2010 G20 Seoul summit

The 2010 G20 Seoul Summit was the fifth meeting of the G20 heads of government/heads of state, to discuss the global financial system and the world economy,[1] which took place in Seoul, South Korea, on November 11–12, 2010. Korea was the first non-G8 nation to host a G20 leaders' summit.[2]

The G20 is the premier forum for discussing, planning, and monitoring international economic cooperation.[3]

The theme of the summit was "Shared Growth Beyond Crisis".[4]

G20 Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy
2010 G20 Seoul summit logo
Host countrySouth Korea
DateNovember 11–12, 2010
Venue(s)COEX Convention & Exhibition Center, Seoul, South Korea
ParticipantsG20
Invited states: Ethiopia, Malawi, Singapore, Spain, Vietnam
Invited organizations: ASEAN, AU, FSB, 3G, ILO, IMF, NEPAD, OECD, UN, WBG, WTO
Follows2010 G20 Toronto summit
Precedes2011 G20 Cannes summit
Websiteseoulsummit.kr
2010 G-20 Seoul summit
World leaders at the 2010 G20 Seoul summit

Agenda

The summit leaders addressed several mid- and long-term policy issues,[5] including

Representatives met in advance of the leaders' summit. These sherpas were tasked to draft a closing statement for the summit. The debate over currency exchange rates and imbalances was reported to have been "heated".[8]

Preparations

The summit logo incorporated two images: the sun rising over the sea and a traditional Korean lantern (cheongsachorong).[1]

Originally, three new artificial islands built on the Han River between the Banpo and Dongjak bridges were going to be used as the main venue.[9] However, delayed construction of the islands led for the main summit venue to relocate to COEX Convention & Exhibition Center.

The Republic of Korea Armed Forces and Seoul Metropolitan Police Agency provided security for the venues.

A group of South Korean artists, consisting of Gyu-ri, Seohyun, Jun. K, Changmin, Jaekyung, Jonghyun, Sungmin, Kahi, Luna, Ji Eun, Junhyung, Gayoon, Min, G.O, Bumkey, G.NA, Son Dam-bi, Seo In-guk, IU, and Anna, credited as Group of 20 recorded a song titled "Let's Go" for the summit.

Transportation

Most world leaders and international media arrived via Incheon International Airport and traveled to the summit venue via motorcades along the highway from the airport.

Transportation around the summit venue was upgraded with electric buses to help media and others around the city.

Attendance

Obama and Erdoğan speaking
American President Obama and Turkish Prime Minister Erdoğan in conversation.

The participants of the Seoul summit included the leaders and representatives of core members of the G20, which comprises 19 countries and the European Union, which is represented by its two governing bodies, the European Council and the European Commission.[10] Representatives from other countries and regional organizations were invited to take part in the summit.

The South Korean government declined to invite the Netherlands, which had been invited to attend all four previous G20 summits. A Korean spokesman said that "a certain region had been over-represented" in the past; and for this Asian summit, Singapore was invited.[11]

This was the first summit at which there were four women among the leaders. In addition to President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner of Argentina, Prime Minister Julia Gillard of Australia, Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany, and the president-elect of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, accompanied her nation's delegation.[12]

This was the first G20 summit for Australia's Prime Minister Gillard, who had only been elected shortly before the Toronto summit.[13] This was also the first opportunity for Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong of Singapore to listen and to make his voice heard at the G20 leaders' meetings.[11]

G20 members
Host nation and leader are indicated in bold text.
Member Represented by Title
Argentina Argentina Cristina Fernández de Kirchner[14] President
Australia Australia Julia Gillard[15] Prime Minister
Brazil Brazil Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva[16] President
Canada Canada Stephen Harper[17] Prime Minister
China China Hu Jintao[18] President
France France Nicolas Sarkozy[19] President
Germany Germany Angela Merkel[16] Chancellor
India India Manmohan Singh[20] Prime Minister
Indonesia Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono[21] President
Italy Italy Silvio Berlusconi[16] Prime Minister
Japan Japan Naoto Kan[22] Prime Minister
Mexico Mexico Felipe Calderón[23] President
Russia Russia Dmitry Medvedev[24] President
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia Saud bin Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud[25] Foreign Minister
South Africa South Africa Jacob Zuma[26] President
South Korea South Korea Lee Myung-bak[27] President
Turkey Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan[16] Prime Minister
United Kingdom United Kingdom David Cameron[28] Prime Minister
United States United States Barack Obama[29] President
European Union European Commission Jose Manuel Barroso[30] President
European Council Herman Van Rompuy[16] President
Invited states
State[31] Represented by Title
Singapore Singapore Lee Hsien Loong[32] Prime Minister
Spain Spain José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero[16] Prime Minister
Vietnam Vietnam Nguyễn Tấn Dũng[33] Prime Minister[34]
International organisations
Organisation[31] Represented by Title
African Union Bingu wa Mutharika[35] Chairman
ASEAN Surin Pitsuwan[36] Secretary General
Nguyễn Tấn Dũng[33] Chairman
Financial Stability Forum Mario Draghi[37] Chairman
International Labour Organization Juan Somavía[36] Head
International Monetary Fund Dominique Strauss-Kahn[38] Managing Director
NEPAD Meles Zenawi[39] Chairman
OECD José Ángel Gurría[40] Secretary-General
United Nations United Nations Ban Ki-moon[41] Secretary General
World Bank Group Robert Zoellick[42] President
World Trade Organization Pascal Lamy[43] Director-General

Security

Security for the G20 summit presented a unique array of problems. In addition to the security of the main venue, COEX, South Korea was more broadly responsible for providing a safe venue for the delegations who come to the summit. The National Police Agency led the security detail for the summit, both at the convention venue and the airport as well. Other police and security agencies involved were:

G20 protests Seoul - VOA - police
A squad of riot police in front of the Korea Press Center in downtown Seoul — November 7, 2010
G20 protests Seoul - VOA - labor protesters
Demonstrators converged on downtown Seoul in protest against the G20 leaders' summit. The labor rally took place in Seoul City Plaza near city hall — November 7, 2010

In preparation, anti-terrorism drills were held by members of the South Korean police, military, special forces and private sector as part of the 2010 Ulchi-Freedom Guardian exercises against simulated hostage situations and chemical, biological and radiological attacks as a preparation for the summit.[44]

Plans for accommodating peaceful protesters were paired with plans for mitigating disruptive demonstrations.

The G20 raised security concerns unrelated to demonstrators protesting the presence of the leaders of 20 economies in Seoul. For example, some analysts projected that anything perceived as a success for South Korea would be simultaneously construed in Pyongyang as a threat to North Korea.[45]

Despite public endorsements by attending leaders, most commentators looking back on the summit have argued that only limited progress was made, especially on the headline issue of currency war and addressing trade imbalances.[46][47][48][49][50][51][52] Leaders were generally unable to agree on key issues, with commentators such as economist Eswar Prasad noting the absence of the sense of unity that had been present at summits during the worse of the global financial crisis of 2007–2009. IMF managing director Dominique Strauss-Kahn said this particular summit was "more of a G20 debate than a G20 conclusion".[47]

Relating to the need to rebalance the world economy, agreement had been reached to work on indicative guidelines which will set suggested maximum limits for current account surpluses and deficits, though these are not due to be fleshed out until 2011. G20 leaders also agreed to endorse the Seoul Development Consensus, a set of guidelines and principles for working together with less development nations to improve economic growth and reduce poverty. In contrast to the older Washington Consensus which it supersedes, the Seoul Consensus is less free market–orientated, allowing a larger role for state intervention.[53][54]

See also

References

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External links

2010 G20 Seoul summit preparations

The 2010 G20 Seoul summit preparations encompass all the work which preceded the 2010 G20 Seoul summit.

2010 G20 Toronto summit preparations

2010 G20 Toronto summit preparations had already begun in advance of the announcement of the meeting venue. Preparations for the important topics to be discussed at the summit evolved in tandem with practical planning for the meeting as a venue and as an event.

Plans for the gathering of G8 leaders in Muskoka included an early and continuing investment in security projections which encompassed Toronto and Pearson International Airport. When subsequent decision-making caused Toronto to be named as a site for a G20 summit, some plans needed modification.

Potential protestors were also engaged in planning in advance of the summit.

2011 G20 Cannes summit

The 2011 G20 Cannes Summit was the sixth meeting of the G20 heads of government/heads of state in a series of on-going discussions about financial markets and the world economy.The G20 forum is the avenue for the G20 economies to discuss, plan and monitor international economic

cooperation. While the summit achieved little progress on resolving the Eurozone crisis and providing concrete measures to addressing global financial imbalances, it did produce some tangible results, including the adoption of the Cannes Action Plan for Growth and Jobs, the launch of the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) and the endorsement of an Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture.

2016 G20 Hangzhou summit

The 2016 G20 Hangzhou summit was the eleventh meeting of the Group of Twenty (G20). It was held on 4–5 September 2016 in the city of Hangzhou, Zhejiang. It was the first ever G20 summit to be hosted in China and the second in an Asian country after 2010 G20 Seoul summit was hosted in South Korea.

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Jung Byung-hee (Hangul: 정병희; born November 6, 1987), better known by his stage name G.O (Hangul: 지오), is a South Korean singer-songwriter and actor. He is best known as a member of South Korean boy band MBLAQ.

History of South Korea

The history of South Korea formally begins with its establishment on August 15, 1948.

Korea was administratively partitioned in 1945, at the end of World War II. As Korea was under Japanese rule during World War II, Korea was officially a belligerent against the Allies by virtue of being Japanese territory. The unconditional surrender of Japan led to the division of Korea into two occupation zones (similar to the four zones in Germany), with the United States administering the southern half of the peninsula and the Soviet Union administering the area north of the 38th parallel. This division was meant to be temporary (as was in Germany) and was first intended to return a unified Korea back to its people after the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and Republic of China could arrange a single government for the peninsula.

The two parties were unable to agree on the implementation of Joint Trusteeship over Korea. This led in 1948 to the establishment of two separate governments – the Communist-aligned Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) and the West-aligned First Republic of Korea – each claiming to be the legitimate government of all of Korea. On June 25, 1950 the Korean War broke out. After much destruction, the war ended on July 27,1953 with the 1948 status quo being restored, as neither the DPRK nor the First Republic had succeeded in conquering the other's portion of the divided Korea. The peninsula was divided by the Korean Demilitarized Zone and the two separate governments stabilized into the existing political entities of North and South Korea.

South Korea's subsequent history is marked by alternating periods of democratic and autocratic rule. Civilian governments are conventionally numbered from the First Republic of Rhee Syngman to the contemporary Sixth Republic. The First Republic, arguably democratic at its inception, became increasingly autocratic until its collapse in 1960. The Second Republic was strongly democratic, but was overthrown in less than a year and replaced by an autocratic military regime. The Third, Fourth, and Fifth Republics were nominally democratic, but are widely regarded as the continuation of military rule. With the Sixth Republic, the country has gradually stabilized into a liberal democracy.

Since its inception, South Korea has seen substantial development in education, economy, and culture. Since the 1960s, the country has developed from one of Asia's poorest to one of the world's wealthiest nations. Education, particularly at the tertiary level, has expanded dramatically. It is said to be one of the "Four Tigers" of rising Asian states along with Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong.

IU videography

Korean musician IU has released more than 40 music videos since her debut in 2008, creating works for songs she has released as singles, as well as songs from her albums.

In addition to her music videos, she has released 6 special clips made of live performances of the songs.

KDI School of Public Policy and Management

The KDI School of Public Policy and Management (KDI School, Hangul: KDI 국제정책대학원대학교; Hanja: KDI 國際政策大學院大學校) is a government-run graduate school located in Sejong City, South Korea and is affiliated to the Korea Development Institute (KDI) and a member of the National Research Council for Economics, Humanities, and Social Sciences. The school was first established in 1997 in Dongdaemun District, Seoul, before moving to Sejong City in 2015 under the South Korean government's actions to establish the city as the de facto administrative capital of the country. The school specializes in fostering international experts in the field of development economics and public policy.

Highly selective, the school takes on a small number of Korean and international students for its Master and Ph.D programs taught in an institute-style research environment. The school offers an innovative educational program focusing on policy and international issues and aims to transform mid-career professionals into leaders of their respective fields by equipping them with new knowledge, vision and a global perspective. The KDI School also draws from a wealth of research and resources from the Korea Development Institute, the nation's leading economic think tank, to share Korea's unique development experience with the global community.

List of state visits made by Prime Ministers of India

The following is a list of international prime ministerial trips made by Prime Ministers of India in reverse chronological order.

Sayuri Fujita

Sayuri Fujita (藤田小百合, Fujita Sayuri, born October 13, 1979) is a Japanese television personality based in South Korea.

From 2007, she regularly appeared on KBS's Global Talk Show as a representative of Japan, until the show's second season ended. She had also been a regular on Wonderful Friday, including its predecessor, Live Show: Friday Wide, since 2011 until the show ended in 2014. In 2014, she joined the reality-variety TV show, With You, with singer and television personality, Lee Sang-min and remained on the show until the first season finished. She is currently a panelist on the reality-variety show, My Neighbor, Charles, and has been since 2015.

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