2007 Yazidi communities bombings

The 2007 Yazidi communities bombings occurred on August 14, 2007, when four coordinated suicide bomb attacks detonated in the Yazidi towns of Til Ezer (al-Qahtaniyah) and Siba Sheikh Khidir (al-Jazirah), near Mosul in Iraq.

The Iraqi Red Crescent estimated that the bombs killed at least 500 and wounded 1,500 people,[1][4] making this the Iraq War's most deadly car bomb attack. It is also the sixth deadliest act of terrorism in history, following behind the 14 October 2017 Mogadishu bombings in Somalia, the 1990 massacre of Sri Lankan Police officers in Sri Lanka, the 2008 Christmas massacres in Uganda, the 2014 Camp Speicher massacre in Iraq, and the September 11 attacks in the United States.[5] No group claimed responsibility for the attack.

2007 Yazidi communities bombings
Kahtaniya-Iraq
Location of Qahtaniyah, Iraq
LocationQahtaniyah and Jazeera, Iraq
DateAugust 14, 2007 (UTC+3)
TargetYazidis
Attack type
Car bombs
Deaths500+[1]
Non-fatal injuries
1,500+[1]
Suspected perpetrators
Likely Al-Qaeda in Iraq (U.S. suspicion).[2][3]

Tensions and background

For several months leading up to the attack, tensions had been building up in the area, particularly between Yazidis and Sunni Muslims (Muslims including Arabs and Kurds). Some Yazidis living in the area received threatening letters calling them "infidels".[6] Leaflets were also distributed denouncing Yazidis as "anti-Islamic" and warning them that an attack was imminent.[7][8]

The attack might be connected to an incident wherein Du’a Khalil Aswad, a 17-year-old Yazidi girl, was stoned to death by the Yazidis. Aswad was believed to have wanted to convert in order to marry a Sunni.[9][10] Two weeks later, after a video of the stoning appeared on the Internet, Sunni gunmen[11] stopped minibuses filled with Yazidis; 23 Yazidi men were forced from a bus and shot dead.

The Sinjar area which has a mixed population of Yazidis, Kurds, Turkmen and Arabs was scheduled to vote in a plebiscite on accession to the Kurdish region in December 2007. This caused hostility among the neighbouring Arab communities. A force of 600 Kurdish Peshmerga was subsequently deployed in the area, and ditches were dug around Yazidi villages to prevent further attacks.[12]

Details

The bombings occurred at around 7:20 pm local time on August 14, 2007, when four co-ordinated suicide bomb attacks detonated in the Yazidi towns of Qahtaniyah and Jazeera (Siba Sheikh Khidir), near Mosul. They targeted the Yazidi, a religious minority in Iraq,[13][14] using a fuel tanker and three cars. An Iraqi interior ministry spokesman said that two tons of explosives were used in the blasts, which crumbled buildings, trapping entire families beneath mud bricks and other wreckage as entire neighborhoods were flattened. Rescuers dug underneath the destroyed buildings by hand to search for remaining survivors.[15]

"Hospitals here are running out of medicine. The pharmacies are empty. We need food, medicine and water otherwise there will be an even greater catastrophe," said Abdul-Rahim al-Shimari, mayor of the Baaj district, which includes the devastated villages.[16]

The Iraqi Red Crescent estimated that the bombs killed at least 500 and wounded 1,500 people.[1][4]

Responsibility

No group claimed responsibility for the attack. Iraq's President, Jalal Talabani, accused Iraqi Sunni insurgents of the bombings, pointing at the history of Sunni violence against Yazidis. They were reported to have distributed leaflets denouncing Yazidis as "anti-Islamic".[17] Although the attacks carry Al-Qaeda's signature of multiple simultaneous attacks, it is unclear why they would refrain from claiming responsibility for such a successful operation. "We're looking at Al-Qaeda as the prime suspect," said Lieutenant Colonel Christopher Garver, a United States military spokesman.[18]

On September 3, 2007, the U.S. military reportedly killed the suspected mastermind of the bombings, Abu Mohammed al-Afri.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Cave, Damien; Glanzaug, James (22 August 2007). "Toll in Iraq Bombings Is Raised to More Than 500". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  2. ^ Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 8 August 2015.
  3. ^ "Al-Qaeda blamed for Yazidi carnage". The Scotsman. 16 August 2007. Archived from the original on 1 November 2007. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
  4. ^ a b Reuters AlertNet – FACTBOX-Security developments in Iraq, Jan 20
  5. ^ "Worst terrorist strikes—worldwide". www.johnstonsarchive.net. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
  6. ^ Arwa Damon, Mohammed Tawfeeq and Raja Razek, "Iraqi officials: Truck bombings killed at least 500," CNN.com Archived November 18, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "General Calls Attack on Yazidis 'Ethnic Cleansing'". Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  8. ^ "Minority targeted in Iraq bombings". 15 August 2007. Retrieved 16 June 2016 – via bbc.co.uk.
  9. ^ "Login". Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  10. ^ "How suicide bombings shattered Iraq – Secret Iraq Files – Al Jazeera English". Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  11. ^ Stephen Farell, "Death Toll in Iraq Bombings Rises to 250", New York Times (August 15, 2007).
  12. ^ "Yazidis Live Among Reminders of Deadly Attack". Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  13. ^ "Deadly Iraq sect attacks kill 200". 15 August 2007. Retrieved 16 June 2016 – via bbc.co.uk.
  14. ^ Dozens killed in multiple suicide attacks in Iraq – CNN.com Archived August 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Iraqi Interior Ministry: 400 killed in suicide bombings in northern Iraq". Retrieved 16 June 2016.
  16. ^ "Shiites, Kurds form alliance; 4 Iraqi kids found in rubble of bombed area - USATODAY.com". Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  17. ^ "Killings stoke tension in Iraq city", AlJazeera.net Archived August 18, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ "Al-Qaeda blamed for Yazidi carnage". Archived from the original on 1 November 2007. Retrieved 11 December 2014.
  19. ^ AFP: Qaeda militant behind deadliest Iraq attack killed: US Archived November 24, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
2000s (decade)

The 2000s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 2000, and ended on December 31, 2009.

The growth of the Internet contributed to globalization during the decade, which allowed faster communication among people around the world.The economic growth of the 2000s had considerable social, environmental, and mass extinction consequences, and raised demand for diminishing energy resources. Economic growth was still vulnerable, however, as demonstrated by the financial crisis of 2007–08.

2016 Karrada bombing

On 3 July 2016, ISIL militants carried out coordinated bomb attacks in Baghdad that killed 340 civilians and injured hundreds more. A few minutes after midnight local time (2 July, 21:00 UTC), a suicide truck-bomb targeted the mainly Shia district of Karrada, busy with late night shoppers for Ramadan. A second roadside bomb was detonated in the suburb of Sha'ab, killing at least five.

ISIL issued a statement claiming responsibility for the attack, naming the suicide bomber as Abu Maha al-Iraqi. There were reports that the source of the blast was a refrigerator van packed with explosives. The explosion caused a huge fire on the main street. Several buildings, including the popular Hadi Center, were badly damaged. The bombing is the second-worst suicide attack in Iraq by death toll after the 2007 Yazidi communities bombings and the deadliest terrorist attack in Iraq carried out by a single bomber.

August 2009 Baghdad bombings

The 19 August 2009 Baghdad bombings were three coordinated car bomb attacks and a number of mortar strikes in the Iraqi capital, Baghdad. The explosives went off simultaneously across the capital at approximately 10:45 in the morning, killing at least 101 and wounding at least 565, making it the deadliest attack since the 14 August 2007 Yazidi communities bombings in northern Iraq which killed almost 800 people. The bombings were targeted at both government and privately owned buildings.

Casualties of the Iraq War

Estimates of the casualties from the conflict in Iraq (beginning with the 2003 US invasion of Iraq, and the ensuing occupation and insurgency) have come in many forms, and the accuracy of the information available on different types of Iraq War casualties varies greatly.

Estimates of Iraq War casualties range from 151,000 violent deaths as of June 2006 (per the Iraq Family Health Survey) to 461,000 total deaths as of June 2011 (per PLOS Medicine 2013), over 60% of them violent. Other estimates, which are disputed in the scientific community, such as the 2006 Lancet study and the 2007 Opinion Research Business (ORB) survey put the numbers as high as 655,000 total deaths as of June 2006 (over 90% of them violent) and 1.2 million violent deaths as of August 2007 respectively. Body counts — which underestimate mortality — counted at least 110,600 violent deaths as of April 2009 (Associated Press). The Iraq Body Count project documents 183,249 – 205,785 violent civilian deaths through Feb. 2019.

Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, calling itself Islamic State) is recognized by the United Nations as the perpetrator of a genocide of Yazidis in Iraq. The genocide led to the expulsion, flight and effective exile of the Yazidis from their ancestral lands in Northern Iraq whose women and girls were forced into sexual slavery by the Islamic State and whose men were killed by the thousands. The genocide led to the abduction of Yazidi women and massacres that killed five thousand Yazidi civilians during what has been called a "forced conversion campaign" being carried out in Northern Iraq by ISIL, starting in 2014.

ISIL's persecution of the Yazidis gained international attention and led to the American-led intervention in Iraq, which started with United States airstrikes against ISIL. Additionally, the US, UK, and Australia made emergency airdrops to Yazidis who had fled to a mountain range and provided weapons to the Kurdish Peshmerga who had a role in defending the Yazidis, together with PKK and YPG forces. ISIL's actions against the Yazidi population have resulted in approximately 500,000 refugees and several thousand killed and kidnapped. The Yazidis have also had their human rights violated by terrorist organizations who began killing the Yazidis. The effects of the genocide have impacted other communities of Yazidis, especially in Germany.

Islamic State of Iraq

The Islamic State of Iraq (ISI; Arabic: دولة العراق الإسلامية‎ Dawlat al-ʿIrāq al-ʾIslāmiyyah) (commonly referred to as al-Qaeda in Iraq) was a militant Salafist jihadist group that aimed to establish an Islamic state in Sunni, Arab-majority areas of Iraq during the Iraq War and later in Syria during the Syrian Civil War.

Islamic State of Iraq traces its origins to Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad, which was formed by the Jordanian national Abu Musab al-Zarqawi in Jordan in 1999. Al-Zarqawi led the group, under numerous name changes, until his death in June 2006. Jama'at participated in the Iraqi insurgency (2003–2011) following the 2003 invasion of Iraq by Western forces, and on 17 October 2004 al-Zarqawi had pledged allegiance to Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda network; and the group became known as Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn (commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq). In January 2006, Tanzim and five other Iraqi insurgent groups formed the Mujahideen Shura Council, which on 15 October 2006 merged to form Islamic State of Iraq. At their height in 2006–2008, ISI had military units or strongholds in Mosul and in the governorates of Baghdad, Al Anbar and Diyala, and they claimed Baqubah as their capital. The new group continued to be commonly referred to as al-Qaeda in Iraq.

Shortly after al-Zarqawi's death, al-Qaeda in Iraq named a new leader, Abu-Hamzah al-Muhajir, thought to be a pseudonym, which the US military named as Abu Ayyub al-Masri, an Egyptian militant based in Baghdad. Al-Masri and ISI leader Abu Omar al-Baghdadi were killed during a military operation on a safehouse on 18 April 2010. Abu Omar al-Baghdadi was succeeded as leader of ISI by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. On 14 May 2010, al-Masri was succeeded by Abu Suleiman al-Naser (also known as al-Nasser Lideen Illah Abu Suleiman), who was in turn killed some time in 2011. Following Suleiman's death, the position of "War Minister" was replaced by a Military Council composed of former regime military officers under the leadership of Haji Bakr.On 7 April 2013 Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi transformed ISI into the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, ISIS, IS), which is still active today. Haji Bakr, whose name was Samir Abd Muhammad al-Khlifawi, was killed in January 2014, and was succeeded by Abu Abdulrahman al-Bilawi as head of the ISIL Military Council. Al-Bilawi was killed on 4 June 2014, and was reportedly succeeded by Abu Mohannad al-Sweidawi as leader of the ISIL Military Council. There were reports in November 2014 that al-Sweidawi had been killed in an Iraqi airstrike that reportedly also injured Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. The Daily Beast reported that al-Sweidawi was succeeded by senior ISIL figure Abu Ali al-Anbari, who was in turn killed on 24 March 2016. Al-Anbari was considered the ISIL second-in-command in Syria and was viewed as a potential successor of ISIL's present leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. The second-in-command in Iraq was Abu Muslim al-Turkmani, who was killed on 18 August 2015, and who was succeeded as the ISIL leader in Iraq by Abu Fatima al-Jaheishi.

List of battles and other violent events by death toll

This page lists mortalities from battles and individual military operations or acts of violence, sorted by death toll. For wars and events more extensive in scope, see List of wars and disasters by death toll. For natural disasters, see List of natural disasters by death toll.

List of bombings during the Iraq War

Since 2003 bombings in Iraq have killed thousands of people, mostly Iraqi civilians, and are considered to constitute a new phenomenon in the history of warfare. Suicide bombings have been used as a tactic in other armed struggles, but their frequency and lethality in Iraq is unprecedented. This list does not include any airstrikes that occurred during the Iraq War.

List of major terrorist incidents

This is a list of terrorist incidents, conducted by non-state actors, resulting in more than 100 deaths.

List of terrorist incidents in 2007

This is a timeline of incidents in 2007 that have been labelled as "terrorism" and are not believed to have been carried out by a government or its forces (see state terrorism and state-sponsored terrorism).

Sheikh Khairy Khedr

Sheikh Khairy Khedr (? – October 2014) was the Commander and founder of the Yazidi militia Malik Al-Tawus Troop, which later became the Sinjar Resistance Units. He was born in Siba Sheikh Khidir (Jazeera).

The community of Siba Sheikh Khidir is located about 20 km south of the Sinjar Mountains. Siba Sheikh Khidir was one of the first settlements attacked by the Islamic State (IS) on 3 August 2014 at the beginning of the Sinjar massacre. The village is also one of the two villages that was almost completely destroyed in the 2007 Yazidi communities bombings.

Commander of Sinjar Resistance Units Sheikh Khairy Khedr was killed in action during the October 2014 clashes in Sinjar. He was mortally wounded, on October 22, by an Islamic State mortar bomb that also wounded a second Sinjar Resistance Unit fighter and killed another, and he died five hours later. Medical assistance was not available in time because the fighters and many Yazidi civilians had been surrounded on Sinjar Mountain. Yazidi fighters said that they were armed mostly with rifles, but the Islamic State forces used rockets and missiles as well as the mortar attacks.

Siba Sheikh Khidir

Siba Sheikh Khidir (Kurmanji: Siba Şêx Xidir, Arabic: الجزيرة‎, also known in Arabic as al-Jazirah, also spelled Jazira or Jazeera) is a Yazidi village located in the Sinjar District of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq. The village is located south of the Sinjar Mount. It belongs to the disputed territories of Northern Iraq. It was one of two villages targeted in the 2007 Yazidi communities bombings against the local Yazidi community.Siba Sheikh Khidir has exclusively Yazidi population.

Til Ezer

Til Ezer (Kurmanji: Til Êzêr, Arabic: القحطانية‎, also known in Arabic as al-Qaḥṭānīya or Qahtaniyah, also spelled Giruzer, Kar Izir, Kahtaniya) is a Yazidi village located in the Sinjar District of the Ninawa Governorate in northern Iraq. The village is located south of the Sinjar Mount. It belongs to the disputed territories of Northern Iraq. It was one of two villages targeted in the 2007 Yazidi communities bombings against the local Yazidi community.Til Ezer has exclusively Yazidi population.

Timeline of al-Qaeda attacks

The following is a list of attacks which have been carried out by Al-Qaeda.

Timeline of the Iraq War

The following is a timeline of major events during the Iraq War, following the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

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