingly draw from, and pattern themselves around, the tenets of militarism and the military model."Observers have noted the militarizing of the policing of protests. Since the 1970s, riot police have fired at protesters using guns with rubber bullets or plastic bullets. Tear gas, which was developed by the United States Army for riot control in 1919, was widely used against protesters in the 2000s. The use of tear gas in warfare is prohibited by various international treaties that most states have signed; however, its law enforcement or military use for domestic or non-combat situations is permitted.

Concerns about the militarization of police have been raised by both ends of the political spectrum in the United States, with both the right-of-center/libertarian Cato Institute and the American Civil Liberties Union voicing criticisms of the practice. The Fraternal Order of Police has spoken out in favor of equipping law enforcement officers with military equipment, on the grounds that it increases the officers' safety and enables them to protect members of the public and other first responders (e.g., firefighters and emergency medical services personnel). However, a 2017 study showed that police forces which received military equipment were more likely to have violent encounters with the public, regardless of local crime rates.

Nathalie Des Rosiers

Nathalie Des Rosiers (born 1959) is a lawyer, academic and politician in Ontario, Canada. She is a Liberal member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario who was first elected in 2016. She represents the riding of Ottawa—Vanier and served in the cabinet of Kathleen Wynne.

Royal Bank of Canada

The Royal Bank of Canada (RBC) is a Canadian multinational financial services company and the largest bank in Canada by market capitalization. The bank serves over 16 million clients and has 80,000 employees worldwide. The bank was founded in 1864 in Halifax, Nova Scotia, while its corporate headquarters are located in Toronto, Ontario. RBC's Institution Number (or bank number) is 003. In November 2017, RBC was added to the Financial Stability Board's list of global systemically important banks.

In Canada, the bank's personal and commercial banking operations are branded as RBC Royal Bank in English and RBC Banque Royale in French and serves approximately ten million clients through its network of 1,209 branches. RBC Bank is the U.S. banking subsidiary which formerly operated 439 branches across six states in the Southeastern United States, but now only offers cross-border banking services to Canadian travellers and expats. RBC also has 127 branches across seventeen countries in the Caribbean, which serve more than 16 million clients. RBC Capital Markets is RBC's worldwide investment and corporate banking subsidiary, while the investment brokerage firm is known as RBC Dominion Securities. Investment banking services are also provided through RBC Bank and the focus is on middle market clients.

In 2011, RBC was the largest Canadian company by revenue and market capitalization. and was ranked at No. 50 in the 2013 Forbes Global 2000 listing, The company has operations in Canada, and 40 other countries and had US$673.2 billion of assets under management in 2014.

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