2008

2008 (MMVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2008th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 8th year of the 3rd millennium, the 8th year of the 21st century, and the 9th year of the 2000s decade.

2008 was designated as:

Millennium: 3rd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
2008 by topic:
Arts
ArchitectureComicsFilmHome videoLiterature (Poetry) – Music (Country, Metal, UK) – Radio – Photo – TelevisionVideo gaming
Politics
Elections – International leadersSovereign states
Sovereign state leadersTerritorial governors
Science and technology
ArchaeologyAviationBirding/OrnithologyPalaeontologyRail transportSpaceflight
Sports
Badminton – BaseballBasketball – Volleyball
By place
AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeria – Angola – AntarcticaArgentinaArmeniaAustralia – Austria – AzerbaijanBangladesh – The Bahamas – Barbados – Belgium – Benin – Bhutan – Bosnia and HerzegovinaBrazil – Bulgaria – Burkina Faso – Burundi – Cambodia – Cameroon – CanadaCape Verde – Central African Republic – ChadChileChinaColombia – Costa Rica – Croatia – Cuba – Cyprus – Czechia – Denmark – Ecuador – Egypt – El Salvador – Estonia – Ethiopia – European Union – Finland – France – Gabon – GeorgiaGermanyGhana – Greece – Guatemala – Hungary – IcelandIndiaIndonesiaIraqIranIrelandIsrael – Italy – Ivory Coast – Japan – Kazakhstan – KenyaKuwaitLaos – Latvia – Libya – Lithuania – LuxembourgMacau – Madagascar – Malawi – Malaysia – Mali – Mexico – Moldova – Montenegro – Morocco – Mozambique – Myanmar – NepalNetherlandsNew Zealand – Niger – NigeriaNorth KoreaNorway – Oman – PakistanPalestine – Peru – PhilippinesPolandPortugalRomaniaRussiaRwanda – Saudi Arabia – Senegal – Serbia – Singapore – Slovakia – Slovenia – SomaliaSouth AfricaSouth KoreaSouth SudanSpain – Sri Lanka – Sudan – Sweden – Switzerland – Syria – Taiwan – Tanzania – ThailandTurkey – Uganda – Ukraine – United Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited States – Uruguay – Uzbekistan – Venezuela – Vietnam – Yemen – Zambia – Zimbabwe
Other topics
Religious leaders
Birth and death categories
Births – Deaths
Establishments and disestablishments categories
Establishments – Disestablishments
Works and introductions categories
Works – Introductions
Works entering the public domain
2008 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar2008
MMVIII
Ab urbe condita2761
Armenian calendar1457
ԹՎ ՌՆԾԷ
Assyrian calendar6758
Bahá'í calendar164–165
Balinese saka calendar1929–1930
Bengali calendar1415
Berber calendar2958
British Regnal year56 Eliz. 2 – 57 Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar2552
Burmese calendar1370
Byzantine calendar7516–7517
Chinese calendar丁亥(Fire Pig)
4704 or 4644
    — to —
戊子年 (Earth Rat)
4705 or 4645
Coptic calendar1724–1725
Discordian calendar3174
Ethiopian calendar2000–2001
Hebrew calendar5768–5769
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2064–2065
 - Shaka Samvat1929–1930
 - Kali Yuga5108–5109
Holocene calendar12008
Igbo calendar1008–1009
Iranian calendar1386–1387
Islamic calendar1428–1430
Japanese calendarHeisei 20
(平成20年)
Javanese calendar1940–1941
Juche calendar97
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4341
Minguo calendarROC 97
民國97年
Nanakshahi calendar540
Thai solar calendar2551
Tibetan calendar阴火猪年
(female Fire-Pig)
2134 or 1753 or 981
    — to —
阳土鼠年
(male Earth-Rat)
2135 or 1754 or 982
Unix time1199145600 – 1230767999

Events

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Births

Deaths

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal

New English words

  • Bitcoin
  • burner phone
  • dumpster fire
  • exome
  • hate-watch
  • mansplain
  • photobomb[58]

References

  1. ^ "General Assembly Proclaims 2008 International Year of Languages, in Effort to Promote Unity in Diversity, Global Understanding". United Nations. Archived from the original on November 1, 2008. Retrieved November 2, 2008.
  2. ^ Cyprus and Malta set to join eurozone in 2008 Archived January 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, EurActiv
  3. ^ Akrotiri and Dhekelia adopt the euro, EUbusiness (ISO 4217 code: VEF). Archived July 6, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Mercury Flyby 1". Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. Archived from the original on May 16, 2008. Retrieved January 12, 2008.
  5. ^ Landler, Mark; Timmons, Heather (January 21, 2008). "Stocks Plunge Worldwide on Fears of a U.S. Recession". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved November 21, 2008.
  6. ^ "Eastern Congo peace deal signed". BBC. January 23, 2008. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved August 25, 2016.
  7. ^ "Iran Opens Space Center, Launches Rocket", Associated Press
  8. ^ "Kevin Rudd says sorry". The Sydney Morning Herald. February 13, 2008. Retrieved July 8, 2011.
  9. ^ "BU.S., Europeans at Security Council Back Kosovo's Independence". Bloomberg L.P. February 17, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  10. ^ "Il Kosovo proclama l'indipendenza Serbia: "Non lo riconosceremo mai"". repubblica.it (in Italian). February 17, 2008.
  11. ^ James, Ian (March 3, 2008). "Venezuela, Ecuador sending troops to border with Colombia after rebel leader killed". The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on March 10, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
  12. ^ Goodman, Joshua (March 1, 2008). "Colombian Rebel Leader Raul Reyes Killed By Army, Minister Says". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on June 26, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
  13. ^ "Europe launches its first resupply ship to the ISS". European Space Agency. March 9, 2008. Archived from the original on May 22, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2009.
  14. ^ Sengupta, Somini (March 25, 2008). "Heavy Turnout in First Bhutan Election". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  15. ^ "BBC NEWS | Africa | 'Deadly clashes' in the Comoros". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  16. ^ "BBC NEWS | UK | UK Politics | Cameron urges aid drops for Burma". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  17. ^ "Sichuan 2008: A disaster on an immense scale". BBC News. May 9, 2013. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  18. ^ "BBC NEWS | Americas | South America nations found union". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  19. ^ migration (June 10, 2015). "The Asian way to settle disputes". The Straits Times. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  20. ^ "Phoenix Mars Mission". Archived from the original on March 4, 2008.
  21. ^ "BBC NEWS | South Asia | Nepal votes to abolish monarchy". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  22. ^ United Nations Treaty Collection: Convention on Cluster Munitions. Retrieved on 28 March 2009.
  23. ^ MSFC, Jennifer Wall : (May 21, 2015). "What Is the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope?". NASA. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  24. ^ "Harper apologizes for residential school abuse". CTV. June 11, 2008. Archived from the original on July 9, 2008. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  25. ^ "Spain's Expo 2008 on world water opens". Reuters. June 14, 2017. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  26. ^ Kraul, Chris (July 4, 2008). "The ultimate fake-out". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  27. ^ "BBC News: Serbia captures fugitive Karadzic". July 22, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  28. ^ "BBC NEWS | Africa | Troops stage coup in Mauritania". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  29. ^ Finn, Peter (August 17, 2008). "A Two-Sided Descent Into Full-Scale War". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 13, 2017.
  30. ^ "Beijing 2008 – It's a wrap". The Boston Globe. August 25, 2008. Retrieved July 8, 2011.
  31. ^ "First beam in the LHC – accelerating science".
  32. ^ "Large Hadron Collider fired up in 'God particle' hunt". CNN. September 10, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  33. ^ "At Least 40 Killed in Huge Explosion at Pakistan Hotel". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2011.
  34. ^ "Deadly blast targets Marriott Hotel in Islamabad". CNN. September 21, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
  35. ^ "Dozens killed in Pakistan attack". BBC News. September 20, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  36. ^ "Space Exploration Technologies Corporation – Falcon 1 Flight 4". Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  37. ^ "Falcon rocket success for SpaceX". BBC News. September 29, 2008. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  38. ^ Raum, Tom (October 3, 2008) Bush signs $700 billion bailout bill Archived October 28, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Associated Press. Retrieved October 3, 2008.
  39. ^ "CERN inaugurates the LHC". CERN. October 21, 2008. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  40. ^ "LHC to be inaugurated on 21 October 2008". Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  41. ^ "Final LHC Synchronization Test a Success". Retrieved July 8, 2011.
  42. ^ Lynn, Jonathan (October 21, 2008). "Big Bang experiment inaugurated despite glitch". Reuters.
  43. ^ "India launches first Moon mission". BBC News. October 22, 2008. Archived from the original on October 22, 2008. Retrieved October 22, 2008.
  44. ^ "Chandrayaan-1". Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
  45. ^ Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer Electronic Cash System http://themonetaryfuture.blogspot.hu/2010/03/bitcoin-peer-to-peer-electronic-cash.html 20171223
  46. ^ Nagourney, Adam (November 4, 2008). "Obama Elected President as Racial Barrier Falls". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  47. ^ "Obama wins historic US election". BBC News. November 5, 2008. Archived from the original on November 6, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  48. ^ "Obama inspires historic victory". CNN. November 5, 2008. Archived from the original on December 17, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2008.
  49. ^ Roberts, Michelle (November 19, 2008). "FWindpipe transplant breakthrough". BBC News. Archived from the original on January 15, 2010. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  50. ^ "Mumbai Terror Attacks Fast Facts". CNN. November 24, 2016. Retrieved October 24, 2017.
  51. ^ "Boffins confirm authenticity of Last Tsar's remains". RT. December 5, 2008. Archived from the original on February 26, 2009. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  52. ^ "Sark Election: the candidates". BBC Guernsey. December 9, 2008. Archived from the original on December 12, 2008. Retrieved December 11, 2008.
  53. ^ "Trio found guilty of Rwandan genocide". CNN. December 18, 2008. Archived from the original on December 19, 2008. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
  54. ^ "Coup fear as Guinea president dies". CNN. December 24, 2008. Archived from the original on December 24, 2008. Retrieved December 24, 2008.
  55. ^ "Ilene R. Prusher, 'Hamas remains defiant despite pounding' Christian Science Monitor 13 January 2009". Csmonitor.com. January 13, 2009. Retrieved June 5, 2010.
  56. ^ Bright, Arthur. Israel set to launch ‘limited operation’ in Gaza, Christian Science Monitor, December 26, 2008.
  57. ^ Rory McCarthy in Jerusalem (September 16, 2009). "Israel rejects war crimes findings of UN Gaza inquiry - World news - guardian.co.uk". The Guardian. London. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
  58. ^ "Time Traveler by Merriam-Webster: Words from 2008". merriam-webster.com. Retrieved May 6, 2018.

External links

2008 Mumbai attacks

The 2008 Mumbai attacks (also referred to as 26/11) were a group of terrorist attacks that took place in November 2008, when 10 members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, an Islamic terrorist organisation based in Pakistan, carried out a series of 12 coordinated shooting and bombing attacks lasting four days across Mumbai. The attacks, which drew widespread global condemnation, began on Wednesday 26 November and lasted until Saturday 29 November 2008. At least 174 people died, including 9 attackers, and more than 300 were wounded.Eight of the attacks occurred in South Mumbai at Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, The Oberoi Trident, The Taj Palace & Tower, Leopold Cafe, Cama Hospital, The Nariman House Jewish community centre, the Metro Cinema, and in a lane behind the Times of India building and St. Xavier's College. There was also an explosion at Mazagaon, in Mumbai's port area, and in a taxi at Vile Parle. By the early morning of 28 November, all sites except for the Taj Hotel had been secured by the Mumbai Police Department and security forces. On 29 November, India's National Security Guards (NSG) conducted 'Operation Black Tornado' to flush out the remaining attackers; it culminated in the death of the last remaining attackers at the Taj Hotel and ended the attacks.Pakistan condemned the attacks. Ajmal Kasab, the sole surviving attacker, disclosed that the attackers were members of Lashkar-e-Taiba, among others. The Government of India said that the attackers came from Pakistan, and their controllers were in Pakistan, and Pakistan later confirmed that the sole surviving perpetrator of the attacks was a Pakistani citizen. On 9 April 2015, the foremost ringleader of the attacks, Zakiur Rehman Lakhvi was released on bail and disappeared.

2008 United States presidential election

The 2008 United States presidential election was the 56th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008. The Democratic ticket of Barack Obama, the junior Senator from Illinois, and Joe Biden, the senior Senator from Delaware, defeated the Republican ticket of John McCain, the senior Senator from Arizona, and Sarah Palin, the Governor of Alaska. Obama became the first African American ever to be elected as president.

Incumbent Republican President George W. Bush was ineligible to pursue a third term due to the term limits established by the 22nd Amendment. As neither Bush nor Vice President Dick Cheney sought the presidency, the 2008 election was the first election since 1952 in which neither major party's presidential nominee was the incumbent president or the incumbent vice president. McCain secured the Republican nomination by March 2008, defeating Mitt Romney, Mike Huckabee, and other challengers. The Democratic primaries were marked by a sharp contest between Obama and the initial front-runner, Senator Hillary Clinton. Clinton's victory in the New Hampshire primary made her the first woman to win a major party's presidential primary. After a long primary season, Obama clinched the Democratic nomination in June 2008.

Early campaigning focused heavily on the Iraq War and Bush's unpopularity. McCain supported the war, as well as a troop surge that had begun in 2007, while Obama strongly opposed the war. Bush endorsed McCain, but the two did not campaign together, and Bush did not appear in person at the 2008 Republican National Convention. Obama campaigned on the theme that "Washington must change," while McCain emphasized his experience. The campaign was strongly affected by the onset of a major financial crisis, which peaked in September 2008. McCain's decision to suspend his campaign during the height of the financial crisis backfired as voters viewed his response as erratic.

Obama won a decisive victory over McCain, winning the Electoral College and the popular vote by a sizable margin, including states that had not voted for the Democratic presidential candidate since 1976 (North Carolina) and 1964 (Indiana and Virginia). Obama received the largest share of the popular vote won by a Democrat since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964. As of the 2016 presidential election Obama's total count of 69.5 million votes still stands as the largest tally ever won by a presidential candidate.

Columbus Blue Jackets

The Columbus Blue Jackets are a professional ice hockey team based in Columbus, Ohio. They are members of the Metropolitan Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL).

The Blue Jackets were founded as an expansion team in 2000. In their initial years, the Blue Jackets struggled, failing to win 30 games in a season until the 2005–06 season. The team qualified for the Stanley Cup playoffs for the first time in 2009, but were swept. Columbus ultimately notched their first playoff game victory in the 2014 playoffs and five years later won their first playoff series in the 2019 playoffs against the Tampa Bay Lightning, becoming the first team in NHL history to sweep a Presidents' Trophy winner in the first round.

The Blue Jackets' name and logos are inspired by Ohio's Civil War history. The Blue Jackets play their home games at Nationwide Arena in downtown Columbus, which opened in 2000. They are affiliated with the Cleveland Monsters of the AHL.

Dwayne Johnson

Dwayne Douglas Johnson (born May 2, 1972), also known by his ring name The Rock, is an American actor, producer, and semi-retired professional wrestler.

Johnson was a college football player for the University of Miami, with whom he won a national championship in 1991. After initially aspiring for a professional career in football, Johnson began training as a professional wrestler in the summer of 1995, after being cut from the Calgary Stampeders of the Canadian Football League (CFL).In 1996, Johnson secured a contract with the WWE when it was known as the World Wrestling Federation (WWF) and was promoted as the first third-generation wrestler in the company's history as he is the son of Rocky Johnson and grandson of Peter Maivia. He gained mainstream fame after developing a charismatic persona of a boastful trash-talking wrestler named The Rock. He subsequently won his first WWF Championship in 1998 and helped usher the WWF into the "Attitude Era", a boom period in company business in the latter 1990s and early 2000s which still hold professional wrestling records for television ratings. In 2004, he left the WWE to pursue an acting career and went on a seven-year hiatus before returning in 2011 as a part-time performer until 2013.

Considered to be one of the greatest professional wrestlers and biggest draws of all-time, The Rock headlined the most bought professional wrestling pay-per-view event of all-time, WrestleMania XXVIII, and was featured in some of the most watched WWE Raw and WWE SmackDown television episodes ever. He has won several championships in his career, being a two-time Intercontinental Champion, a five-time tag team champion, and a ten-time world champion. He is also a Royal Rumble match winner and a Triple Crown champion.

Johnson has also attained success as an actor, producer, and writer. In 2000, he released an autobiography titled The Rock Says... which debuted at number one on The New York Times Best Seller list. Johnson played his first lead acting role in The Scorpion King (2002) and went on to star in numerous other films, including The Rundown (2003), The Other Guys (2010), Moana (2016), and Jumanji: Welcome to the Jungle (2017). His most successful box office role has been a recurring role as Luke Hobbs in The Fast and the Furious movies, helping it become one of the top-grossing film franchises in history. In 2012, he founded his production company, Seven Bucks Productions, which has since produced several films. Consistently ranked among the world's highest paid actors, Johnson made the Time 100 Most Influential People in the World list in both 2016 and 2019.

Eddie Guerrero

Eduardo Gory Guerrero Llanes (October 9, 1967 – November 13, 2005) was an American professional wrestler and a prominent member of the Guerrero wrestling family.

Guerrero performed in Mexico and Japan for several major professional wrestling promotions, and in the United States performed for Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW), World Championship Wrestling (WCW), and most notably World Wrestling Federation/Entertainment (WWF/WWE). Guerrero's gimmick was that of "Latino Heat", a crafty, resourceful wrestler who would do anything to win a match. His catchphrase became "I Lie! I Cheat! I Steal!" and was used in one of his entrance themes; he partly used this phrase in the title of his 2005 autobiography, Cheating Death, Stealing Life. Despite being a heel for most of his career, he was popular in and out of the ring and was at the peak of his career as a face during 2003–2005, becoming the top wrestler on the SmackDown brand in 2004. He experienced various substance abuse problems, including alcoholism and an addiction to painkillers; these real-life issues were sometimes incorporated into his storylines.

Guerrero spent his early career wrestling in Mexican promotions and forming a popular tag team with Art Barr. After the death of Barr, Guerrero received his first mainstream exposure in the United States in 1995 by joining ECW and winning the ECW World Television Championship. Later that year, Guerrero moved to WCW, where he became WCW United States Champion, WCW Crusierweight Champion and led the Latino World Order. He left WCW in 2000 after the company failed to elevate him to a main event spot.

He moved to WWF with his WCW colleagues Chris Benoit, Dean Malenko and Perry Saturn, who formed a group called The Radicalz. Guerrero went on to win the WWF European Championship and WWF Intercontinental Championship before he was released in 2001 due to addiction issues. After being rehired in 2002, he formed Los Guerreros with his nephew Chavo, winning the WWE Tag Team Championship, and established himself on the SmackDown brand. He climbed to main event status and won the WWE Championship, his sole world championship at No Way Out 2004. He lost the title later that year but remained a popular main eventer until his untimely death on November 13, 2005. Guerrero left an impact and legacy on the professional wrestling industry as one of the most beloved performers of his generation and an inspiration to many future professional wrestlers. He was posthumously inducted into the WWE, AAA, Wrestling Observer Newsletter and Hardcore halls of fame.

Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the most serious financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.It began in 2007 with a crisis in the subprime mortgage market in the United States, and developed into a full-blown international banking crisis with the collapse of the investment bank Lehman Brothers on September 15, 2008. Excessive risk-taking by banks such as Lehman Brothers helped to magnify the financial impact globally. Massive bail-outs of financial institutions and other palliative monetary and fiscal policies were employed to prevent a possible collapse of the world financial system. The crisis was nonetheless followed by a global economic downturn, the Great Recession. The European debt crisis, a crisis in the banking system of the European countries using the euro, followed later.

In 2010, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act was enacted in the US following the crisis to "promote the financial stability of the United States". The Basel III capital and liquidity standards were adopted by countries around the world.

Great Recession

The Great Recession (see "Terminology" for other names) was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s. The scale and timing of the recession varied from country to country (see map). The International Monetary Fund concluded that the overall impact was the most severe since the Great Depression of the 1930s.The Great Recession stemmed from the collapse of the United States real-estate market in relation to the global financial crisis of 2007 to 2008 and the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis of 2007 to 2009, though policies of other nations contributed as well. According to the nonprofit National Bureau of Economic Research (the official arbiter of U.S. recessions), the recession in the U.S. began in December 2007 and ended in June 2009, thus extending over 19 months. The Great Recession resulted in a scarcity of valuable assets in the market economy and the collapse of the financial sector (banks) in the world economy; some banks were bailed out by the U.S. federal government.The recession was not felt equally around the world; whereas most of the world's developed economies, particularly in North America and Europe, fell into a definitive recession, many more recently developed economies suffered far less impact, particularly China and India, whose economies grew substantially during this period.

Heath Ledger

Heath Andrew Ledger (4 April 1979 – 22 January 2008) was an Australian actor and music video director. After performing roles in several Australian television and film productions during the 1990s, Ledger left for the United States in 1998 to further develop his film career. His work comprised nineteen films, including 10 Things I Hate About You (1999), The Patriot (2000), A Knight's Tale (2001), Monster's Ball (2001), Lords of Dogtown (2005), Brokeback Mountain (2005), Casanova (2005), The Dark Knight (2008), and The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus (2009), the latter two being posthumous releases. He also produced and directed music videos and aspired to be a film director.For his portrayal of Ennis Del Mar in Brokeback Mountain, Ledger won the New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actor and the Best International Actor Award from the Australian Film Institute; he was the first actor to win the latter award posthumously. He was nominated for the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role and the Academy Award for Best Actor. Posthumously, he shared the 2007 Independent Spirit Robert Altman Award with the rest of the ensemble cast, the director, and the casting director for the film I'm Not There, which was inspired by the life and songs of American singer-songwriter Bob Dylan. In the film, Ledger portrayed a fictional actor named Robbie Clark, one of six characters embodying aspects of Dylan's life and persona.Ledger died on 22 January 2008 due to accidental intoxication from prescription drugs. A few months before his death, Ledger had finished filming his performance as the Joker in The Dark Knight. His death occurred during editing of The Dark Knight and in the midst of filming his last role as Tony in The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus. His untimely death cast a shadow over the subsequent promotion of The Dark Knight. Ledger received numerous posthumous accolades for his critically acclaimed performance in The Dark Knight, including the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, a Best Actor International Award at the 2008 Australian Film Institute Awards, the 2008 Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor, the 2009 Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture, and the 2009 BAFTA Award for Best Supporting Actor.

House (TV series)

House (also called House, M.D.) is an American television medical drama that originally ran on the Fox network for eight seasons, from November 16, 2004 to May 21, 2012. The series' main character is Dr. Gregory House (Hugh Laurie), an unconventional, misanthropic medical genius who, despite his dependence on pain medication, leads a team of diagnosticians at the fictional Princeton–Plainsboro Teaching Hospital (PPTH) in New Jersey. The series' premise originated with Paul Attanasio, while David Shore, who is credited as creator, was primarily responsible for the conception of the title character. The series' executive producers included Shore, Attanasio, Attanasio's business partner Katie Jacobs, and film director Bryan Singer. It was filmed largely in a neighborhood and business district in Los Angeles County's Westside called Century City.

House often clashes with his fellow physicians, including his own diagnostic team, because many of his hypotheses about patients' illnesses are based on subtle or controversial insights. His flouting of hospital rules and procedures frequently leads him into conflict with his boss, hospital administrator and Dean of Medicine Dr. Lisa Cuddy (Lisa Edelstein). House's only true friend is Dr. James Wilson (Robert Sean Leonard), head of the Department of Oncology. During the first three seasons, House's diagnostic team consists of Dr. Robert Chase (Jesse Spencer), Dr. Allison Cameron (Jennifer Morrison), and Dr. Eric Foreman (Omar Epps). At the end of the third season, this team disbands. Rejoined by Foreman, House gradually selects three new team members: Dr. Remy "Thirteen" Hadley (Olivia Wilde), Dr. Chris Taub (Peter Jacobson), and Dr. Lawrence Kutner (Kal Penn). Meanwhile, Chase and Cameron continue to appear in different roles at the hospital. Kutner dies late in season five; early in season six, Cameron departs the hospital, and Chase returns to the diagnostic team. Thirteen takes a leave of absence for most of season seven, and her position is filled by medical student Martha M. Masters (Amber Tamblyn). Cuddy and Masters depart before season eight; Foreman becomes the new Dean of Medicine, while Dr. Jessica Adams (Odette Annable) and Dr. Chi Park (Charlyne Yi) join House's team.

House was among the top ten series in the United States from its second season through the fourth season. Distributed to 66 countries, House was the most-watched television program in the world in 2008. The show received numerous awards, including five Primetime Emmy Awards, two Golden Globe Awards, a Peabody Award, and nine People's Choice Awards. On February 8, 2012, Fox announced that the eighth season, then in progress, would be its last. The series finale aired on May 21, 2012, following an hour-long retrospective.

Iron Man (2008 film)

Iron Man is a 2008 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Paramount Pictures. The first installment of the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU), it was directed by Jon Favreau from a screenplay by Mark Fergus and Hawk Ostby, and Art Marcum and Matt Holloway. The film follows Tony Stark (Robert Downey Jr.), an industrialist and master engineer who builds a powered exoskeleton after a life-threatening incident, and becomes the technologically advanced superhero Iron Man.

The film had been in development since 1990 at Universal Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and New Line Cinema at various times, before Marvel Studios reacquired the rights in 2006. Marvel put the project in production as its first self-financed film, with Paramount Pictures as the distributor. Favreau signed on as director, aiming for a naturalistic feel, and chose to shoot the film primarily in California, rejecting the East Coast setting of the comics to differentiate the film from numerous superhero films set in New York City-esque environments. Filming began in March 2007 and concluded in June. During filming, the actors were free to create their own dialogue because pre-production was focused on the story and action. Rubber and metal versions of the armors, created by Stan Winston's company, were mixed with computer-generated imagery to create the title character.

Iron Man premiered in Sydney on April 14, 2008, and was released in the United States on May 2, 2008. The film grossed over $585 million on its $140 million budget, becoming the eighth-highest grossing film of 2008. It received praise from critics for its acting (particularly Downey's), screenplay, visual effects, and action sequences, and was selected by the American Film Institute as one of the ten best films of 2008. It received two nominations at the 81st Academy Awards for Best Sound Editing and Best Visual Effects, and was followed by the sequels Iron Man 2 and Iron Man 3 in 2010 and 2013, respectively.

Joe Biden

Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. (; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 47th vice president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. Biden also represented Delaware in the U.S. Senate from 1973 to 2009. A member of the Democratic Party, Biden is a candidate for President in the 2020 election.

Biden was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania, and lived there for ten years before moving with his family to Delaware. He became an attorney in 1969 and was elected to the New Castle County Council in 1970. He was first elected to the U.S. Senate in 1972, when he became the sixth-youngest senator in American history. Biden was re-elected to the upper house of Congress six times and was the fourth most senior senator when he resigned to assume the vice presidency in 2009. Biden was a long-time member and former chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee. He opposed the Gulf War in 1991, but advocated U.S. and NATO intervention in the Bosnian War in 1994 and 1995. He voted in favor of the resolution authorizing the Iraq War in 2002 but opposed the surge of U.S. troops in 2007. He has also served as chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, dealing with issues related to drug policy, crime prevention, and civil liberties. Biden led the efforts to pass the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, and the Violence Against Women Act. He also chaired the Judiciary Committee during the contentious U.S. Supreme Court nominations of Robert Bork and Clarence Thomas. Biden unsuccessfully sought the Democratic presidential nomination in 1988 and in 2008, both times dropping out after lackluster showings.

In 2008, Biden was chosen as the running mate of Democratic presidential nominee Barack Obama. After being elected vice president, Biden oversaw infrastructure spending aimed at counteracting the Great Recession and helped formulate U.S. policy toward Iraq up until the withdrawal of U.S. troops in 2011. His ability to negotiate with congressional Republicans helped the Obama administration pass legislation such as the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010, which resolved a taxation deadlock; the Budget Control Act of 2011, which resolved that year's debt ceiling crisis; and the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012, which addressed the impending fiscal cliff. Biden was reported to have advised President Obama against approving the 2011 military mission that resulted in the death of Osama bin Laden, though he has disputed this. Obama and Biden were re-elected in 2012, defeating Republican nominee Mitt Romney and his running mate, Paul Ryan. In October 2015, after months of speculation, Biden announced he would not seek the presidency in the 2016 elections. In January 2017, Biden was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom with distinction.After completing his second term as vice president, Biden joined the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania, where he was named the Benjamin Franklin Professor of Presidential Practice. Biden announced his 2020 run for president on April 25, 2019.

John McCain

John Sidney McCain III (August 29, 1936 – August 25, 2018) was an American politician and military officer who served as a United States senator from Arizona from January 1987 until his death. He previously served two terms in the United States House of Representatives and was the Republican nominee for president of the United States in the 2008 election, which he lost to Barack Obama.

McCain graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1958 and received a commission in the United States Navy. He became a naval aviator and flew ground-attack aircraft from aircraft carriers. During the Vietnam War, he almost died in the 1967 USS Forrestal fire. While on a bombing mission during Operation Rolling Thunder over Hanoi in October 1967, he was shot down, seriously injured, and captured by the North Vietnamese. He was a prisoner of war until 1973. He experienced episodes of torture and refused an out-of-sequence early release. During the war, he sustained wounds that left him with lifelong physical disabilities. He retired from the Navy as a captain in 1981 and moved to Arizona, where he entered politics.

In 1982, McCain was elected to the United States House of Representatives, where he served two terms. He entered the U.S. Senate in 1987 and easily won reelection five times. While generally adhering to conservative principles, McCain also had a reputation as a "maverick" for his willingness to break from his party on certain issues. His supportive stances on LGBT rights, gun regulations, and campaign finance reform were significantly more liberal than those of the party's base. McCain was investigated and largely exonerated in a political influence scandal of the 1980s as one of the Keating Five; he then made campaign finance reform one of his signature concerns, which eventually resulted in passage of the McCain–Feingold Act in 2002. He was also known for his work in the 1990s to restore diplomatic relations with Vietnam. McCain chaired the Senate Commerce Committee and opposed pork barrel spending. He belonged to the bipartisan "Gang of 14", which played a key role in alleviating a crisis over judicial nominations.

McCain entered the race for the Republican nomination for president in 2000, but lost a heated primary season contest to Governor George W. Bush of Texas. He secured the Republican presidential nomination in 2008, but lost the general election. McCain subsequently adopted more orthodox conservative stances and attitudes and largely opposed actions of the Obama administration, especially with regard to foreign policy matters. In 2015, he became Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee. He refused to support then-Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump in 2016. While McCain opposed the Affordable Care Act, he cast the deciding vote against the ACA-repealing American Health Care Act of 2017.

After being diagnosed with brain cancer in 2017, McCain reduced his role in the Senate in order to focus on treatment. He died on August 25, 2018, four days before his 82nd birthday. Following his death, McCain lay in state in the Arizona State Capitol rotunda and then in the United States Capitol rotunda. His funeral was televised from the Washington National Cathedral, with former U.S. Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama giving eulogies.

Jonas Brothers

The Jonas Brothers are an American pop rock band. Formed in 2005, they gained popularity from their appearances on the Disney Channel television network. They consist of three brothers: Kevin Jonas, Joe Jonas, and Nick Jonas. Raised in Wyckoff, New Jersey, the Jonas Brothers moved to Little Falls, New Jersey in 2005, where they wrote their first record that made its Hollywood Records release. In the summer of 2008, they starred in the Disney Channel Original Movie Camp Rock and its sequel, Camp Rock 2: The Final Jam. They also starred as Kevin, Joe, and Nick Lucas, the band Lucas in their own Disney Channel series Jonas, which was rebranded as Jonas L.A. after the first season and cancelled after the second. The band released four albums: It's About Time (2006), Jonas Brothers (2007), A Little Bit Longer (2008), and Lines, Vines and Trying Times (2009).

In 2008, the group was nominated for the Best New Artist award at the 51st Grammy Awards and won the award for Breakthrough Artist at the American Music Awards. As of May 2009, before the release of Lines, Vines and Trying Times, they had sold over eight million albums worldwide. After a hiatus during 2010 and 2011 to pursue solo-projects, the group reconciled in 2012 to record a new album, which was cancelled following their break-up on October 29, 2013.

They have sold over 17 million albums worldwide. Six years following their split, the group reunited with the release of "Sucker" on March 1, 2019. The song became the 34th song in history to debut at number one on the Billboard Hot 100, and became the Jonas Brothers' first number one single on the chart.

List of NBA champions

The National Basketball Association (NBA) (formerly Basketball Association of America (BAA) from 1946 to 1949) Finals is the championship series for the NBA and the conclusion of the NBA's postseason. All Finals have been played in a best-of-seven format, and contested between the winners of the Eastern Conference and the Western Conference (formerly Divisions before 1970), except in 1950 in which the Eastern Division champion faced the winner between the Western and Central Division champions. Prior to 1949, the playoffs were instituted a three-stage tournament where the two semifinal winners played each other in the finals. The winning team of the series receives the Larry O'Brien Championship Trophy.

The home-and-away format in the NBA Finals is in a 2–2–1–1–1 format (the team with the better regular season record plays on their home court in Games 1, 2, 5 and 7) during 1947–1948, 1950–1952, 1957–1970, 1972–1974, 1976–1977, 1979–1984, 2014–present. It was previously in a 2–3–2 format (the team with the better regular season record plays on their home court in Games 1, 2, 6 and 7) during 1949, 1953–1955, and 1985–2013, in a 1–1–1–1–1–1–1 format during 1956 and 1971 and in a 1–2–2–1–1 format during 1975 and 1978.The Eastern Conference/Division leads the Western Conference/Division in series won (38–32). The Boston Celtics and the Minneapolis/Los Angeles Lakers alone own almost half of the titles, having won a combined 33 of 72 championships.

Lists of deaths by year

This is a list of notable deaths, organized by year. New deaths articles are added to their respective month (e.g., Deaths in April 2019), and then linked here.

Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.

Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King James V of Scotland, was six days old when her father died and she acceded to the throne. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents, and in 1558, she married the Dauphin of France, Francis. He ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, and Mary briefly became queen consort of France, until his death in December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley and in June 1566 they had a son, James.

In February 1567, Darnley's residence was destroyed by an explosion, and he was found murdered in the garden. James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was generally believed to have orchestrated Darnley's death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, and the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle. On 24 July 1567 she was forced to abdicate in favour of her one-year-old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, Queen Elizabeth I of England. Mary had once claimed Elizabeth's throne as her own, and was considered the legitimate sovereign of England by many English Catholics, including participants in a rebellion known as the Rising of the North. Perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in various castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth in 1586. She was beheaded the following year at Fotheringhay Castle.

Michelle Obama

Michelle LaVaughn Obama (née Robinson; born January 17, 1964) is an American lawyer, university administrator and writer, who was First Lady of the United States from 2009 to 2017. She is married to the 44th U.S. president, Barack Obama, and was the first African-American first lady.

Raised on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois, Obama is a graduate of Princeton University and Harvard Law School. In her early legal career, she worked at the law firm Sidley Austin, where she met Barack Obama. She subsequently worked in non-profits and as the Associate Dean of Student Services at the University of Chicago and the Vice President for Community and External Affairs of the University of Chicago Medical Center. Michelle married Barack in 1992 and they have two daughters.

Obama campaigned for her husband's presidential bid throughout 2007 and 2008, delivering a keynote address at the 2008 Democratic National Convention. She returned to speak for him at the 2012 Democratic National Convention. During the 2016 Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia, she delivered a speech in support of the Democratic presidential nominee, Hillary Clinton, a former First Lady.

As First Lady, Obama served as a role model for women, and worked as an advocate for poverty awareness, education, nutrition, physical activity and healthy eating. She supported American designers and was considered a fashion icon.

The Dark Knight (film)

The Dark Knight is a 2008 superhero film directed, co-produced, and co-written by Christopher Nolan. Based on the DC Comics character Batman, the film is the second installment of Nolan's The Dark Knight Trilogy and a sequel to 2005's Batman Begins, starring an ensemble cast including Christian Bale, Michael Caine, Heath Ledger, Gary Oldman, Aaron Eckhart, Maggie Gyllenhaal and Morgan Freeman. In the film, Bruce Wayne / Batman (Bale), Police Lieutenant James Gordon (Oldman) and District Attorney Harvey Dent (Eckhart) form an alliance to dismantle organized crime in Gotham City, but are menaced by an anarchistic mastermind known as the Joker (Ledger), who seeks to undermine Batman's influence and turn the city to chaos.

Nolan's inspiration for the film was the Joker's comic book debut in 1940, the 1988 graphic novel The Killing Joke, and the 1996 series The Long Halloween, which retold Two-Face's origin. The "Dark Knight" nickname was first applied to Batman in Batman #1 (1940), in a story written by Bill Finger. The Dark Knight was filmed primarily in Chicago, as well as in several other locations in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Hong Kong. Nolan used IMAX 70 mm film cameras to film some sequences, including the Joker's first appearance in the film. Warner Bros. initially created a viral marketing campaign for The Dark Knight, developing promotional websites and trailers highlighting screenshots of Ledger as the Joker. Ledger died on January 22, 2008, some months after the completed filming and six months before the film's release from a toxic combination of prescription drugs, leading to intense attention from the press and movie-going public.

A co-production of the United States and the United Kingdom, The Dark Knight was released on July 18, 2008 in the United States and on July 25, 2008 in the United Kingdom. Film critics considered it one of the best films of its decade and one of the best superhero films of all time; the film received highly positive reviews, particularly for its action, score, screenplay, performances (particularly Ledger's), visual effects, and direction, setting numerous records during its theatrical run. The Dark Knight appeared on 287 critics' top ten lists, more than any other film of 2008 with the exception of WALL-E, and more critics (77) named The Dark Knight the best film released that year. With over $1 billion in revenue worldwide, it became the highest-grossing film of 2008 and is the 38th highest-grossing film of all time, unadjusted for inflation (4th at the time of release); it also set the record for highest-grossing domestic opening with $158 million, a record it held for three years. The film received eight Academy Award nominations; it won the award for Best Sound Editing and Ledger was posthumously awarded Best Supporting Actor. In 2016 it was voted 33rd among 100 films considered the best of the 21st century by 117 film critics from around the world. The Dark Knight Rises, the final film in the trilogy, was released on July 20, 2012.

The Incredible Hulk (film)

The Incredible Hulk is a 2008 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character the Hulk, produced by Marvel Studios and distributed by Universal Pictures. It is the second film in the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). The film was directed by Louis Leterrier, with a screenplay by Zak Penn. It stars Edward Norton as Bruce Banner, alongside Liv Tyler, Tim Roth, Tim Blake Nelson, Ty Burrell, and William Hurt. In The Incredible Hulk, Bruce Banner becomes the Hulk as an unwitting pawn in a military scheme to reinvigorate the "Super-Soldier" program through gamma radiation. On the run, he attempts to cure himself of the Hulk before he is captured by General Thaddeus Ross, but his worst fears are realized when power-hungry soldier Emil Blonsky becomes a similar, but more bestial creature.

After the mixed reception to the 2003 film Hulk, Marvel Studios reacquired the rights to the character. Leterrier, who had expressed interest in directing Iron Man, was brought onboard and Penn began work on a script that would be much closer to the comics and the 1978 television series of the same name. In April 2007, Norton was hired to portray Banner and to rewrite Penn's screenplay in order to distance itself from the 2003 film and establish its own identity as a reboot, although he would go uncredited for his writing. Filming mostly took place in Toronto, Ontario, from July to November 2007. Over 700 visual effects shots were created in post-production using a combination of motion capture and computer-generated imagery to complete the film.

The Incredible Hulk premiered at the Gibson Amphitheatre in Universal City, California on June 8, 2008, and was released in the United States on June 13, 2008 by Universal Pictures. It received praise for its visuals, action sequences, and portrayal of the title character, with many considering it an improvement over its predecessor, and grossed over $263 million worldwide. Norton was set to reprise the role of Banner in the 2012 film The Avengers and other MCU installments featuring the character, but he was ultimately replaced by Mark Ruffalo, who has signed on to portray the character in potential future projects.

Usain Bolt

Usain St Leo Bolt (; born 21 August 1986) is a Jamaican retired sprinter. He is a world record holder in the 100 metres, 200 metres and 4 × 100 metres relay. His reign as Olympic Games champion in all of these events spans three Olympics. Owing to his achievements and dominance in sprint competition, he is widely considered to be the greatest sprinter of all time.A nine-time Olympic gold medalist, Bolt won the 100 m, 200 m and 4 × 100 m relay at three consecutive Olympic Games, although he lost the 2008 relay gold medal about nine years after due to a teammate's doping disqualification. He gained worldwide fame for his double sprint victory in world record times at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, which made him the first person to hold both records since fully automatic time became mandatory. Bolt is the only sprinter to win Olympic 100 m and 200 m titles at three consecutive Olympics (2008, 2012 and 2016).

An eleven-time World Champion, he won consecutive World Championship 100 m, 200 m and 4 × 100 metres relay gold medals from 2009 to 2015, with the exception of a 100 m false start in 2011. He is the most successful athlete of the World Championships, was the first athlete to win four World Championship titles in the 200 m and is the joint-most successful in the 100 m with three titles.

Bolt improved upon his second 100 m world record of 9.69 with 9.58 seconds in 2009 – the biggest improvement since the start of electronic timing. He has twice broken the 200 metres world record, setting 19.30 in 2008 and 19.19 in 2009. He has helped Jamaica to three 4 × 100 metres relay world records, with the current record being 36.84 seconds set in 2012. Bolt's most successful event is the 200 m, with three Olympic and four World titles. The 2008 Olympics was his international debut over 100 m; he had earlier won numerous 200 m medals (including 2007 World Championship silver) and holds the world under-20 and world under-18 records for the event.

His achievements as a sprinter have earned him the media nickname "Lightning Bolt", and his awards include the IAAF World Athlete of the Year, Track & Field Athlete of the Year, BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year (three times) and Laureus World Sportsman of the Year (four times). Bolt retired after the 2017 World Championships, when he finished third in his last solo 100 m race, opted out of the 200 m, and pulled up in the 4×100 m relay final.

Stating that it was his "dream" to play professional association football, in August 2018 Bolt began training with Australian A-League club the Central Coast Mariners as a left-winger. On 12 October 2018, Bolt scored twice for the team in a friendly match. He left the club the following month, and in January 2019 announced that he would not be pursuing a career in football.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.