2008

2008 (MMVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2008th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 8th year of the 3rd millennium, the 8th year of the 21st century, and the 9th year of the 2000s decade.

2008 was designated as:

Millennium: 3rd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
2008 by topic:
Arts
ArchitectureComicsFilmHome videoLiterature (Poetry) – Music (Country, Metal, UK) – Radio – Photo – TelevisionVideo gaming
Politics
Elections – International leadersSovereign states
Sovereign state leadersTerritorial governors
Science and technology
ArchaeologyAviationBirding/Ornithology – Meteorology – PalaeontologyRail transportSpaceflight
Sports
Association football (soccer) – Athletics (track and field) – Badminton – BaseballBasketball – Boxing – Cricket – Golf – Horse racing – Ice hockey – Motorsport – Road cycling – Rugby league – Rugby union – Table tennis – Tennis – Volleyball
By place
AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeriaAntarcticaArgentinaArmeniaAustralia – Austria – AzerbaijanBangladeshBelgium – Bhutan – Bosnia and HerzegovinaBrazilCanadaCape VerdeChileChinaColombia – Costa Rica – Croatia – Cuba – Czechia – Denmark – El Salvador – Egypt – Estonia – Ethiopia – European Union – Finland – FranceGeorgiaGermanyGhana – Greece – Guatemala – Hungary – IcelandIndiaIndonesiaIraqIranIrelandIsrael – Italy – Japan – Kazakhstan – KenyaKuwaitLaos – Latvia – Libya – Lithuania – LuxembourgMacauMalaysiaMexico – Moldova – Myanmar – NepalNetherlandsNew ZealandNigeriaNorth KoreaNorway – Oman – PakistanPalestinePhilippinesPolandRomaniaRussiaRwanda – Serbia – SingaporeSouth AfricaSouth KoreaSpain – Sri Lanka – SwedenTaiwan – Tanzania – ThailandTurkey – Ukraine – United Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited States – Venezuela – Vietnam – Yemen – Zimbabwe
Other topics
Awards – Law – Religious leaders
Birth and death categories
Births – Deaths
Establishments and disestablishments categories
Establishments – Disestablishments
Works and introductions categories
Works – Introductions
Works entering the public domain
2008 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar2008
MMVIII
Ab urbe condita2761
Armenian calendar1457
ԹՎ ՌՆԾԷ
Assyrian calendar6758
Bahá'í calendar164–165
Balinese saka calendar1929–1930
Bengali calendar1415
Berber calendar2958
British Regnal year56 Eliz. 2 – 57 Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar2552
Burmese calendar1370
Byzantine calendar7516–7517
Chinese calendar丁亥(Fire Pig)
4704 or 4644
    — to —
戊子年 (Earth Rat)
4705 or 4645
Coptic calendar1724–1725
Discordian calendar3174
Ethiopian calendar2000–2001
Hebrew calendar5768–5769
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2064–2065
 - Shaka Samvat1929–1930
 - Kali Yuga5108–5109
Holocene calendar12008
Igbo calendar1008–1009
Iranian calendar1386–1387
Islamic calendar1428–1430
Japanese calendarHeisei 20
(平成20年)
Javanese calendar1940–1941
Juche calendar97
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4341
Minguo calendarROC 97
民國97年
Nanakshahi calendar540
Thai solar calendar2551
Tibetan calendar阴火猪年
(female Fire-Pig)
2134 or 1753 or 981
    — to —
阳土鼠年
(male Earth-Rat)
2135 or 1754 or 982
Unix time1199145600 – 1230767999

Events

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Births

Deaths

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal

New English words

  • Bitcoin
  • burner phone
  • dumpster fire
  • exome
  • hate-watch
  • mansplain
  • photobomb[58]

References

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  2. ^ Cyprus and Malta set to join eurozone in 2008 Archived January 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine., EurActiv
  3. ^ Akrotiri and Dhekelia adopt the euro, EUbusiness (ISO 4217 code: VEF). Archived July 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  4. ^ "Mercury Flyby 1". Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-12.
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  6. ^ "Eastern Congo peace deal signed". BBC. January 23, 2008. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
  7. ^ "Iran Opens Space Center, Launches Rocket", Associated Press
  8. ^ "Kevin Rudd says sorry". The Sydney Morning Herald. February 13, 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  9. ^ "BU.S., Europeans at Security Council Back Kosovo's Independence". Bloomberg L.P. February 17, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-05.
  10. ^ "Il Kosovo proclama l'indipendenza Serbia: "Non lo riconosceremo mai"". repubblica.it (in Italian). February 17, 2008.
  11. ^ James, Ian (March 3, 2008). "Venezuela, Ecuador sending troops to border with Colombia after rebel leader killed". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on March 10, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
  12. ^ Goodman, Joshua (March 1, 2008). "Colombian Rebel Leader Raul Reyes Killed By Army, Minister Says". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on June 26, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
  13. ^ "Europe launches its first resupply ship to the ISS". European Space Agency. March 9, 2008. Archived from the original on May 22, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
  14. ^ Sengupta, Somini (2008-03-25). "Heavy Turnout in First Bhutan Election". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  15. ^ "BBC NEWS | Africa | 'Deadly clashes' in the Comoros". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  16. ^ "BBC NEWS | UK | UK Politics | Cameron urges aid drops for Burma". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  17. ^ "Sichuan 2008: A disaster on an immense scale". BBC News. 2013-05-09. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  18. ^ "BBC NEWS | Americas | South America nations found union". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  19. ^ migration (2015-06-10). "The Asian way to settle disputes". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  20. ^ "Phoenix Mars Mission". Archived from the original on March 4, 2008.
  21. ^ "BBC NEWS | South Asia | Nepal votes to abolish monarchy". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  22. ^ United Nations Treaty Collection: Convention on Cluster Munitions. Retrieved on 28 March 2009.
  23. ^ MSFC, Jennifer Wall : (2015-05-21). "What Is the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope?". NASA. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  24. ^ "Harper apologizes for residential school abuse". CTV. June 11, 2008. Archived from the original on July 9, 2008. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  25. ^ "Spain's Expo 2008 on world water opens". Reuters. 2017-06-14. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  26. ^ Kraul, Chris (2008-07-04). "The ultimate fake-out". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  27. ^ "BBC News: Serbia captures fugitive Karadzic". 2008-07-22. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
  28. ^ "BBC NEWS | Africa | Troops stage coup in Mauritania". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-13.
  29. ^ Finn, Peter (August 17, 2008). "A Two-Sided Descent Into Full-Scale War". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  30. ^ "Beijing 2008 – It's a wrap". The Boston Globe. August 25, 2008. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  31. ^ "First beam in the LHC – accelerating science".
  32. ^ "Large Hadron Collider fired up in 'God particle' hunt". CNN. September 10, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  33. ^ "At Least 40 Killed in Huge Explosion at Pakistan Hotel". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  34. ^ "Deadly blast targets Marriott Hotel in Islamabad". CNN. September 21, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  35. ^ "Dozens killed in Pakistan attack". BBC News. 2008-09-20. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
  36. ^ "Space Exploration Technologies Corporation – Falcon 1 Flight 4". Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  37. ^ "Falcon rocket success for SpaceX". BBC News. 2008-09-29. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
  38. ^ Raum, Tom (October 3, 2008) Bush signs $700 billion bailout bill Archived October 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Associated Press. Retrieved October 3, 2008.
  39. ^ "CERN inaugurates the LHC". CERN. October 21, 2008. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
  40. ^ "LHC to be inaugurated on 21 October 2008". Retrieved 2016-11-20.
  41. ^ "Final LHC Synchronization Test a Success". Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  42. ^ Lynn, Jonathan (October 21, 2008). "Big Bang experiment inaugurated despite glitch". Reuters.
  43. ^ "India launches first Moon mission". BBC News. 22 October 2008. Archived from the original on October 22, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
  44. ^ "Chandrayaan-1". Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  45. ^ Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer Electronic Cash System http://themonetaryfuture.blogspot.hu/2010/03/bitcoin-peer-to-peer-electronic-cash.html 20171223
  46. ^ Nagourney, Adam (November 4, 2008). "Obama Elected President as Racial Barrier Falls". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-05.
  47. ^ "Obama wins historic US election". BBC News. November 5, 2008. Archived from the original on November 6, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-05.
  48. ^ "Obama inspires historic victory". CNN. November 5, 2008. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-05.
  49. ^ Roberts, Michelle (2008-11-19). "FWindpipe transplant breakthrough". BBC News. Archived from the original on January 15, 2010. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
  50. ^ "Mumbai Terror Attacks Fast Facts". CNN. 24 November 2016. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  51. ^ "Boffins confirm authenticity of Last Tsar's remains". RT. 2008-12-05. Archived from the original on 2009-02-26. Retrieved 2017-02-14.
  52. ^ "Sark Election: the candidates". BBC Guernsey. 9 December 2008. Archived from the original on December 12, 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2008.
  53. ^ "Trio found guilty of Rwandan genocide". CNN. 18 December 2008. Archived from the original on December 19, 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
  54. ^ "Coup fear as Guinea president dies". CNN. 24 December 2008. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2008.
  55. ^ "Ilene R. Prusher, 'Hamas remains defiant despite pounding' Christian Science Monitor 13 January 2009". Csmonitor.com. 2009-01-13. Retrieved 2010-06-05.
  56. ^ Bright, Arthur. Israel set to launch ‘limited operation’ in Gaza, Christian Science Monitor, December 26, 2008.
  57. ^ Rory McCarthy in Jerusalem (September 16, 2009). "Israel rejects war crimes findings of UN Gaza inquiry - World news - guardian.co.uk". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  58. ^ "Time Traveler by Merriam-Webster: Words from 2008". merriam-webster.com. Retrieved May 6, 2018.

External links

2008 Mumbai attacks

The 2008 Mumbai attacks (also referred to as 26/11) were a group of terrorist attacks that took place in November 2008, when 10 members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, an Islamic terrorist organisation based in Pakistan, carried out a series of 12 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks lasting four days across Mumbai. The attacks, which drew widespread global condemnation, began on Wednesday 26 November and lasted until Saturday 29 November 2008. At least 174 people died, including 9 attackers, and more than 300 were wounded.Eight of the attacks occurred in South Mumbai at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, The Oberoi Trident, The Taj Palace & Tower, Leopold Cafe, Cama Hospital, The Nariman House Jewish community centre, the Metro Cinema, and in a lane behind the Times of India building and St. Xavier's College. There was also an explosion at Mazagaon, in Mumbai's port area, and in a taxi at Vile Parle. By the early morning of 28 November, all sites except for the Taj Hotel had been secured by the Mumbai Police Department and security forces. On 29 November, India's National Security Guards (NSG) conducted 'Operation Black Tornado' to flush out the remaining attackers; it culminated in the death of the last remaining attackers at the Taj Hotel and ended the attacks.Ajmal Kasab disclosed that the attackers were members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, among others. The Government of India said that the attackers came from Pakistan, and their controllers were in Pakistan. On 7 January 2009, Pakistan confirmed the sole surviving perpetrator of the attacks was a Pakistani citizen. On 9 April 2015, the foremost ringleader of the attacks, Zakiur Rehman Lakhvi was granted bail against surety bonds of ₨200,000 (US$1,900) in Pakistan.

2008 United States presidential election

The 2008 United States presidential election was the 56th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008. The Democratic ticket of Barack Obama, the junior Senator from Illinois, and Joe Biden, the senior Senator from Delaware, defeated the Republican ticket of John McCain, the senior Senator from Arizona, and Sarah Palin, the Governor of Alaska. Obama became the first African American ever to be elected as president.

Incumbent Republican President George W. Bush was ineligible to pursue a third term due to the term limits established by the 22nd Amendment. As neither Bush nor Vice President Dick Cheney sought the presidency, the 2008 election was the first election since 1952 in which neither major party's presidential nominee was the incumbent president or the incumbent vice president. McCain secured the Republican nomination by March 2008, defeating Mitt Romney, Mike Huckabee, and other challengers. The Democratic primaries were marked by a sharp contest between Obama and the initial front-runner, Senator Hillary Clinton. Clinton's victory in the New Hampshire primary made her the first woman to win a major party's presidential primary. After a long primary season, Obama clinched the Democratic nomination in June 2008.

Early campaigning focused heavily on the Iraq War and Bush's unpopularity. McCain supported the war, as well as a troop surge that had begun in 2007, while Obama strongly opposed the war. Bush endorsed McCain, but the two did not campaign together, and Bush did not appear in person at the 2008 Republican National Convention. Obama campaigned on the theme that "Washington must change," while McCain emphasized his experience. The campaign was strongly affected by the onset of a major financial crisis, which peaked in September 2008. McCain's decision to suspend his campaign during the height of the financial crisis backfired as voters viewed his response as erratic.

Obama won a decisive victory over McCain, winning the Electoral College and the popular vote by a sizable margin, including states that had not voted for the Democratic presidential candidate since 1976 (North Carolina) and 1964 (Indiana and Virginia). Obama received the largest share of the popular vote won by a Democrat since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964. As of the 2016 presidential election Obama's total count of 69.5 million votes still stands as the largest tally ever won by a presidential candidate.

4chan

4chan is an English-language imageboard website. Users generally post anonymously, with the most recent posts appearing above the rest. 4chan is split into various boards with their own specific content and guidelines. Registration is not possible (except for staff).

Launched on October 1, 2003, the site was modeled on Japanese imageboards, particularly Futaba Channel. 4chan's first boards were originally primarily used for posting pictures and discussing manga and anime. The site quickly became popular, expanded, and now features boards dedicated to a wide variety of topics, from anime/manga to videogames, music, literature, fitness, politics, and sports.

The site has been linked to Internet subcultures and activism groups, most notably Anonymous, the alt-right and Project Chanology. 4chan users have been responsible for the formation or popularization of Internet memes such as lolcats, Rickrolling, "Chocolate Rain", Pedobear, and many others. The site's "Random" board, also known as "/b/", was the first board to be created, and is the one that receives the most traffic. The Random board has minimal rules on posted content. Gawker once jokingly claimed that "reading /b/ will melt your brain". The site's anonymous community and culture have often provoked media attention.

4chan users have been instrumental in pranks such as hijacking Internet destinations to cause images of Rick Astley to appear in place of their content, coordinating attacks against other websites and Internet users, exposing animal abuse, and posting threats of violence in order to elicit individual and public reactions. The Guardian once summarized the 4chan community as "lunatic, juvenile ... brilliant, ridiculous and alarming".

Dartmouth College

Dartmouth College ( DART-məth) is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States. Established in 1769 by Eleazar Wheelock, it is the ninth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Although founded as a school to educate Native Americans in Christian theology and the English way of life, Dartmouth primarily trained Congregationalist ministers throughout its early history. The university gradually secularized, and by the turn of the 20th century it had risen from relative obscurity into national prominence as one of the top centers of higher education.Following a liberal arts curriculum, the university provides undergraduate instruction in 40 academic departments and interdisciplinary programs including 57 majors in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and engineering, and enables students to design specialized concentrations or engage in dual degree programs. Dartmouth comprises five constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Geisel School of Medicine, the Thayer School of Engineering, the Tuck School of Business, and the Guarini School of Graduate and Advanced Studies. The university also has affiliations with the Dartmouth–Hitchcock Medical Center, the Rockefeller Institute for Public Policy, and the Hopkins Center for the Arts. With a student enrollment of about 6,400, Dartmouth is the smallest university in the Ivy League. Undergraduate admissions is highly competitive, with an acceptance rate of 8.7% for the Class of 2022.Situated on a hill above the Connecticut River, Dartmouth's 269-acre main campus is in the rural Upper Valley region of New England. The university functions on a quarter system, operating year-round on four ten-week academic terms. Dartmouth is known for its undergraduate focus, strong Greek culture, and wide array of enduring campus traditions. Its 34 varsity sports teams compete intercollegiately in the Ivy League conference of the NCAA Division I.

Dartmouth is consistently included among the highest-ranked universities in the United States by several institutional rankings, and has been cited as a leading university for undergraduate teaching and research by U.S. News & World Report. In 2018, the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education listed Dartmouth as the only "majority-undergraduate," "arts-and-sciences focused," "doctoral university" in the country that has "some graduate coexistence" and "very high research activity." In a New York Times corporate study, Dartmouth graduates ranked 41st in terms of the most sought-after and valued in the world.The university has produced many prominent alumni, including 170 members of the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives, 24 U.S. governors, 10 billionaire alumni, 10 U.S. Cabinet secretaries, 3 Nobel Prize laureates, 2 U.S. Supreme Court justices, and a U.S. vice president. Other notable alumni include 79 Rhodes Scholars, 26 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 13 Pulitzer Prize winners, and numerous MacArthur Genius fellows, Fulbright Scholars, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 corporations, high-ranking U.S. diplomats, scholars in academia, literary and media figures, professional athletes, and Olympic medalists.

Eli Manning

Elisha Nelson Manning IV

(born January 3, 1981) is an American football quarterback for the New York Giants of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at the University of Mississippi from 2000 to 2003. He was drafted as the first overall pick in the 2004 NFL Draft by the San Diego Chargers and was immediately traded to the Giants who in return gave up a package, highlighted by fourth overall selection Philip Rivers. Manning is the son of former NFL quarterback Archie Manning and the younger brother of former NFL quarterback Peyton Manning.

Manning holds Giants franchise records for most passing yards, touchdown passes, and completed passes in a career. He led the Giants to victory in Super Bowls XLII and XLVI, defeating the New England Patriots in both games. Manning was named Most Valuable Player in both Super Bowls, becoming one of five players to have multiple Super Bowl MVP awards (Bart Starr and Terry Bradshaw also have two, Joe Montana three and Tom Brady four).

Manning started 210 straight games from 2004 to 2017, the second-longest consecutive starts streak by a quarterback in NFL history. He is the seventh all-time leader in passing yards and touchdowns. Though lacking his brother's regular-season consistency and high-caliber performances, Manning is known for his two improbable Super Bowl winning postseason runs in 2007 and 2011, in which he led an underdog Giants squad to Super Bowl victories twice against the Patriots.

Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.It began in 2007 with a crisis in the subprime mortgage market in the United States, and developed into a full-blown international banking crisis with the collapse of the investment bank Lehman Brothers on September 15, 2008. Excessive risk-taking by banks such as Lehman Brothers helped to magnify the financial impact globally. Massive bail-outs of financial institutions and other palliative monetary and fiscal policies were employed to prevent a possible collapse of the world financial system. The crisis was nonetheless followed by a global economic downturn, the Great Recession. The European debt crisis, a crisis in the banking system of the European countries using the euro, followed later.

In 2010, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act was enacted in the US following the crisis to "promote the financial stability of the United States". The Basel III capital and liquidity standards were adopted by countries around the world.

Great Recession

The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s. The scale and timing of the recession varied from country to country. The International Monetary Fund concluded that the overall impact was the most severe since the Great Depression in the 1930s. The Great Recession stemmed from the collapse of the United States real-estate market, in relation to the financial crisis of 2007 to 2008 and U.S. subprime mortgage crisis of 2007 to 2009, though policies of other nations contributed also. According to the National Bureau of Economic Research (the official arbiter of U.S. recessions), the recession in the United States began in December 2007 and ended in June 2009, thus extending over 19 months. The Great Recession resulted in the scarcity of valuable assets in the market economy and the collapse of the financial sector (banks) in the world economy. Some banks were bailed out by the Federal government of the United States.The recession was not felt equally around the world. Whereas most of the world's developed economies, particularly in North America and Europe, fell into a definitive recession, many of the newer developed economies suffered far less impact, particularly China and India, whose economies grew substantially during this period.

Heath Ledger

Heath Andrew Ledger (4 April 1979 – 22 January 2008) was an Australian actor and director. After performing roles in several Australian television and film productions during the 1990s, Ledger left for the United States in 1998 to further develop his film career. His work comprised nineteen films, including 10 Things I Hate About You (1999), The Patriot (2000), A Knight's Tale (2001), Monster's Ball (2001), Lords of Dogtown (2005), Brokeback Mountain (2005), Casanova (2005), The Dark Knight (2008), and The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus (2009), the latter two being posthumous releases. He also produced and directed music videos and aspired to be a film director.For his portrayal of Ennis Del Mar in Brokeback Mountain, Ledger won the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor and Best International Actor from the Australian Film Institute, and was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role and the Academy Award for Best Actor. Posthumously, he shared the 2007 Independent Spirit Robert Altman Award with the rest of the ensemble cast, the director, and the casting director for the film I'm Not There, which was inspired by the life and songs of American singer-songwriter Bob Dylan. In the film, Ledger portrayed a fictional actor named Robbie Clark, one of six characters embodying aspects of Dylan's life and persona.Ledger died on 22 January 2008 from an accidental intoxication from prescription drugs. A few months before his death, Ledger had finished filming his performance as the Joker in The Dark Knight. His death occurred during editing of The Dark Knight and in the midst of filming his last role as Tony in The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus. His untimely death cast a shadow over the subsequent promotion of the $185 million Batman production. Ledger received numerous posthumous accolades for his critically acclaimed performance in the film, including the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, a Best Actor International Award at the 2008 Australian Film Institute Awards, for which he became the first actor to win an award posthumously, the 2008 Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor, the 2009 Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture, and the 2009 BAFTA Award for Best Supporting Actor.

House (TV series)

House (also called House, M.D.) is an American television medical drama that originally ran on the Fox network for eight seasons, from November 16, 2004 to May 21, 2012. The series' main character is Dr. Gregory House (Hugh Laurie), an unconventional, misanthropic medical genius who, despite his dependence on pain medication, leads a team of diagnosticians at the fictional Princeton–Plainsboro Teaching Hospital (PPTH) in New Jersey. The series' premise originated with Paul Attanasio, while David Shore, who is credited as creator, was primarily responsible for the conception of the title character. The series' executive producers included Shore, Attanasio, Attanasio's business partner Katie Jacobs, and film director Bryan Singer. It was filmed largely in a neighborhood and business district in Los Angeles County's Westside called Century City.

House often clashes with his fellow physicians, including his own diagnostic team, because many of his hypotheses about patients' illnesses are based on subtle or controversial insights. His flouting of hospital rules and procedures frequently leads him into conflict with his boss, hospital administrator and Dean of Medicine Dr. Lisa Cuddy (Lisa Edelstein). House's only true friend is Dr. James Wilson (Robert Sean Leonard), head of the Department of Oncology. During the first three seasons, House's diagnostic team consists of Dr. Robert Chase (Jesse Spencer), Dr. Allison Cameron (Jennifer Morrison), and Dr. Eric Foreman (Omar Epps). At the end of the third season, this team disbands. Rejoined by Foreman, House gradually selects three new team members: Dr. Remy "Thirteen" Hadley (Olivia Wilde), Dr. Chris Taub (Peter Jacobson), and Dr. Lawrence Kutner (Kal Penn). Meanwhile, Chase and Cameron continue to appear in different roles at the hospital. Kutner dies late in season five; early in season six, Cameron departs the hospital, and Chase returns to the diagnostic team. Thirteen takes a leave of absence for most of season seven, and her position is filled by medical student Martha M. Masters (Amber Tamblyn). Cuddy and Masters depart before season eight; Foreman becomes the new Dean of Medicine, while Dr. Jessica Adams (Odette Annable) and Dr. Chi Park (Charlyne Yi) join House's team.

House was among the top ten series in the United States from its second through fourth seasons. Distributed to 66 countries, House was the most-watched television program in the world in 2008. The show received numerous awards, including five Primetime Emmy Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, a Peabody Award, and nine People's Choice Awards. On February 8, 2012, Fox announced that the eighth season, then in progress, would be its last. The series finale aired on May 21, 2012, following an hour-long retrospective.

Iron Man (2008 film)

Iron Man is a 2008 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Paramount Pictures. It is the first film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). The film was directed by Jon Favreau, with a screenplay by the writing teams of Mark Fergus and Hawk Ostby and Art Marcum and Matt Holloway. It stars Robert Downey Jr. as Tony Stark / Iron Man, alongside Terrence Howard, Jeff Bridges, Shaun Toub, and Gwyneth Paltrow. In Iron Man, Tony Stark, an industrialist and master engineer, builds a powered exoskeleton after a life-threatening incident and becomes the technologically advanced superhero Iron Man.

The film had been in development since 1990 at Universal Pictures, 20th Century Fox, or New Line Cinema at various times, before Marvel Studios reacquired the rights in 2006. Marvel put the project in production as its first self-financed film, with Paramount Pictures as its distributor. Favreau signed on as director, aiming for a naturalistic feel, and he chose to shoot the film primarily in California, rejecting the East Coast setting of the comics to differentiate the film from numerous superhero films set in New York City-esque environments. Filming began in March 2007 and concluded in June. During filming, the actors were free to create their own dialogue because pre-production was focused on the story and action. Rubber and metal versions of the armors, created by Stan Winston's company, were mixed with computer-generated imagery to create the title character.

Iron Man premiered in Sydney on April 14, 2008, and was released in the United States on May 2, 2008. The film grossed over $585 million on a $140 million budget, and received praise for its acting, particularly Downey's performance as Tony Stark, as well as the visual effects and action sequences. The American Film Institute selected the film as one of the ten best of the year. It was also nominated for two Academy Awards for Best Sound Editing and Best Visual Effects. Two sequels, Iron Man 2 and Iron Man 3, were released on May 7, 2010, and May 3, 2013, respectively.

Joe Biden

Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. (; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 47th vice president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he represented Delaware in the U.S. Senate from 1973 to 2009.

Biden was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, and lived there for ten years before moving with his family to Delaware. He became an attorney in 1969 and was elected to the New Castle County Council in 1970. He was first elected to the U.S. Senate in 1972, when he became the sixth-youngest senator in American history. Biden was re-elected to the upper house of Congress six times, and was the fourth most senior senator when he resigned to assume the vice presidency in 2009. Biden was a long-time member and former chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. He opposed the Gulf War in 1991, but advocated U.S. and NATO intervention in the Bosnian War in 1994 and 1995. He voted in favor of the resolution authorizing the Iraq War in 2002, but opposed the surge of U.S. troops in 2007. He has also served as chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, dealing with issues related to drug policy, crime prevention, and civil liberties. Biden led the efforts to pass the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, and the Violence Against Women Act. He also chaired the Judiciary Committee during the contentious U.S. Supreme Court nominations of Robert Bork and Clarence Thomas. Biden unsuccessfully sought the Democratic presidential nomination in 1988 and in 2008, both times dropping out after lackluster showings.

In 2008, Biden was chosen as the running mate of Democratic presidential nominee Barack Obama. After being elected vice president, Biden oversaw infrastructure spending aimed at counteracting the Great Recession and helped formulate U.S. policy toward Iraq up until the withdrawal of U.S. troops in 2011. His ability to negotiate with congressional Republicans helped the Obama administration pass legislation such as the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010, which resolved a taxation deadlock; the Budget Control Act of 2011, which resolved that year's debt ceiling crisis; and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which addressed the impending fiscal cliff. Biden was reported to have advised President Obama against approving the 2011 military mission that resulted in the death of Osama bin Laden, though he has disputed this. Obama and Biden were re-elected in 2012, defeating Republican nominee Mitt Romney and his running mate Paul Ryan. In October 2015, after months of speculation, Biden announced he would not seek the presidency in the 2016 elections. In one of the final acts of his term in January 2017, President Obama awarded Biden the Presidential Medal of Freedom with distinction.After completing his second term as vice president, Biden joined the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania, where he was named the Benjamin Franklin Professor of Presidential Practice. As of January 2019, Biden was reported to be actively considering a 2020 presidential run, and a CNN poll placed him as the most popular potential Democratic presidential candidate.

John McCain

John Sidney McCain III (August 29, 1936 – August 25, 2018) was an American politician and military officer who served as a United States Senator from Arizona from January 1987 until his death. He previously served two terms in the United States House of Representatives and was the Republican nominee for President of the United States in the 2008 election, which he lost to Barack Obama.

McCain graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1958 and was commissioned into the United States Navy. He became a naval aviator and flew ground-attack aircraft from aircraft carriers. During the Vietnam War, he was almost killed in the 1967 USS Forrestal fire. While on a bombing mission during Operation Rolling Thunder over Hanoi in October 1967, he was shot down, seriously injured, and captured by the North Vietnamese. He was a prisoner of war until 1973. He experienced episodes of torture and refused an out-of-sequence early release. The wounds that he sustained during the war left him with lifelong physical disabilities. He retired from the Navy as a captain in 1981 and moved to Arizona, where he entered politics. In 1982, he was elected to the United States House of Representatives, where he served two terms. He entered the U.S. Senate in 1987 and easily won reelection five times, the final time in 2016.

While generally adhering to conservative principles, McCain also had a media reputation as a "maverick" for his willingness to break from his party on certain issues. His stances on gun control and LGBT issues were significantly more liberal than the party's base. After being investigated and largely exonerated in a political influence scandal of the 1980s as one of the Keating Five, he made campaign finance reform one of his signature concerns, which eventually resulted in passage of the McCain–Feingold Act in 2002. He was also known for his work in the 1990s to restore diplomatic relations with Vietnam, and for his belief that the Iraq War should have been fought to a successful conclusion. He chaired the Senate Commerce Committee and opposed pork barrel spending. He belonged to the bipartisan "Gang of 14" which played a key role in alleviating a crisis over judicial nominations.

McCain entered the race for the Republican nomination for president in 2000, but lost a heated primary season contest to Governor George W. Bush of Texas. He secured the nomination in 2008 after making a comeback from early reversals, but lost the general election. He subsequently adopted more orthodox conservative stances and attitudes and largely opposed actions of the Obama administration, especially with regard to foreign policy matters. By 2013, he had become a key figure in the Senate for negotiating deals on certain issues in an otherwise partisan environment. In 2015, he became Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee. He refused to support then-Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump in 2016. He opposed the Affordable Care Act, but cast the deciding vote against the ACA-repealing American Health Care Act of 2017 bill. After a diagnosis of brain cancer in 2017, he reduced his role in the Senate to focus on treatment, before dying on August 25, 2018, four days before his 82nd birthday; his family had announced the previous day that the treatment for his cancer would cease. Following McCain's death, he lay in state in the United States Capitol rotunda, and his funeral was televised from Washington National Cathedral.

Kansas City Chiefs

The Kansas City Chiefs are a professional American football team which markets primarily to the Kansas City metropolitan area and is based in Kansas City, Missouri. The Chiefs compete in the National Football League (NFL) as a member club of the league's American Football Conference (AFC) West division. The team was founded in 1960 as the Dallas Texans by businessman Lamar Hunt and was a charter member of the American Football League (AFL). (They are not associated with the NFL Dallas Texans.) In 1963, the team relocated to Kansas City and assumed their current name. The Chiefs joined the NFL as a result of the merger in 1970. The team is valued at over $2 billion. Hunt's son, Clark, serves as chairman and CEO. While Hunt's ownership stakes passed collectively to his widow and children after his death in 2006, Clark represents the Chiefs at all league meetings and has ultimate authority on personnel changes.

The Chiefs have won three AFL championships, in 1962, 1966, and 1969 and became the second AFL team (after the New York Jets) to defeat an NFL team in an AFL–NFL World Championship Game, when they defeated the Minnesota Vikings in Super Bowl IV. The team's victory on January 11, 1970, remains the club's last championship game victory and appearance to date, and occurred in the final such competition prior to the leagues' merger coming into full effect. The Chiefs were also the second team, after the Green Bay Packers, to appear in more than one Super Bowl (and the first AFL team to do so) and the first to appear in the championship game in two different decades. Despite post-season success early in the franchise’s history, the team has struggled to find success in the playoffs since. As of the conclusion of the 2017–18 playoffs, they have lost 11 of their last 12 playoff games including eight straight from 1993–2019.

List of NBA champions

The National Basketball Association (NBA) (formerly Basketball Association of America (BAA) from 1946 to 1949) Finals is the championship series for the NBA and the conclusion of the NBA's postseason. All Finals have been played in a best-of-seven format, and contested between the winners of the Eastern Conference and the Western Conference (formerly Divisions before 1970), except in 1950 in which the Eastern Division champion faced the winner between the Western and Central Division champions. Prior to 1949, the playoffs were instituted a three-stage tournament where the two semifinal winners played each other in the finals. The winning team of the series receives the Larry O'Brien Championship Trophy.

The home-and-away format in the NBA Finals is in a 2–2–1–1–1 format (the team with the better regular season record plays on their home court in Games 1, 2, 5 and 7) during 1947–1948, 1950–1952, 1957–1970, 1972–1974, 1976–1977, 1979–1984, 2014–present. It was previously in a 2–3–2 format (the team with the better regular season record plays on their home court in Games 1, 2, 6 and 7) during 1949, 1953–1955, and 1985–2013, in a 1–1–1–1–1–1–1 format during 1956 and 1971 and in a 1–2–2–1–1 format during 1975 and 1978.The Eastern Conference/Division leads the Western Conference/Division in series won (38–32). The defunct Central Division won one championship. The Boston Celtics and the Minneapolis/Los Angeles Lakers alone own almost half of the titles, having won a combined 33 of 72 championships.

Lists of deaths by year

This is a list of notable deaths, organized by year. New deaths articles are added to their respective month (e.g., Deaths in January 2019), and then linked here.

Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.

Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King James V, was six days old when her father died and she acceded to the throne. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents, and in 1558, she married the Dauphin of France, Francis. He ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, and Mary briefly became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and in June 1566 they had a son, James.

In February 1567, Darnley's residence was destroyed by an explosion, and he was found murdered in the garden. James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was generally believed to have orchestrated Darnley's death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, and the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle. On 24 July 1567 she was forced to abdicate in favour of her one-year-old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, Queen Elizabeth I of England. Mary had once claimed Elizabeth's throne as her own, and was considered the legitimate sovereign of England by many English Catholics, including participants in a rebellion known as the Rising of the North. Perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586. She was beheaded the following year at Fotheringhay Castle.

Michelle Obama

Michelle LaVaughn Robinson Obama (born January 17, 1964) is an American writer, lawyer, and university administrator who served as the First Lady of the United States from 2009 to 2017. She is married to the 44th U.S. President, Barack Obama, and was the first African-American First Lady. Raised on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois, Obama is a graduate of Princeton University and Harvard Law School. In her early legal career, she worked at the law firm Sidley Austin, where she met Barack Obama. She subsequently worked in non-profits and as the Associate Dean of Student Services at the University of Chicago and the Vice President for Community and External Affairs of the University of Chicago Medical Center. Michelle married Barack in 1992 and they have two daughters.

Obama campaigned for her husband's presidential bid throughout 2007 and 2008, delivering a keynote address at the 2008 Democratic National Convention. She returned to speak for him at the 2012 Democratic National Convention. During the 2016 Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia, she delivered a speech in support of the Democratic presidential nominee, Hillary Clinton, a former First Lady.

As First Lady, Obama served as a role model for women, and worked as an advocate for poverty awareness, education, nutrition, physical activity and healthy eating. She supported American designers and was considered a fashion icon.

Sarah Palin

Sarah Louise Palin ( (listen); née Heath; born February 11, 1964) is an American politician, commentator, author, and reality television personality, who served as the ninth governor of Alaska from 2006 until her resignation in 2009. As the Republican Party nominee for Vice President of the United States in the 2008 election alongside presidential nominee, Arizona Senator John McCain, she was the first Alaskan on the national ticket of a major political party and the first Republican woman selected as a vice presidential candidate. Her book Going Rogue has sold more than two million copies.

She was elected to the Wasilla city council in 1992 and became mayor of Wasilla in 1996. In 2003, after an unsuccessful run for lieutenant governor, she was appointed chair of the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, responsible for overseeing the state's oil and gas fields for safety and efficiency. In 2006, she became the youngest person and the first woman to be elected Governor of Alaska.Since her resignation as governor, she has endorsed and campaigned for the Tea Party movement as well as several candidates in multiple election cycles, prominently including Donald Trump for president in 2016. From 2010 to 2015, she provided political commentary for Fox News. On April 3, 2014, Palin premiered her TV show, Amazing America with Sarah Palin, on the Sportsman Channel, which ran until February 12, 2015. On July 27, 2014, Palin launched the online news network called the Sarah Palin Channel, which was closed on July 4, 2015.

The Dark Knight (film)

The Dark Knight is a 2008 superhero film directed, co-produced, and co-written by Christopher Nolan. Based on the DC Comics character Batman, the film is the second part of Nolan's The Dark Knight Trilogy and a sequel to 2005's Batman Begins, starring an ensemble cast including Christian Bale, Michael Caine, Heath Ledger, Gary Oldman, Aaron Eckhart, Maggie Gyllenhaal and Morgan Freeman. In the film, Bruce Wayne / Batman (Bale), Police Lieutenant James Gordon (Oldman) and District Attorney Harvey Dent (Eckhart) form an alliance to dismantle organized crime in Gotham City, but are menaced by an anarchist mastermind known as the Joker (Ledger), who seeks to undermine Batman's influence and turn the city to chaos.

Nolan's inspiration for the film was the Joker's comic book debut in 1940, the 1988 graphic novel The Killing Joke, and the 1996 series The Long Halloween, which retold Two-Face's origin. The "Dark Knight" nickname was first applied to Batman in Batman #1 (1940), in a story written by Bill Finger. The Dark Knight was filmed primarily in Chicago, as well as in several other locations in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Hong Kong. Nolan used IMAX 70 mm film cameras to film some sequences, including the Joker's first appearance in the film. Warner Bros. initially created a viral marketing campaign for The Dark Knight, developing promotional websites and trailers highlighting screenshots of Ledger as the Joker. Ledger died on January 22, 2008, some months after the completed filming and six months before the film's release from a toxic combination of prescription drugs, leading to intense attention from the press and movie-going public.

A co-production of the United States and the United Kingdom, The Dark Knight was released on July 18, 2008 in the United States and on July 25, 2008 in the United Kingdom. Film critics considered it one of the best films of its decade and one of the best superhero films of all time; the film received highly positive reviews, particularly for its action, score, screenplay, performances (particularly Ledger's), visual effects, and direction, setting numerous records during its theatrical run. The Dark Knight appeared on 287 critics' top ten lists, more than any other film of 2008 with the exception of WALL-E, and more critics (77) named The Dark Knight the best film released that year. With over $1 billion in revenue worldwide, it became the highest-grossing film of 2008 and is the 37th highest-grossing film of all time, unadjusted for inflation (4th at the time of release); it also set the record for highest-grossing domestic opening with $158 million, a record it held for three years. The film received eight Academy Award nominations; it won the award for Best Sound Editing and Ledger was posthumously awarded Best Supporting Actor. In 2016 it was voted 33rd among 100 films considered the best of the 21st century by 117 film critics from around the world. The Dark Knight Rises, the final film in the trilogy, was released on July 20, 2012.

Yao Ming

Yao Ming (Chinese: 姚明; born September 12, 1980) is a Chinese basketball executive and retired professional basketball player who played for the Shanghai Sharks of the Chinese Basketball Association (CBA) and the Houston Rockets of the National Basketball Association (NBA). He was selected to start for the Western Conference in the NBA All-Star Game eight times, and was named to the All-NBA Team five times. At the time of his final season, he was the tallest active player in the NBA, at 2.29 m (7 ft 6 in). He is the only player from outside of the United States to lead the NBA in All-Star votes.Yao, who was born in Shanghai, started playing for the Shanghai Sharks as a teenager, and played on their senior team for five years in the Chinese Basketball Association (CBA), winning a championship in his final year. After negotiating with the CBA and the Sharks to secure his release, Yao was selected by the Houston Rockets as the first overall pick in the 2002 NBA draft. He reached the NBA Playoffs four times, and the Rockets won the first-round series in the 2009 postseason, their first playoff series victory since 1997. In July 2011, Yao announced his retirement from professional basketball because of a series of foot and ankle injuries which forced him to miss 250 games in his last six seasons. In eight seasons with the Rockets, Yao ranks sixth among franchise leaders in total points and total rebounds, and second in total blocks.Yao is one of China's best-known athletes, with sponsorships with several major companies. His rookie year in the NBA was the subject of a documentary film, The Year of the Yao, and he co-wrote, along with NBA analyst Ric Bucher, an autobiography titled Yao: A Life in Two Worlds.

In April 2016, Yao was elected into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame, alongside Shaquille O'Neal and Allen Iverson.In February 2017, Yao was unanimously elected as chairman of Chinese Basketball Association.

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