2009 in paleontology

Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2009.

List of years in paleontology (table)
In science
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2009 palaeo NT
Important taxa described (but not necessarily validly named) in 2009

Cephalopods

Three new species of extinct Octopoda discovered in 2009. The species – Keuppia hyperbolaris, Keuppia levante, and Styletoctopus annae – lived about 95 million years ago, and bear a strong resemblance to modern octopuses, suggesting that the Octopoda order has remained relatively unchanged for tens of millions of years. The fossils included evidence of arms, muscles, rows of suckers, ink, and internal gills. The discovery was made by a team led by Dirk Fuchs of the Freie University, which is located at Berlin, Germany.[2] The fossils were found at Hakel and Hadjoula, Lebanon.[3] Various new ammonoid taxa were named, including Ivoites.

Cartilaginous fish

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Gansuselache[6]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Wang et al.

Late Permian

Fangshankou Formation

 China

A member of Hybodontoidea. Genus includes new species G. tungshengi.

Harranahynchus[7]

Gen. et sp. nov

Disputed

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A member of the family Sclerorhynchidae. The type species is H. minutadens.

Papilionichthys[8]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

  • Grogan
  • Lund

Carboniferous (Serpukhovian)

Bear Gulch Limestone

 United States

A member of Iniopterygidae. The type species is P. stahlae.

Rainerichthys[8]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

  • Grogan
  • Lund

Carboniferous (Serpukhovian)

Bear Gulch Limestone

 United States

A member of Iniopterygidae. The type species is R. zangerli.

Bony fish

Newly named bony fish
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images
Aphanius yerevanicus[9]

Valid

  • Vasilyan
  • Reichenbacher
  • Carnevale

Late Miocene

 Armenia

A pupfish, a species of Aphanius.
Carpathoserranoides[10]

Valid

  • Prokofiev

Oligocene

 Czech Republic
 Poland

A member of Percoidei. The type species is C. brnoensis; genus also includes C. polonicus.
Caucasoserranoides[10]

Valid

  • Prokofiev

Oligocene

 Russia

A member of Percoidei. The type species is C. morozkiensis.
Enchodus harranaensis[11]

Disputed

  • Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

Eophryne[12]

Valid

  • Carnevale
  • Pietsch

Eocene (late Ypresian)

Monte Bolca locality

 Italy

A frogfish. The type species is Eophryne barbutii.
Gogosardina[13]

Valid

  • Choo
  • Long
  • Trinajstic

Late Devonian

Gogo Formation

 Australia

An early ray-finned fish. Genus includes new species G. coatesi.
Heddleichthys[14]

Valid

  • Snitting

Famennian (Late Devonian)

Dura Den Formation

 Scotland

Hendrixella[15]

Valid

  • Bannikov
  • Carnevale

Eocene (late Ypresian)

Monte Bolca locality

 Italy

A member of Percoidei of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is Hendrixella grandei.
Langlieria[16]

Valid

  • Clément
  • Snitting
  • Ahlberg

Famennian (Late Devonian)

Evieux Formation

 Belgium

Oligoserranoides[10]

Valid

  • Prokofiev

Oligocene

Abkhazia
 Azerbaijan
 Czech Republic
 France
 Germany
 Hungary
 Poland
 Romania
 Russia
 Ukraine

A member of Percoidei. The type species is "Smerdis" budensis Heckel (1856); genus also includes "Serranus" comparabilis Daniltshenko (1960).
Postredectes[17]

Disputed

  • Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian)

Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation

 Jordan

A member of the family Ichthyodectidae. The type species is P. harranaensis.
Ridewoodichthys[18]

Valid

  • Taverne

Early Paleocene

 Angola

An arowana; a new genus for "Brychaetus" caheni Taverne (1969).
Saurocephalus longicorpus[19]

Disputed

  • Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian)

Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation

 Jordan

Ungarnia[10]

Valid

  • Prokofiev

Oligocene

 Romania

A member of Percoidei. The type species is "Serranus" transsylvanicus Bohm (1942).
  • Shimada, K.; Everhart, M.J. (2009). "First record of Anomoeodus (Osteichthyes: Pycnodontiformes) from the Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk of western Kansas". Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 112 (1/2): 98–102. doi:10.1660/062.112.0212.

Amphibians

Newly named amphibians

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Baphetes orientalis[20]

Valid

  • Milner
  • Milner
  • Walsh

Late Carboniferous

 Czech Republic

Cratia[21]

Valid

  • Báez
  • Moura
  • Gómez

Lower Cretaceous

Crato Formation

 Brazil

Possible stem neobatrachian

Eurycephalella[21]

Valid

  • Báez
  • Moura
  • Gómez

Lower Cretaceous

Crato Formation

 Brazil

A hyloid

Nannaroter[22]

Valid

Early Permian

 USA

The smallest known ostodolepid microsaur

Nesovtriton[23]

Valid

  • Skutschas

Turonian

Bissekty Formation

 Uzbekistan

A cryptobranchoid salamander

Regalerpeton[24]

Valid

Early Cretaceous

Huajiying Formation

 China

A cryptobranchoid salamander

Spinarerpeton[25]

Valid

  • Klembara

Early Permian

Boskovice Furrow

 Czech Republic

A discosauriscid seymouriamorph

Basal reptiles

Newly named basal reptiles

Name Status Authors Discovery year Age Unit Location Notes Images

Australothyris[26]

Valid

Middle Permian

Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone

 South Africa

A basal parareptile

Procolina[27]

Valid

  • Borsuk−Białynicka
  • Lubka

early Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A procolophonine procolophonid

Turtles

Newly named turtles

Name Status Authors Discovery year Age Unit Location Notes Images

Angolachelys[28]

Valid

Turonian (Late Cretaceous)

 Angola

Aurorachelys[29]

Valid

Late Cretaceous

Strand Fiord Formation

 Canada

Basilochelys[30]

Valid

Late Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous

Phu Kradung Formation

 Thailand

Cedrobaena[31]

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation

 USA

New genus for "Plesiobaena" putorius Gaffney, 1972

Chelonoidis alburyorum[32]

Valid

  • Franz
  • Franz

Holocene

 The Bahamas

A tortoise.

Chinlechelys[33]

Valid

  • Joyce et al.

Late Triassic (Norian)

Bull Canyon Formation

 United States

A basal member of Testudinata. The type species is C. tenertesta. The genus Chinlechelys was considered to be a junior synonym of the genus Proganochelys by Joyce (2017), though the author maintained C. tenertesta as a distinct species within the latter genus.[34]

Derrisemys[35]

Junior synonym

  • Hutchison

Early Paleocene

 USA

Junior synonym of Hutchemys.[36]

Eileanchelys[37]

Valid

Middle Jurassic

Kilmaluag Formation

 Scotland

Hutchemys[38]

Valid

  • Joyce
  • Revan
  • Lyson
  • Danilov

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation
Tullock Formation

 USA

A plastomenine softshell turtles

Kinkonychelys[39]

Valid

Late Cretaceous

Maevarano Formation

 Madagascar

Palatobaena cohen[40]

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Maastrichtian

Hell Creek Formation

 USA

A baenid

Peckemys[31]

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Late Cretaceous

Hell Creek Formation

 USA

A baenid

Plastomenoides[35]

Junior synonym

  • Hutchison

Early Paleocene

 USA

Junior synonym of Hutchemys.[36]

Archosauromorphs

Basal archosauromorphs

Newly named basal archosauromorphs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Czatkowiella[41]

Valid

  • Borsuk−Białynicka
  • Evans

earliest Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A long−necked archosauromorph

Archosaurs

Lepidosauromorphs

Basal lepidosauromorphs

Newly named basal lepidosauromorphs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Pamelina[42]

Valid

Early Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A basal kuehneosaurid

Sophineta[43]

Valid

  • Evans
  • Borsuk−Białynicka

earliest Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A basal lepidosauromorph

Plesiosaurs

Squamates

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Carinodens minalmamar[47]

Sp. nov

Valid

Schulp, Bardet & Bouya

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Morocco

A mosasaur.

Carinodens palistinicus[48]

Sp. nov

Disputed

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A mosasaur.

Harranasaurus[49]

Gen. et sp. nov

Disputed

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation

 Jordan

A globidensine mosasaur. The type species is H. khuludae.

Prognathodon hudae[50]

Sp. nov

Disputed

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A mosasaur.

Prognathodon primus[51]

Sp. nov

Disputed

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A mosasaur.

Tenerasaurus[52]

Gen. et sp. nov

Junior synonym

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A mosasaur. The type species is T. hashimi. /> Lindgren, Kaddumi & Polcyn (2013) reinterpreted the holotype specimen as belonging to a member of the genus Prognathodon of uncertain specific assignment.[53]

Titanoboa[54]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Head et al.

Paleocene

Cerrejón Formation

 Colombia

In February, the fossils of 28 individual T. cerrejonensis (Titanoboas) were announced to have been found in the coal mines of Cerrejón, La Guajira, Colombia.[55]

Synapsids

Non-mammalian

Mammals

Plants

Angiosperms

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Eucalyptolaurus[59]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Coiffard et al.

uppermost Albian-lowermost Cenomanian

Charente-Maritimes

 France

Relevant research in other sciences

Evolutionary biology

  • A study is published that proposes that females from certain taxa use ornaments as a criterion for mate choice because other dimorphic structures, like biological "weaponry" could be used to coerce or force them to mate.[60]
  • A study concludes that biotic factors have more pronounced local and short term evolutionary impacts than abiotic factors, which in turn have a more pronounced effect through time and on biodiversity as a whole.[61]

Extinction

A study noting the effects of the KT mass extinction on Earth's modern biota is published.[62]

Geology

  • Zhang, H.; Wei, Z.-L.; Liu, X.-M.; Li, D. (2009). "Constraints on the age of the Tuchengzi Formation by LA-ICP-MS dating in northern Hebei-western Liaoning, China". Science China Earth Sciences. 52 (4): 461–470. doi:10.1007/s11430-009-0052-9.

Ichnology

  • Bedatou, E., Melchor, R.N., and Genise, J.F. 2009. Complex palaeosol ichnofabrics from Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous volcaniclastic successions of central Patagonia, Argentina. Sedimentary Geology. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2009.04.005

Paleobiogeography

  • Pereda-Suberbiola, X. 2009. Biogeographical affinities of Late Cretaceous

continental tetrapods of Europe: a review. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 180(1):57-71. doi:10.2113/gssgfbull.180.1.57.

Paleoecology

  • Nicolas, M., and Rubidge, B.S. 2009. Changes in Permo-Triassic terrestrial tetrapod ecological representation in the Beaufort Group (Karoo Supergroup) of South Africa. Lethaia. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.2009.00171.x.

Footnotes

Complete author list

As science becomes more collaborative, papers with large numbers of authors are becoming more common. To prevent the deformation of the tables, these footnotes list the contributors to papers that erect new genera and have many authors.

  1. ^ Mateus, Jacobs, Polcyn, Schulp, Vineyard, Neto, Antunes.
  2. ^ Vandermark, Tarduno, Brinkman, Cottrell, Mason.
  3. ^ Tong, Claude, Naksri, Suteethorn, Buffetaut, Khansubba, Wongko, Yuandetkla.
  4. ^ Anquetin, Barrett, Jones, Moore-Fay, Evans.

References

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716.
  2. ^ Rare fossil octopuses found, MSNBC, March 18, 2009
  3. ^ New Octopus from the late Cretaceous of Hakel and Hadjoula, Lebanon, Palaeontology, Volume 52, Issue 1, Pages 65-81
  4. ^ a b Fuchs, D.; Bracchi, G.; Weis, R. (2009). "New Octopods (Cephalopoda: Coleoidea) from the Late Cretaceous (Upper Cenomanian) of Hakel and Hadjoula, Lebanon". Palaeontology. 52 (1): 65–81. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00828.x. Archived from the original on 14 March 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2010.
  5. ^ De Baets, K.; Klug, C.; Korn, D. (2009). "Anetoceratinae (Ammonoidea, Early Devonian) from the Eifel and Harz Mountains (Germany), with a revision of their genera". Palaeontology. 252 (3): 361–376. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2009/0252-0361.
  6. ^ N.‐Z. Wang; X. Zhang; M. Zhu; W.‐J. Zhao (2009). "A new articulated hybodontoid from Late Permian of northwestern China". Acta Zoologica. 90 (s1): 159–170. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00382.x.
  7. ^ Hani Faig Kaddumi (2009). "A new genus and species of sawfishes (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea) from the late Maastrichtian sediments of Harrana". In Hani Faig Kaddumi (ed.). Fossils of the Harrana Fauna and the Adjacent Areas. pp. 178–187.
  8. ^ a b Eileen D. Grogan; Richard Lund (2009). "Two new iniopterygians (Chondrichthyes) from the Mississippian (Serpukhovian) Bear Gulch Limestone of Montana with evidence of a new form of chondrichthyan neurocranium". Acta Zoologica. 90 (s1): 134–151. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00371.x.
  9. ^ Davit Vasilyan; Bettina Reichenbacher; Giorgio Carnevale (2009). "A new fossil Aphanius species from the Upper Miocene of Armenia (Eastern Paratethys)". Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 83 (4): 511–519. doi:10.1007/s12542-009-0034-4.
  10. ^ a b c d A.M. Prokofiev (2009). "К систематике олигоценовых перкоидных рыб, известных под сборным названием "Serranus budensis", с выделением новых таксонов". Актуальные проблемы современной науки. 46: 199–222.
  11. ^ Hani Faig Kaddumi (2009). "A new species of large Enchodus fishes (Aulopiformes: Enchodontidae) from the late Maastrichtian of Harrana". In Hani Faig Kaddumi (ed.). Fossils of the Harrana Fauna and the Adjacent Areas. pp. 204–214.
  12. ^ Giorgio Carnevale; Theodore W. Pietsch (2009). "An Eocene frogfish from Monte Bolca, Italy: the earliest known skeletal record for the family". Palaeontology. 52 (4): 745–752. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2009.00874.x.
  13. ^ Brian Choo; John A. Long; Katherine Trinajstic (2009). "A new genus and species of basal actinopterygian fish from the Upper Devonian Gogo Formation of Western Australia". Acta Zoologica. 90 (s1): 194–210. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00370.x.
  14. ^ Snitting, D. (2009). "Heddleichthys- a new tristichopterid genus from the Dura Den Formation, Midland Valley, Scotland (Famennian, Late Devonian)". Acta Zoologica. 90: 273–284. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00376.x.
  15. ^ Alexandre F. Bannikov; Giorgio Carnevale (2009). "A new percoid fish from the Eocene of Monte Bolca, Italy: Hendrixella grandei gen. & sp. nov". Swiss Journal of Geosciences. 102 (3): 481–488. doi:10.1007/s00015-009-1331-3.
  16. ^ Clément, G; Snitting, D; Ahlberg, PE; Gaël Clément; Daniel Snitting; Per Erik Ahlberg (July 2009). "A new Tristichopterid (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) from the Evieux Formation (Upper Devonian) of Belgium". Palaeontology. 52 (4): 823–836. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2009.00876.x.
  17. ^ Hani Faig Kaddumi (2009). "Ichthyodectids of the late Maastrichtian sediments of the Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation of Harrana". In Hani Faig Kaddumi (ed.). Fossils of the Harrana Fauna and the Adjacent Areas. pp. 232–239.
  18. ^ Louis Taverne (2009). "Ridewoodichthys, a new genus for Brychaetus caheni from the marine Paleocene of Cabinda (Africa): re-description and comments on its relationships within the Osteoglossidae (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha)". Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre. 79: 147–153.
  19. ^ Hani Faig Kaddumi (2009). "Saurodontids (Ichthyodectiformes: Saurocephalus) of Harrana with a description of a new species from the late Maastrichtian Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation". In Hani Faig Kaddumi (ed.). Fossils of the Harrana Fauna and the Adjacent Areas. pp. 215–231.
  20. ^ Angela C. Milner; Andrew R. Milner; Stig A. Walsh (2009). "A new specimen of Baphetes from Nýřany, Czech Republic and the intrinsic relationships of the Baphetidae". Acta Zoologica. 90 (s1): 318–334. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00340.x.
  21. ^ a b Báez, Ana M.; Moura, Geraldo J.B.; Gómez, Raúl O.; Ana M. Báez; Geraldo J.B. Moura; Raúl O. Gómez (2009). "Anurans from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of northeastern Brazil: implications for the early divergence of neobatrachians". Cretaceous Research. 30 (4): 829–846. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2009.01.002.
  22. ^ Anderson, J.S.; Scott, D.; Reisz, R.R. (2009). "Nannaroter mckinziei, a new ostodolepid 'microsaur' (Tetrapoda, Lepospondyli, Recumbirostra) from the Early Permian of Richards Spur (Ft. Sill), Oklahoma". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29 (2): 379–388. doi:10.1671/039.029.0222.
  23. ^ Skutschas, Pavel P.; Pavel P. Skutschas (2009). "Re-Evaluation of Mynbulakia Nesov, 1981 (Lissamphibia: Caudata) and Description of a New Salamander Genus from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29 (3): 659–664. doi:10.1671/039.029.0326.
  24. ^ Zhang, Guilin; Wang, Yuan; Jones, Marc E.H.; Evans, Susan E.; Guilin Zhang; Yuan Wang; Marc E.H. Jones; Susan E. Evans (2009). "A new Early Cretaceous salamander (Regalerpeton weichangensis gen. et sp. nov.) from the Huajiying Formation of northeastern China". Cretaceous Research. 30 (3): 551–558. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2008.10.004.
  25. ^ Klembara, Jozef (2009). "The skeletal anatomy and relationships of a new discosauriscid seymouriamorph from the lower Permian of Moravia (Czech Republic)". Annals of Carnegie Museum. 77 (4): 451–483. doi:10.2992/0097-4463-77.4.451.
  26. ^ Sean P. Modesto; Diane M. Scott; Robert R. Reisz (2009). "A new parareptile with temporal fenestration from the Middle Permian of South Africa". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 46 (1): 9–20. Bibcode:2009CaJES..46....9M. doi:10.1139/E09-001. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  27. ^ Magdalena Borsuk−Białynicka; Mariusz Lubka (2009). "Procolophonids from the Early Triassic of Poland" (PDF). Paleontologica Polonica. 65: 107–144. Retrieved 12 August 2010..
  28. ^ Octávio Mateus; Louis Jacobs; Michael Polcyn; Anne S. Schulp; Diana Vineyard; André Buta Neto; Miguel Telles Antunes (2009). "The oldest African eucryptodiran turtle from the Cretaceous of Angola" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 54 (4): 581–588. doi:10.4202/app.2008.0063. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
  29. ^ Vandermark, D.; Tarduno, J.A.; Brinkman, D.B.; Cottrell, R.D.; Mason, S. (2009). "New Late Cretaceous macrobaenid turtle with Asian affinities from the High Canadian Arctic: dispersal via ice-free polar routes". Geology. 37 (2): 183–186. Bibcode:2009Geo....37..183V. doi:10.1130/G25415A.1.
  30. ^ Tong, H.; Claude, J.; Naksri, W.; Suteethorn, V.; Buffetaut, E.; Khansubha, S.; Wongko, K. & Yuangdetkla, P. (2009). "Basilochelys macrobios n. gen. and n. sp., a large cryptodiran turtle from the Phu Kradung Formation (latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous) of the Khorat Plateau, NE Thailand". In: Buffetaut, E.; Cuny, G.; Le Loeuff, J. & Suteethorn, V. (eds.). Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Ecosystems in SE Asia. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 315: 229-243.
  31. ^ a b Lyson, T.R.; Joyce, W.G. (2009). "A revision of Plesiobaena (Testudinoes: Baenidae) and an assessment of Baenid ecology across the K/T boundary". Journal of Paleontology. 83 (6): 833–853. doi:10.1666/09-035.1.
  32. ^ Richard Franz; Shelley E. Franz (2009). "A new fossil land tortoise in the genus Chelonoidis (Testudines: Testudinidae) from the northern Bahamas, with an osteological assessment of other Neotropical tortoises". Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History. 49 (1): 1–44.
  33. ^ Walter G. Joyce; Spencer G. Lucas; Torsten M. Scheyer; Andrew B. Heckert; Adrian P. Hunt (2009). "A thin-shelled reptile from the Late Triassic of North America and the origin of the turtle shell". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1656): 507–513. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1196. PMC 2664348. PMID 18842543.
  34. ^ Walter G. Joyce (2017). "A Review of the Fossil Record of Basal Mesozoic Turtles" (PDF). Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 58 (1): 65–113. doi:10.3374/014.058.0105.
  35. ^ a b John Howard Hutchison (2009). "New soft-shelled turtles (Plastomeninae, Trionychidae, Testudines) from the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene of North America". PaleoBios. 29 (2): 36–47. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
  36. ^ a b Walter G. Joyce; Tyler R. Lyson (2011). "New Material of Gilmoremys lancensis nov. comb. (Testudines: Trionychidae) from the Hell Creek Formation and the Diagnosis of Plastomenid Turtles". Journal of Paleontology. 85 (3): 442–459. doi:10.1666/10-127.1.
  37. ^ Anquetin, J.; Barrett, P.M.; Jones, M.E.H.; Moore-Fay, S.; Evans, S.E. (2009). "A new stem turtle from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland: new insights into the evolution and palaeoecology of basal turtles". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 276 (1658): 879–886. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1429. PMC 2664364. PMID 19019789..
  38. ^ Walter G. Joyce; Ariel Revan; Tyler R. Lyson; Igor G. Danilov (2009). "Two New Plastomenine Softshell Turtles from the Paleocene of Montana and Wyoming" (PDF). Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 50 (2): 307–325. doi:10.3374/014.050.0202. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
  39. ^ Gaffney, E.S.; Krause, D.W.; Zalmout, I.S. (2009). "Kinkonychelys, a new side-necked turtle (Pelomedusoides: Bothremydidae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar". American Museum Novitates. 3662: 1–25. doi:10.1206/672.1. hdl:2246/5985.
  40. ^ Lyson, T.R.; Joyce, W.G. (2009). "A New Species of Palatobaena (Testudines: Baenidae) and a Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Phylogenetic Analysis of Baenidae". Journal of Paleontology. 83 (3): 457–470. doi:10.1666/08-172.1.
  41. ^ Magdalena Borsuk−Białynicka; Susan E. Evans (2009). "A long−necked archosauromorph from the Early Triassic of Poland" (PDF). Paleontologica Polonica. 65: 203–234. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  42. ^ Susan E. Evans (2009). "An early kuehneosaurid reptile (Reptilia: Diapsida) from the Early Triassic of Poland" (PDF). Paleontologica Polonica. 65: 145–178. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
  43. ^ Susan E. Evans; Magdalena Borsuk−Białynicka (2009). "A small lepidosauromorph reptile from the Early Triassic of Poland" (PDF). Paleontologica Polonica. 65: 179–202. Retrieved 13 August 2010.
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2000 in paleontology

Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2000.

2009 in archosaur paleontology

The year 2009 in Archosaur paleontology was eventful. Archosaurs include the only living dinosaur group — birds — and the reptile crocodilians, plus all extinct dinosaurs, extinct crocodilian relatives, and pterosaurs. Archosaur paleontology is the scientific study of those animals, especially as they existed before the Holocene Epoch began about 11,700 years ago. The year 2009 in paleontology included various significant developments regarding archosaurs.

This article records new taxa of fossil archosaurs of every kind that have been described during the year 2009, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleontology of archosaurs that occurred in the year 2009.

2009 in arthropod paleontology

This list of fossil arthropods described in 2009 is a list of new taxa of trilobites, fossil insects, crustaceans, arachnids and other fossil arthropods that have been described during the year 2009, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to arthropod paleontology that occurred.

2009 in mammal paleontology

This article records new taxa of fossil mammals of every kind that have been described during the year 2009, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleontology of mammals that occurred in the year 2009.

Adeopapposaurus

Adeopapposaurus (meaning "far eating lizard", in reference to its long neck) is a genus of prosauropod dinosaur from the Early Jurassic Cañón del Colorado Formation of San Juan, Argentina. It was similar to Massospondylus. Four partial skeletons with two partial skulls are known.The type specimen, PVSJ568, includes a skull and most of a skeleton to just past the hips. The form of the bones at the tips of the upper and lower jaws suggests it had keratinous beaks. The fossils now named Adeopapposaurus were first thought to represent South American examples of Massospondylus; while this is no longer the case, Adeopapposaurus is classified as a massospondylid. Adeopapposaurus was described in 2009 by Ricardo N. Martínez. The type species is A. mognai, referring to the Mogna locality where it was found.

Angulomastacator

Angulomastacator (meaning "bend chewer", in reference to both the shape of its upper jaw and to the Big Bend area of the Rio Grande, where the type specimen was found) is a genus of duck-billed dinosaur from the Campanian-age (Late Cretaceous) Aguja Formation of Big Bend National Park, Texas. It is known from a single specimen, TMM 43681–1, a partial left maxilla (the main tooth-bearing bone of the upper jaw). This bone is curved down approximately 45° at its anterior end, with the tooth row bent to fit, unlike any other hadrosaur. The unusual characteristics of the maxilla, which have not been reported from elsewhere, supports the hypothesis that the dinosaurs of the Aguja Formation were endemic forms. It was discovered in the upper shale member of the Aguja Formation, among plant, bone, and clam fragments in a bed interpreted as the deposits of a small tributary channel. This bed is just below rocks of the overlying Javelina Formation. Volcanic rocks at about the same level have been dated to 76.9 ± 1.2 million years ago.Angulomastacator is classified as a lambeosaurine, the group of hadrosaurs with hollow cranial crests. It was described in 2009 by Wagner and Lehman in 2009. The type species is A. daviesi, named for Kyle L. Davies, who in 1983 was the first to postulate the presence of a lambeosaurine in the Aguja Formation. As a hadrosaurid, Angulomastacator would have been a bipedal/quadrupedal herbivore, eating plants with sets of ever-replacing teeth stacked on each other.

Corriebaatar

Corriebaatar is the type and only genus of Corriebaataridae, a family of multituberculate mammals. It contains the single species Corriebaatar marywaltersae and represents the first evidence of Australian multituberculates Fossils date back to the Aptian stage of the Early Cretaceous.

Gallardosaurus

Gallardosaurus is a genus of pliosaurid plesiosaur from the Caribbean seaway. It contains the single species Gallardosaurus iturraldei. Gallardosaurus was found in middle-late Oxfordian-age (Late Jurassic) rocks of the Jagua Formation of western Cuba. Gallardosaurus is believed to be evolutionarily connected to Peloneustes, a pliosaurid commonly found in the Oxfordian-aged sediment.

Hesperonychus

Hesperonychus (meaning "western claw") was a genus of small, carnivorous dromaeosaurid dinosaur. There is one described species, Hesperonychus elizabethae; the type species was named in honor of the woman who collected it in 1982. It is known from fossils recovered from the lowermost strata of the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta, dating to the late Cretaceous Period (Campanian stage) about 76.5 million years ago).

Hesperonychus is known from one partial pelvic girdle, holotype specimen UALVP 48778, collected by Dr. Elizabeth Nicholls in Dinosaur Provincial Park in 1982. The fossil remained undescribed, however, until Nick Longrich and Phil Currie published on it in 2009. A number of very small toe bones, including "sickle claws", in the collection of the Royal Tyrrell Museum may also belong to Hesperonychus. The gracile appearance of these toe bones makes it unlikely that they belonged to a member of Eudromaeosauria. Despite their small size, the pubic bones were fused, a characteristic of adult dinosaurs, indicating that the specimen does not represent a juvenile of a known species.Though known from only partial remains, Longrich and Currie estimated its total length at under one meter and weight at about 1.9 kilograms, making it one of the smallest known carnivorous dinosaurs from North America. The alvarezsaurid Albertonykus was smaller.

Limusaurus

Limusaurus (meaning "mud lizard") is a genus of theropod dinosaur from the Jurassic (Oxfordian stage) Upper Shishugou Formation in the Junggar Basin of western China. The genus contains a single species, L. inextricabilis. Limusaurus was a small, slender animal, about 1.7 metres (5 ft 7 in) in length, that had a long neck and legs but also highly reduced forelimbs. It underwent a drastic morphological transformation as it aged; while juveniles were toothed, these teeth were completely lost and replaced by a beak with age, corresponding to a shift in diet from omnivory to herbivory.

Limusaurus is the first definitively known ceratosaur from Eastern Asia; while originally considered to be the most basal member (i.e. phylogenetically closest to the origin) of the group Ceratosauria (along with its closest relative, Elaphrosaurus), a 2016 analysis showed that they are in fact members of the Noasauridae, a group of similarly small and lightly-built abelisaurs. The pattern of digit reduction in Limusaurus has been used to support the contested hypothesis that the three-fingered hand of tetanuran theropods is the result of the loss of the first and fifth digits from the ancestral five-fingered theropod hand, which has implications for the evolution of birds. However, it is now considered to be irrelevant to the subject of digit homology.

Miragaia longicollum

Miragaia (named after Miragaia, the parish in Portugal and geologic unit where its remains were found) is a long-necked

stegosaurid dinosaur. Its fossils have been found in Lower Jurassic rocks in Portugal. Miragaia has the longest neck known for any stegosaurian, which included at least seventeen vertebrae.

Ningchengopterus

Ningchengopterus is a genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Early Cretaceous (Aptian) Yixian Formation of China.

It is known from a juvenile specimen, holotype CYGB-0035, an almost complete articulated skeleton of a hatchling also showing soft parts, such as the flight membrane and pycnofibres, compressed on a plate and counterplate. It was in 2009 the smallest toothed pterosaur specimen even found in China. The type species Ningchengopterus liuae was in 2009 named and described by Lü Junchang. The genus name combines a reference to the Ningcheng district in Inner Mongolia with a Latinised Greek pteron, "wing". The specific name honours Ms Liu Jingyi who collected the fossil and donated it to science.Ningchengopterus was typified by the possession of about fifty teeth, twelve in each upper jaw and thirteen in each lower jaw. The teeth are curved, conical and pointed. The skull has a length of thirty-eight millimetres. The snout is elongated and tapering. The lower jaws show an incipient crest.The specimen could not be more precisely determined than Pterodactyloidea. It shared the relative proportions of the first and second phalanx of the flight finger with the Ctenochasmatidae, and especially Eosipterus found in the same formation, but showed no further synapomorphies of that group, so that Lü abstained from placing it in that clade.The teeth suggested that Ningchengopterus was a fish eater. The fully formed flight membrane was seen as confirmation of a hypothesis by Mark Unwin that pterosaurs displayed little parental care, their "babies" being able to fly shortly after hatching.

Panphagia

Panphagia is a genus of sauropodomorph dinosaur described in 2009. It lived around 231 million years ago, during the Carnian age of the Late Triassic period in what is now northwestern Argentina. Fossils of the genus were found in the La Peña Member of the Ischigualasto Formation in the Ischigualasto-Villa Unión Basin. The name Panphagia comes from the Greek words pan, meaning "all", and phagein, meaning "to eat", in reference to its inferred omnivorous diet. Panphagia is one of the earliest known dinosaurs, and is an important find which may mark the transition of diet in early sauropodomorph dinosaurs.

Ruyangosaurus

Ruyangosaurus (Ruyang County lizard) is a genus of titanosauriform sauropod dinosaur recovered from the Early Cretaceous Haoling Formation of China. The type species is R. giganteus, described in 2009 by Lü Junchang et al. Along with Huanghetitan and Daxiatitan, Ruyangosaurus is among the largest dinosaurs discovered in Cretaceous Asia.

Shidaisaurus

Shidaisaurus is a genus of metriacanthosaurid dinosaur. Its fossil was found in early Middle Jurassic-age rocks of the Upper Lufeng Formation in Yunnan, China. It is known from a partial skeleton, holotype DML-LCA 9701-IV, found at the bottom of an assemblage of nine dinosaur individuals, lacking most of the tail vertebrae, ribs, pectoral girdle, and limb bones. Shidaisaurus was described in 2009 by Wu and colleagues. The type species is S. jinae. Generic name and specific name in combination refer to the Jin-Shidai ("Golden Age") Company that exploits the Jurassic World Park near the site.

This theropod was about 6 metres (20 ft) long and it weighed around 700 kilograms (1,500 lb).

Tawa hallae

Tawa (named after the Hopi word for the Puebloan sun god) is a genus of theropod dinosaur from the Late Triassic period. The fossil remains of Tawa hallae, the type and only species were found in the Hayden Quarry of Ghost Ranch, New Mexico, US. Its discovery alongside the relatives of Coelophysis and Herrerasaurus supports the hypothesis that the earliest dinosaurs arose in Gondwana during the early Late Triassic period in what is now South America, and radiated from there around the globe. The specific name honours Ruth Hall, founder of the Ghost Ranch Museum of Paleontology.

Tethyshadros

Tethyshadros ("Tethyan hadrosauroid") is a genus of dwarf hadrosauroid dinosaur from Trieste, Italy. The type and only species is T. insularis.

Wukongopterus

Wukongopterus is a genus of basal pterosaur, found in Liaoning, China, from the Daohugou Beds, of the Middle or Late Jurassic. It was unusual for having both an elongate neck and a long tail.

The genus was described and named in 2009 by Wang Xiaolin, Alexander Kellner, Jiang Shunxing and Meng Xi. The genus name is derived from Sun Wukong, the Monkey King, the main hero of the Chinese classic novel Journey to the West, and a Latinised Greek pteron, "wing". The specific name honours Li Yutong, senior preparator of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP).The genus is based on holotype IVPP V15113, a nearly complete but compressed skeleton lacking the back and middle of the skull. The type individual appears to have broken its shin during life. Its wingspan is estimated at 730 millimetres (29 in). Wukongopterus also may have had an uropatagium, a membrane between the hind legs.

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