200 Vesey Street, formerly known as Three World Financial Center and also known as American Express Tower, is a skyscraper in Lower Manhattan, New York City. Located on West Street between Liberty Street and Vesey Street, the 739-foot (225 m) building is the tallest in the Brookfield Place complex (formerly known as the World Financial Center). It is similar in design to 225 Liberty Street (formerly Two World Financial Center), except that it is capped by a solid pyramid whereas 225 Liberty is capped by a dome.
|200 Vesey Street|
The building in 2006
Location within Lower Manhattan
200 Vesey Street (New York)
200 Vesey Street (the United States)
|Location||200 Vesey Street, New York, NY 10281, United States|
|Cost||$800 million (USD)|
|Owner||American Express (lower half)|
Brookfield Office Properties (upper half)
|Antenna spire||739 ft (225 m)|
|Floor area||2,491,000 sq ft (231,400 m2)|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Haines Lundberg Waehler, Cesar Pelli & Associates|
|Structural engineer||Thornton-Tomasetti Engineers|
The building is an example of postmodern architecture, as designed by Cesar Pelli & Associates, and contains over 2.1 million square feet (195,000 m²) of rentable office area. It connects to the rest of the World Financial Center complex through a courtyard leading to the Winter Garden, a dramatic glass-and-steel public space with a 120 ft (37 m) vaulted ceiling under which there is an assortment of trees and plants, including sixteen 40 ft (12 m) palm trees from the Mojave Desert. It is notably similar in design to One Canada Square in London's Canary Wharf development. Canary Wharf was, like the World Financial Center, a project by Canadian developers Olympia & York, and One Canada Square was designed by the same principal architect.
Due to its status as the tallest tower in the complex, the building was subject to scathing criticism at the time of its construction. In 1985, the New York Times published an article lambasting the tower. ‟Not too long ago, it was possible to gaze all the way from mid-Manhattan to the skies over the harbor. Now, that vista has been pierced by the American Express tower being built in the World Financial Center at Battery Park City. At the moment, the skyscraper resembles a gigantic, upended, rectilinear fish skeleton. As construction proceeds, however, and the floors fill in, there will be a solid wall where there was once a generous slice of sky."
Three World Financial Center was severely damaged by the falling debris when the World Trade Center towers collapsed on September 11, 2001. The building's southeast corner took heavy structural damage, though the effects were not enough to create a threat of collapse. The building had to be closed for repairs from September 11, 2001 until May 2002 as a result of damage sustained in the terrorist attacks.
3 World Financial Center is today the world headquarters of American Express, and was once World Headquarters of Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc. It was renamed 200 Vesey Street when the rest of the complex became Brookfield Place in 2014.
225 Liberty Street, formerly Two World Financial Center, is one of the tallest skyscrapers in New York City, located at 225 Liberty Street in the Financial District of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Rising 645 feet (197 m), the building is the second tallest of the four buildings in the World Financial Center complex that stands in southwest Manhattan, and the 97th tallest in the city. It is similar in design to 200 Vesey Street, except that its roof is dome-shaped rather than 3 WFC's solid pyramid design. It is notably similar in design to One Canada Square in London's Canary Wharf development. Canary Wharf was, like the World Financial Center, a project by Canadian developers Olympia and York, and One Canada Square was designed by the same architects.
The building is home to Meredith, BNY Mellon, Hudson's Bay Company, Commerzbank, First Data, Oppenheimer Funds, Inc., State Street Corporation, McElroy, Deutsch, Mulvaney & Carpenter, LLP, Thacher Proffitt & Wood, LLP, and several divisions of France Telecom, among other companies. It is an example of postmodern architecture, as designed by Cesar Pelli & Associates, and contains over 2,491,000 square feet (231,400 m2) of rentable office area. It connects to the rest of the World Financial Center complex through a courtyard leading to the Winter Garden, a dramatic glass-and-steel public space with a 120-foot vaulted ceiling under which there is an assortment of trees and plants, including sixteen 12-meter palm trees from the Mojave Desert.Though the building has a nominal address on Liberty Street, its most prominent facade is on West Street between Liberty and Vesey Streets. The building, formerly the Two World Financial Center, was renamed when the rest of the complex was renamed Brookfield Place in 2014.225 Liberty Street had been severely damaged by the falling debris when the World Trade Center towers collapsed due to the September 11 attacks. The building had to be closed for repairs from September 11, 2001 until May 2002 as a result of damage sustained in the terrorist attacks.On April 12, 2012, a "suspicious package" was delivered to the 2 World Financial Center, prompting the evacuation of the building after the "potential, deadly threat". The New York City Police Department (NYPD)'s Emergency Services Unit was called in to investigate the package, which was spotted during a routine screening. The NYPD determined the packages to be harmless, and employees returned to work.3 World Trade Center
3 World Trade Center (also known as 175 Greenwich Street) is a skyscraper constructed as part of the rebuilding of the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The tower is located on the east side of Greenwich Street, on the eastern side of the World Trade Center site.
The current 3 World Trade Center is the second building at the site to bear this name. The original building was the Marriott World Trade Center, a hotel located in the southwest corner of the World Trade Center complex. The hotel was a 22-story steel-framed structure with 825 rooms. It had a roof height of 242 feet (74 m). Construction began in 1979 and it opened in July 1981 as the Vista International Hotel. The entire World Trade Center complex was destroyed during the September 11 attacks in 2001.
Construction originally began in 2010, but was delayed until 2014 because of a lack of an anchor tenant. The building's concrete core was topped out to maximum height in August 2016, with the perimeter steel structure following on October 6, 2016. The building opened on June 11, 2018. The building was designed by Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, and is managed by Silverstein Properties through a ground lease with the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, who owns the land. It is 1,079 ft (329 m) high, with 80 stories. As of 2018, it is the sixth-tallest building in the city.American Express
The American Express Company, also known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Three World Financial Center in New York City. The company was founded in 1850 and is one of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. The company is best known for its charge card, credit card, and traveler's cheque businesses.
In 2016, credit cards using the American Express network accounted for 22.9% of the total dollar volume of credit card transactions in the US. As of December 31, 2017, the company had 112.8 million cards in force, including 50 million cards in force in the United States, each with an average annual spending of $18,519.In 2017, Forbes named American Express as the 23rd most valuable brand in the world (and the highest within financial services), estimating the brand to be worth US$24.5 billion. In 2018, Fortune ranked American Express as the 14th most admired company worldwide, and the 23rd best company to work for.The company's logo, adopted in 1958, is a gladiator or centurion whose image appears on the company's traveler's cheques, charge cards and credit cards.Austin J. Tobin
Austin Joseph Tobin (May 25, 1903 – February 8, 1978) was an American businessman who served as the executive director of the Port of New York Authority, the precursor to the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, from 1942 until 1972.Tobin is widely known for authorizing the construction of the original World Trade Center, which was destroyed during the September 11 attacks in 2001.Battery Park City
Battery Park City is a mainly residential 92-acre (37 ha) planned community on the west side of the southern tip of the island of Manhattan in New York City. It is bounded by the Hudson River on the west, the Hudson River shoreline on the north and south, and the West Side Highway on the east.
More than one-third of the development is parkland. The land upon which it is built was created by land reclamation on the Hudson River using over 3 million cubic yards (2.3×10^6 m3) of soil and rock excavated during the construction of the World Trade Center, the New York City Water Tunnel, and certain other construction projects, as well as from sand dredged from New York Harbor off Staten Island. The neighborhood, which is the site of Brookfield Place (formerly the World Financial Center), along with numerous buildings designed for housing, commercial, and retail, is named for adjacent Battery Park.
Battery Park City is part of Manhattan Community District 1 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10280 and 10282. It is patrolled by the 1st Precinct of the New York City Police Department.Brookfield Place (New York City)
Brookfield Place, built as and still commonly referred to as the World Financial Center, is a shopping center and office-building complex located across West Street from the World Trade Center in the Battery Park City neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. Overlooking the Hudson River, Brookfield Place has been home to offices of various companies including Merrill Lynch, RBC Capital Markets, Nomura Group, American Express, Bank of New York Mellon, Time Inc. and Brookfield Asset Management, among others. In 2014, the complex was given its current name following the completion of extensive renovations.Construction of One World Trade Center
Construction of One World Trade Center was deferred until 2006 because of disputes between the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and the developer. Tishman Realty & Construction is the selected builder. The building reached ground level on May 17, 2008, and was topped out on May 10, 2013. One World Trade Center opened to tenants on November 3, 2014, and One World Observatory opened to the public on May 28, 2015.Financial District, Manhattan
The Financial District of Lower Manhattan, also known as FiDi, is a neighborhood located on the southern tip of Manhattan island in New York City. It is bounded by the West Side Highway on the west, Chambers Street and City Hall Park on the north, Brooklyn Bridge on the northeast, the East River to the southeast, and The Battery on the south.
The City of New York was created in the Financial District in 1624, and the neighborhood roughly overlaps with the boundaries of the New Amsterdam settlement in the late 17th century. The district comprises the offices and headquarters of many of the city's major financial institutions, including the New York Stock Exchange and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Anchored on Wall Street in the Financial District, New York City has been called both the most financially powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and the New York Stock Exchange is the world's largest stock exchange by total market capitalization. Several other major exchanges have or had headquarters in the Financial District, including the New York Mercantile Exchange, NASDAQ, the New York Board of Trade, and the former American Stock Exchange.
The Financial District is part of Manhattan Community District 1 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10004, 10005, 10006, and 10038. It is patrolled by the 1st Precinct of the New York City Police Department.Liberty Park
Liberty Park is a one-acre (4,000 m2) elevated public park at the World Trade Center in New York City, overlooking the National September 11 Memorial & Museum. It is located above the Vehicular Security Center and opened on June 29, 2016. The St. Nicholas National Shrine is located within the park, as well as The Sphere, the iconic sculpture salvaged from the World Trade Center site. Another statue, America's Response Monument, is also located in the park.List of tallest buildings in New York City
New York City, the most populous city in the United States, is home to over 6,486 completed high-rise buildings of at least 35 meters, of which at least 113 are taller than 600 feet (183 m). The tallest building in New York is One World Trade Center, which rises 1,776 feet (541 m). The 104-story skyscraper also stands as the tallest building in the United States, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, and the sixth-tallest building in the world. The second-tallest building in the city is 432 Park Avenue, standing at 1,396 feet (426 m), and the third-tallest is the recently-topped-out 30 Hudson Yards. Not counting its antenna, the 4th-tallest is the 102-story Empire State Building in Midtown Manhattan, which was finished in 1931 and rises to 1,250 feet (381 m), increased to 1,454 feet (443 m) by its antenna. It is the sixth-tallest building in the United States and the 43rd-tallest building in the world.
The Empire State Building stood as the tallest building in the world from its completion until 1972, when the 110-story North Tower of the original World Trade Center was completed. At 1,368 feet (417 m), The World Trade Center held the title until the completion of the 108-story Willis Tower (formerly known as the Sears Tower) in Chicago in 1974. The World Trade Center towers were destroyed by terrorist attacks in 2001, and the Empire State Building regained the title of tallest building in the city. It remained the tallest until April 2012, when the construction on One World Trade Center surpassed it. The fifth-tallest building in New York is the Bank of America Tower, which rises to 1,200 feet (366 m), including its spire. If the Twin Towers were still standing today, they would be the third- and fourth-tallest buildings in the city, or second and third assuming the new buildings would not have been built. Only 432 Park Avenue is taller.
New York City skyscrapers are concentrated in Midtown and Lower Manhattan, although other neighborhoods of Manhattan and the boroughs of Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx also have a few high-rises. As of May 2016, the entire city had 241 buildings that rise at least 500 feet (152 m) in height, including those under construction, more than any other city in the United States.Since 2003, New York City has seen the completion of 24 buildings that rise at least 600 feet (183 m) in height, including One World Trade Center. As of 2013, 20 more were under construction. One World Trade Center is part of the redevelopment of the World Trade Center, which also includes the 1,079-foot (329 m) 3 World Trade Center, the 975-foot (297 m) 4 World Trade Center, 7 World Trade Center and one under-construction building: the 1,350-foot (411 m) 2 World Trade Center.Overall, as of April 2016, there were 494 high-rise buildings under construction or proposed for construction in New York City.Boss
The history of skyscrapers in New York City began with the completion of the World Building in 1890; the structure rose to 348 feet (106 m). Though not the city's first high-rise, it was the first building to surpass t284-foot (87 m) spire of Trinity Church. The World Building, which stood as the tallest in the city until 1899, was demolished in 1955 to allow for the construction of an expanded entrance to the Brooklyn Bridge.New York has played a prominent role in the development of the skyscraper; since 1890, eleven structures in the city having held the title of world's tallest building. New York City went through a very early high-rise construction boom that lasted from the early 1910s through the early 1930s, during which 16 of the city's 82 tallest buildings were built—including the Woolworth Building, the Bank of Manhattan Trust Building, the Chrysler Building and the Empire State Building, each of which was the tallest in the world at the time of its completion, the last remaining so for forty years.A second skyscraper boom began in the early 1960s. Since then, the city has seen the completion of nearly 70 structures rising at least 600 feet (183 m) high, including the twin towers of the World Trade Center. One WTC also known as the North Tower, was the tallest building in the world from 1972 until 1973 and the tallest building in New York City until 2001. The North Tower, as well as the other six buildings in the World Trade Center complex, were destroyed in the September 11 attacks of 2001. One World Trade Center began construction in 2006 as the lead building of the new World Trade Center complex; upon its topping out in May 2013, the 1,776-foot (541 m) skyscraper surpassed the Willis Tower to become the tallest building in the United States.New York Mercantile Exchange
The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) is a commodity futures exchange owned and operated by CME Group of Chicago. NYMEX is located at One North End Avenue in Brookfield Place in the Battery Park City section of Manhattan, New York City. Additional offices are located in Boston, Washington, Atlanta, San Francisco, Dubai, London, and Tokyo.
The company's two principal divisions are the New York Mercantile Exchange and Commodity Exchange, Inc (COMEX), once separately owned exchanges. NYMEX Holdings, Inc., the former parent company of the New York Mercantile Exchange and COMEX, became listed on the New York Stock Exchange on November 17, 2006, under the ticker symbol NMX. On March 17, 2008, Chicago based CME Group signed a definitive agreement to acquire NYMEX Holdings, Inc. for $11.2 billion in cash and stock and the takeover was completed in August 2008. Both NYMEX and COMEX now operate as designated contract markets (DCM) of the CME Group. The other two designated contract markets in the CME Group are the Chicago Mercantile Exchange and the Chicago Board of Trade.
The New York Mercantile Exchange handles billions of dollars' worth of energy carriers, metals, and other commodities being bought and sold on the trading floor and the overnight electronic trading computer systems for future delivery. The prices quoted for transactions on the exchange are the basis for prices that people pay for various commodities throughout the world.
The floor of the NYMEX is regulated by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, an independent agency of the United States government. Each individual company that trades on the exchange must send its own independent brokers. Therefore, a few employees on the floor of the exchange represent a big corporation and the exchange employees only record the transactions and have nothing to do with the actual trade.
Although mostly electronic since 2006, the NYMEX maintained a small venue, or "pit", that still practiced the open outcry trading system, in which traders employed shouting and complex hand gestures on the physical trading floor. A project to preserve the hand signals used at NYMEX has been published.
NYMEX closed the pit permanently at the end of trading Friday, December 30, 2016, because of shrinking volume.THINK Team
The THINK Team was a team that consisted of architects, landscape architects, engineers, interactive designers and others who developed several designs for the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation's "Innovative Design Study" that was created in order to involve the public in a creative process to redevelop the World Trade Center site in New York City, after it was destroyed in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.
After a competition that lasted more than six months and included major architecture practices from around the world, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation (the agency charged with coordinating the reconstruction of the World Trade Center site) selected the THINK Team's design for a pair of open lattice work towers that would recall the image of the Twin Towers while memorializing the tragedy, reconstructing the skyline and unburdening the area of office space for which there is no demand even today. Although the design would have created a sort of Eiffel Tower experience in the heart of downtown, could have been completed by the 2006 anniversary of the attack, and had a compelling economic argument behind it, the commitment to a civic gesture on such a grand scale was rejected Governor George Pataki who overruled the committee he himself impanelled to make the decision. The design by Daniel Libeskind, which was more easily subsumed by the incumbent commercial interests at the site, was selected instead.
The book "THINK New York: A Diary of Ground Zero" recounts the complete experience of the team members and the evolution of the work they presented throughout the process. The book is a first hand account created by Román Viñoly, the THINK Team's communications director and written with Hilary Lewis.
The team consisted of:
Frederic Schwartz (founder)
Ken SmithContributors were:
David RockwellEngineers were:
World Trade Center (New York City)
|Notable current and former executives|