2007

2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2007th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 7th year of the 3rd millennium, the 7th year of the 21st century, and the 8th year of the 2000s decade.

2007 was designated as

Millennium: 3rd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
2007 by topic:
Arts
ArchitectureComicsFilmHome videoLiterature (Poetry) – Music (Country, Metal, UK) – Radio – Photo – TelevisionVideo gaming
Politics
Elections – International leadersSovereign states
Sovereign state leadersTerritorial governors
Science and technology
ArchaeologyAviationBirding/Ornithology – Meteorology – PalaeontologyRail transportSpaceflight
Sports
Association football (soccer) – Athletics (track and field) – BadmintonBaseballBasketball – Boxing – Cricket – Golf – Horse racing – Ice hockey – Motorsport – Road cycling – Rugby league – Rugby union – Table tennis – Tennis – Volleyball
By place
AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeriaAngolaAntarcticaArgentinaArmeniaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBangladesh – The Bahamas – Barbados – Belgium – Benin – BhutanBosnia and HerzegovinaBrazilBurkina Faso – Burundi – CanadaCape Verde – Central African Republic – ChileChinaColombiaCosta Rica – Croatia – Cuba – Czechia – Denmark – El Salvador – Egypt – Estonia – EthiopiaEuropean Union – Finland – France – Gabon – GeorgiaGermanyGhana – Greece – Guatemala – Hungary – IcelandIndiaIndonesiaIraqIranIrelandIsrael – Italy – Japan – Kazakhstan – KenyaKuwaitLaos – Latvia – Libya – Lithuania – LuxembourgMacauMalaysiaMexico – Moldova – Montenegro – MyanmarNepalNetherlandsNew ZealandNigeriaNorth KoreaNorway – Oman – PakistanPalestine – Peru – PhilippinesPoland – Romania – RussiaRwanda – Serbia – SingaporeSouth AfricaSouth KoreaSpain – Sri Lanka – SwedenTaiwan – Tanzania – ThailandTurkeyUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited States – Uruguay – Vanuatu – Venezuela – VietnamYemen – Zambia – Zimbabwe
Other topics
Awards – Law – Religious leaders
Birth and death categories
Births – Deaths
Establishments and disestablishments categories
Establishments – Disestablishments
Works and introductions categories
Works – Introductions
Works entering the public domain
2007 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar2007
MMVII
Ab urbe condita2760
Armenian calendar1456
ԹՎ ՌՆԾԶ
Assyrian calendar6757
Bahá'í calendar163–164
Balinese saka calendar1928–1929
Bengali calendar1414
Berber calendar2957
British Regnal year55 Eliz. 2 – 56 Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar2551
Burmese calendar1369
Byzantine calendar7515–7516
Chinese calendar丙戌(Fire Dog)
4703 or 4643
    — to —
丁亥年 (Fire Pig)
4704 or 4644
Coptic calendar1723–1724
Discordian calendar3173
Ethiopian calendar1999–2000
Hebrew calendar5767–5768
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2063–2064
 - Shaka Samvat1928–1929
 - Kali Yuga5107–5108
Holocene calendar12007
Igbo calendar1007–1008
Iranian calendar1385–1386
Islamic calendar1427–1428
Japanese calendarHeisei 19
(平成19年)
Javanese calendar1939–1940
Juche calendar96
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4340
Minguo calendarROC 96
民國96年
Nanakshahi calendar539
Thai solar calendar2550
Tibetan calendar阳火狗年
(male Fire-Dog)
2133 or 1752 or 980
    — to —
阴火猪年
(female Fire-Pig)
2134 or 1753 or 981
Unix time1167609600 – 1199145599

Events

January

February

March

April

May

June

IPhone 1st Gen
The first iPhone, the first modern Smartphone, was announced and released in 2007

July

August

September

November

December

Unknown date

  • Mauritania is the last country to criminalize slavery (officially "abolished" in 1981), making the practice illegal everywhere in the world.[42]

Births

Deaths

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal

New English words and terms

  • additive manufacturing
  • collony collapse disorder
  • hashtag
  • listicle
  • netbook
  • sharing economy
  • tweep[43]

References

  1. ^ "International Heliophysical Year". IHY. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
  2. ^ "International Polar Year 2007-2008". IPY. Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-12.
  3. ^ "GENERAL ASSEMBLY PROCLAIMS 2008 INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF LANGUAGES, IN EFFORT TO PROMOTE UNITY IN DIVERSITY, GLOBAL UNDERSTANDING". Un.org. Archived from the original on May 13, 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-21.
  4. ^ "Romania and Bulgaria join the EU". BBC News. 2007-01-01. Retrieved 2017-02-18.
  5. ^ "Nobody was flying plane before Indonesian crash, report says". CBC News. 2008-03-25. Retrieved 2017-02-18.
  6. ^ "Russia oil row hits Europe supply". BBC News. 2007-01-08. Retrieved 2017-02-18.
  7. ^ Finn, Peter (2007-01-11). "Russia-Belarus Standoff Over Oil Ends, Clearing Way for Accord". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2017-02-18.
  8. ^ "At a glance: IPCC report". BBC News. 2007-02-02. Retrieved 2017-02-18.
  9. ^ Richard A., Oppel Jr.; Mizher, Qais (2007-02-04). "At Least 130 Die as Blast Levels Baghdad Market". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-02-18.
  10. ^ "KBS Global". English.kbs.co.kr. Retrieved 2011-05-21.
  11. ^ "Serbia found guilty of failure to prevent and punish genocide". Sense Tribunal. 26 February 2007. Archived from the original on 2009-07-30.
  12. ^ "Paris International Polar Year launch event". Polar Foundation. 2007-03-03. Retrieved 2017-02-18.
  13. ^ "Georgia Says Helicopters From Russia Attacked Gorge". Radio Free Europe. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  14. ^ It has since been lost at the Battle of the Kodori Valley
  15. ^ "Final, ICC World Cup at Bridgetown, Apr 28 2007 - Match Summary - ESPNCricinfo". ESPNcricinfo.
  16. ^ "Diplomats meet over Iranian seizure of British sailors". CNN. 23 March 2007. Archived from the original on 26 March 2007. Retrieved 23 March 2007.
  17. ^ "Ahmadinejad's final flourish". BBC News. 2007-04-04. Retrieved 2017-02-18.
  18. ^ "Latvia, Russia sign border deal". BBC News. 2007-03-27. Retrieved 2017-02-18.
  19. ^ "French Train Hits 357 MPH Breaking World Speed Record". Fox News. 2007-04-04. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  20. ^ "US university shooting kills 33". BBC. 17 April 2007. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  21. ^ Grangereau, Phillipe (25 April 2007). "Cho Seung-hui, mutique jusqu'au massacre". Libération. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  22. ^ 안, 용현 (18 April 2007). "조승희 '너 때문에 이 일을 저질렀다' 메모 남겨 출처". 조선일보. Retrieved 24 October 2017.
  23. ^ "Up to 200 killed in Baghdad bombs". BBC News. 2007-08-18. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  24. ^ "New 'super-Earth' found in space". BBC News. 2007-04-24. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  25. ^ "Estonia removes Soviet memorial". BBC News. 2007-04-27. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  26. ^ Holley, David (2007-05-18). "Russian Orthodox split is mended". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2017-02-18.
  27. ^ "Dubai ruler in vast charity gift". BBC News. 2007-05-20. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  28. ^ Jamkhandikar, Shilpa (2008-09-20). "Live Earth show to help light homes with solar energy". Reuters. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  29. ^ "Brazil trial over plane crash that killed 199". BBC News. 2013-08-08. Retrieved 2017-02-18.
  30. ^ "HIV medics released to Bulgaria". BBC News. 2007-07-24. Retrieved 2015-11-25.
  31. ^ Cartwright, John (2007-08-06). "Phoenix blasts off to Mars". Physics World. Retrieved 2017-02-18.
  32. ^ Elliott, Larry (2012-08-05). "Three myths that sustain the economic crisis". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
  33. ^ Cave, Damien; Glanz, James (2007-08-22). "Toll in Iraq Bombings Is Raised to More Than 500". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  34. ^ Arce, Jean Luis (2016-08-16). "Peru earthquake kills 450, bodies in streets". Reuters. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  35. ^ Hess, Pamela; Riechmann, Deb (2008-04-24). "White House says Syria 'must come clean' about nuclear work". USA Today. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  36. ^ "Japan launches first lunar probe". BBC News. 2007-09-14. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  37. ^ Foster, Peter (2007-11-18). "Bangladesh cyclone death toll hits 15,000". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  38. ^ "Picasso stolen from Brazil museum". BBC News. 2007-12-20. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  39. ^ "Europe's border-free zone expands". BBC News. 2007-12-21. Retrieved 2017-02-18.
  40. ^ "Benazir Bhutto killed in attack". BBC News. 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  41. ^ "Deal to end Kenyan crisis agreed". BBC News. 2008-04-12. Retrieved 2017-01-11.
  42. ^ "UN: There is hope for Mauritania's slaves". CNN. 2012-03-17. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  43. ^ "Time Traveler by Merriam-Webster: Words from 2007". merriam-webster.com. Retrieved May 7, 2018.

External links

Belfast

Belfast (UK: ; Irish: Béal Feirste) is a port city in the United Kingdom and the capital city of Northern Ireland, on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland. It is the largest city in Northern Ireland and second largest on the island of Ireland. It had a population of 333,871 in 2015.By the early 1800s Belfast was a major port. It played a key role in the Industrial Revolution, becoming the biggest linen producer in the world, earning it the nickname "Linenopolis". By the time it was granted city status in 1888, it was a major centre of Irish linen production, tobacco-processing and rope-making. Shipbuilding was also a key industry; the Harland and Wolff shipyard, where the RMS Titanic was built, was the world's biggest shipyard. It also has a major aerospace and missiles industry. Industrialisation and the inward migration it brought made Belfast Ireland's biggest city and it became the capital of Northern Ireland following the Partition of Ireland in 1922. Its status as a global industrial centre ended in the decades after the Second World War.

Belfast suffered greatly in the Troubles, and in the 1970s and 1980s was one of the world's most dangerous cities. However, the city is now considered to be one of the safest within the United Kingdom. Throughout the 21st century, the city has seen a sustained period of calm, free from the intense political violence of former years and has benefitted from substantial economic and commercial growth. Belfast remains a centre for industry, as well as the arts, higher education, business, and law, and is the economic engine of Northern Ireland. Belfast is still a major port, with commercial and industrial docks dominating the Belfast Lough shoreline, including the Harland and Wolff shipyard. It is served by two airports: George Best Belfast City Airport, and Belfast International Airport 15 miles (24 km) west of the city. It is listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network (GaWC) as a Gamma global city.

Chris Benoit

Christopher Michael Benoit (; May 21, 1967 – June 24, 2007) was a Canadian professional wrestler. During his 22-year career, Benoit worked for numerous promotions including the World Wrestling Federation/World Wrestling Entertainment (WWF/WWE), World Championship Wrestling (WCW), Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW), and New Japan Pro-Wrestling (NJPW). Industry journalist Dave Meltzer considered him "one of the top 10, maybe even the top 5, all-time greats".Benoit held 22 championships between WWF/WWE, WCW, NJPW, and ECW. He was a two-time world champion, having been a one-time WCW World Heavyweight Champion, and a one-time World Heavyweight Champion in WWE; he was booked to win a third world championship at a WWE event on the night of his death. Benoit was the twelfth WWE Triple Crown Champion and seventh WCW Triple Crown Champion, and the second of four men in history to achieve both the WWE and WCW Triple Crown Championships. He was also the 2004 Royal Rumble winner, joining Shawn Michaels as the only two men to win a Royal Rumble as the number one entrant. Benoit headlined multiple pay-per-views for WWE, including a victory in the World Heavyweight Championship main event match of WrestleMania XX in 2004.Benoit murdered his wife on June 22, 2007, his son on June 23, 2007, and hanged himself on June 24, 2007. Research suggests depression and brain damage from numerous concussions are likely contributing factors leading to the crime.

Cricket World Cup

The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of One Day International (ODI) cricket. The event is organised by the sport's governing body, the International Cricket Council (ICC), every four years, with preliminary qualification rounds leading up to a finals tournament. The tournament is one of the world's most viewed sporting events and is considered the "flagship event of the international cricket calendar" by the ICC.The first World Cup was organised in England in June 1975, with the first ODI cricket match having been played only four years earlier. However, a separate Women's Cricket World Cup had been held two years before the first men's tournament, and a tournament involving multiple international teams had been held as early as 1912, when a triangular tournament of Test matches was played between Australia, England and South Africa. The first three World Cups were held in England. From the 1987 tournament onwards, hosting has been shared between countries under an unofficial rotation system, with fourteen ICC members having hosted at least one match in the tournament.

The World Cup is open to all members of the International Cricket Council (ICC), although the highest-ranking teams receive automatic qualification. The remaining teams are determined via the World Cricket League and the ICC World Cup Qualifier. A total of twenty teams have competed in the eleven editions of the tournament, with fourteen competing in the latest edition in 2015; the next edition in 2019 will have only ten teams. Australia has won the tournament five times, with the West Indies, India (twice each), Pakistan and Sri Lanka (once each) also having won the tournament. The best performance by a non-full-member team came when Kenya made the semi-finals of the 2003 tournament.

Death Note

Death Note (Japanese: デスノート, Hepburn: Desu Nōto) is a Japanese manga series written by Tsugumi Ohba and illustrated by Takeshi Obata. The story follows Light Yagami, a high school student who stumbles across a mysterious otherworldly notebook: the "Death Note", which belonged to the Shinigami Ryuk, and grants its user the power to kill anyone whose name and face they know. The series centers around Light's subsequent attempts to use the Death Note to change the world into a utopian society without crime as a god-like vigilante named "Kira" and the subsequent efforts of an elite task-force of law enforcement officials, consisting of members of the Japanese police agency led by L, an enigmatic international detective, to apprehend him and end his reign of terror.

Death Note was first serialized in Shueisha's manga magazine Weekly Shōnen Jump from December 2003 to May 2006. The 108 chapters were collected and published into 12 tankōbon volumes between April 2004 and July 2006. An anime television adaptation aired in Japan from October 3, 2006, to June 26, 2007. Composed of 37 episodes, the anime was developed by Madhouse and directed by Tetsurō Araki. A light novel based on the series, written by Nisio Isin, was also released in 2006. Additionally, various video games have been published by Konami for the Nintendo DS. The series was adapted into three live action films released in Japan on June 17, 2006, November 3, 2006, and February 2, 2008, and a television drama in 2015. A miniseries entitled Death Note: New Generation and a fourth film were released in 2016. An American film adaptation was released on Netflix on August 24, 2017.

Death Note media is licensed and released in North America by Viz Media, with the exception of the video games and soundtracks. The episodes from the anime first appeared in North America as downloadable from IGN, before Viz Media licensed it and it aired on YTV's Bionix anime block in Canada and on Adult Swim in the United States with a DVD release following. The live-action films briefly played in certain North American theaters in 2008, before receiving home video releases. In 2015, the collected volumes of the Death Note manga had over 30 million copies in circulation.

England national rugby union team

The England national rugby union team competes in the annual Six Nations Championship with France, Ireland, Scotland, Italy, and Wales. They have won this championship outright on a total of 28 occasions (with the addition of 10 shared victories), 13 times winning the Grand Slam and 25 times winning the Triple Crown, making them the most successful team in the tournament's history. They are ranked third in the world by the International Rugby Board as of 3 February 2019. England are to date the only team from the northern hemisphere to win the Rugby World Cup, when they won the tournament back in 2003. They were also runners-up in 1991 and 2007.

The history of the team extends back to 1871 when the English rugby team played their first official Test match, losing to Scotland by one try. England dominated the early Home Nations Championship (now the Six Nations) which started in 1883. Following the schism of rugby football in 1895 into union and league, England did not win the Championship again until 1910. England first played against New Zealand in 1905, South Africa in 1906, and Australia in 1909. England was one of the teams invited to take part in the inaugural Rugby World Cup in 1987 and went on to appear in the final in the second tournament in 1991, losing 12–6 to Australia. Following their 2003 Six Nations Championship Grand Slam, they went on to win the 2003 Rugby World Cup – defeating Australia 20–17 in extra time. They again contested the final in 2007, losing 15–6 to South Africa.

England players traditionally wear a white shirt with a rose embroidered on the chest, white shorts, and navy blue socks with a white trim.

Their home ground is Twickenham Stadium where they first played in 1910. The team is administered by the Rugby Football Union (RFU). Four former players have been inducted into the International Rugby Hall of Fame; one of these is also a member of the IRB Hall of Fame. Seven other former players are members of the IRB Hall—four solely for their accomplishments as players, two solely for their achievements in other roles in the sport, and one for achievements both as a player and administrator.

Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.It began in 2007 with a crisis in the subprime mortgage market in the United States, and developed into a full-blown international banking crisis with the collapse of the investment bank Lehman Brothers on September 15, 2008. Excessive risk-taking by banks such as Lehman Brothers helped to magnify the financial impact globally. Massive bail-outs of financial institutions and other palliative monetary and fiscal policies were employed to prevent a possible collapse of the world financial system. The crisis was nonetheless followed by a global economic downturn, the Great Recession. The European debt crisis, a crisis in the banking system of the European countries using the euro, followed later.

In 2010, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act was enacted in the US following the crisis to "promote the financial stability of the United States". The Basel III capital and liquidity standards were adopted by countries around the world.

Halo (franchise)

Halo is a military science fiction first-person shooter video game franchise managed and developed by 343 Industries, a subsidiary of Xbox Game Studios. However, this was originally developed by Bungie Studios. The series centers on an interstellar war between humanity and an alliance of aliens known as the Covenant. The Covenant, led by their religious leaders called the Prophets, worship an ancient civilization known as the Forerunners, who perished while defeating the parasitic Flood. The central focus of the franchise builds off the experiences of Master Chief John-117, one of a group of supersoldiers codenamed Spartans, and his artificial intelligence (AI) companion, Cortana. Other characters, such as Noble Six from Halo: Reach, are also introduced in the series. The term "Halo" refers to the Halo Array: a group of immense, habitable, ring-shaped superweapons that were created by the Forerunners to destroy the Flood. They are similar to the Orbitals in Iain M. Banks' Culture novels, and to a lesser degree to author Larry Niven's Ringworld concept.The games in the series are critically well-received, and are considered the Xbox's "killer app". This led to the term "Halo killer" being used to describe console games that aspire, or are considered, to be better than Halo. Fueled by the success of Halo: Combat Evolved, and by marketing campaigns from publisher Microsoft, its sequels went on to record-breaking sales. The games have sold over 65 million copies worldwide, with the games alone grossing almost $3.4 billion.Strong sales of the games led to the franchise's expansion to other media; there are multiple best-selling novels, graphic novels, and other licensed products. Halo Wars took the franchise into new video game genre territory, as a real-time strategy game, while the rest of the games in the series are first-person shooters. Beyond the original trilogy, Bungie developed the expansion Halo 3: ODST, and a prequel, Halo: Reach, their last project for the franchise. A high-definition remake of the first game, entitled Halo: Combat Evolved Anniversary, was released on November 15, 2011, ten years after the release of the original. A new installment in a second series of games, Halo 4, was released on November 6, 2012. Halo: The Master Chief Collection, a remastered compilation of the four primary Halo titles, was released for the Xbox One on November 11, 2014. In October 2015, Halo 5: Guardians was released. In February 2017, Halo Wars 2 was released. In June 2018, the next main installment of the Halo series was announced as Halo Infinite.

The collective group of fans of the series is referred to as the "Halo Nation".

J. K. Rowling

Joanne Rowling , ( "rolling"; born 31 July 1965), writing under the pen names J. K. Rowling and Robert Galbraith, is a British novelist, philanthropist, film producer, television producer and screenwriter, best known for writing the Harry Potter fantasy series. The books have won multiple awards, and sold more than 500 million copies, becoming the best-selling book series in history. They have also been the basis for a film series, over which Rowling had overall approval on the scripts and was a producer on the final films in the series.Born in Yate, Gloucestershire, England, Rowling was working as a researcher and bilingual secretary for Amnesty International when she conceived the idea for the Harry Potter series while on a delayed train from Manchester to London in 1990. The seven-year period that followed saw the death of her mother, birth of her first child, divorce from her first husband and relative poverty until the first novel in the series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, was published in 1997. There were six sequels, of which the last, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, was released in 2007. Since then, Rowling has written five books for adult readers: The Casual Vacancy (2012) and—under the pseudonym Robert Galbraith—the crime fiction novels The Cuckoo's Calling (2013), The Silkworm (2014), Career of Evil (2015), and Lethal White (2018).Rowling has lived a "rags to riches" life story, in which she progressed from living on state benefits to being the world's first billionaire author. She lost her billionaire status after giving away much of her earnings to charity, but remains one of the wealthiest people in the world. She is the United Kingdom's bestselling living author, with sales in excess of £238M. The 2016 Sunday Times Rich List estimated Rowling's fortune at £600 million, ranking her as the joint 197th richest person in the UK. Time named her a runner-up for its 2007 Person of the Year, noting the social, moral, and political inspiration she has given her fans. In October 2010, Rowling was named the "Most Influential Woman in Britain" by leading magazine editors. She has supported charities, including Comic Relief, One Parent Families and Multiple Sclerosis Society of Great Britain, and launched her own charity, Lumos.

Karnataka

Karnataka (Karnāṭaka) is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore (Bengaluru).

Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, and Kerala to the south. The state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres (74,122 sq mi), or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state alongside Konkani, Marathi, Tulu, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kodava and Beary. Karnataka also has the only 3 naturally Sanskrit-speaking districts in India.

The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Ghataprabha, Vedavathi, Malaprabha, and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka Sharavathi in Shivamogga , and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward, reaching the sea at the Bay of Bengal.

Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the generally accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu nadu may also be read as karu, meaning "black", and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state. The British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna.The economy of Karnataka is the fifth-largest state economy in India with ₹14.08 lakh crore (US$200 billion) in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹174,000 (US$2,400). With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day. Karnataka has contributed significantly to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions.

Kingdom Hearts

Kingdom Hearts (Japanese: キングダム ハーツ, Hepburn: Kingudamu Hātsu) is a series of action role-playing games developed and published by Square Enix (originally by Square). It is a collaboration between Disney Interactive and Square Enix, and is under the direction of Tetsuya Nomura, a longtime Square Enix character designer.

Kingdom Hearts is a crossover of various Disney properties based in a fictional universe. The series centers on the main character, Sora, and his journey and experiences with various Disney, Final Fantasy, The World Ends with You and Pixar characters. The heroes of the series clash against the multiple incarnations of the primary antagonist, Xehanort, throughout the series. The Walt Disney Company owns almost all characters and worlds of the Kingdom Hearts franchise.

The series consists of thirteen games available for multiple platforms, and future titles are planned. Most of the games in the series have been positively received and commercially successful. As of February 2019, the Kingdom Hearts series has shipped more than 30 million copies worldwide. A wide variety of related merchandise has been released along with the games, including soundtracks, figurines, companion books, light novels, cards, and comic series.

Lists of deaths by year

This is a list of notable deaths, organized by year. New deaths articles are added to their respective month (e.g., Deaths in February 2019), and then linked here.

MS Dhoni

Mahendra Singh Dhoni (pronunciation ; commonly known as MS Dhoni; born July 7, 1981) is an Indian international cricketer who captained the Indian national team in limited-overs formats from 2007 to 2016 and in Test cricket from 2008 to 2014. An attacking right-handed middle-order batsman and wicket-keeper, he is widely regarded as one of the greatest finishers in limited-overs cricket. He is also regarded as one of the best wicket-keepers in world cricket. He made his One Day International (ODI) debut in December 2004 against Bangladesh, and played his first Test a year later against Sri Lanka.

Dhoni has been the recipient of many awards, including the ICC ODI Player of the Year award in 2008 and 2009 (the first player to win the award twice), the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna award in 2007, the Padma Shri, India's fourth highest civilian honour, in 2009 and the Padma Bhushan, India's third highest civilian honour, in 2018. He was named as the captain of the ICC World Test XI in 2009, 2010 and 2013. He has also been selected a record 8 times in ICC World ODI XI teams, 5 times as captain. The Indian Territorial Army conferred the honorary rank of Lieutenant Colonel to Dhoni on 1 November 2011. He is the second Indian cricketer after Kapil Dev to receive this honour.

Dhoni also holds numerous captaincy records such as the most wins by an Indian captain in Tests, ODIs and T20Is, and most back-to-back wins by an Indian captain in ODIs. He took over the ODI captaincy from Rahul Dravid in 2007 and led the team to its first-ever bilateral ODI series wins in Sri Lanka and New Zealand. Under his captaincy, India won the 2007 ICC World Twenty20, 2007–08 Commonwealth Bank Series, the 2010 and 2016 Asia Cups, the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup and the 2013 ICC Champions Trophy. In the final of the 2011 World Cup, Dhoni scored 91 not out off 79 balls handing India the victory for which he was awarded the Man of the Match. In June 2013, when India defeated England in the final of the Champions Trophy in England, Dhoni became the first captain to win all three ICC limited-overs trophies (World Cup, Champions Trophy and the World Twenty20). After taking up the Test captaincy in 2008, he led the team to series wins in New Zealand and the West Indies, and the Border-Gavaskar Trophy in 2008, 2010 and 2013. In 2009, Dhoni also led the Indian team to number one position for the first time in the ICC Test rankings. In 2013, under his captaincy, India became the first team in more than 40 years to whitewash Australia in a Test series. In the Indian Premier League, he captained the Chennai Super Kings to victory at the 2010, 2011 and 2018 seasons, along with wins in the 2010 and 2014 editions of Champions League Twenty20. He announced his retirement from Tests on 30 December 2014.In 2011, Time magazine included Dhoni in its annual Time 100 list as one of the "Most Influential People in the World." In 2012, SportsPro rated Dhoni as the sixteenth most marketable athlete in the world. In June 2015, Forbes ranked Dhoni at 23rd in the list of highest paid athletes in the world, estimating his earnings at US$31 million. In 2016, a biopic M.S. Dhoni: The Untold Story was made about him.

Dhoni holds the post of Vice-President of India Cements Ltd., after resigning from Air India. India Cements is the owner of the IPL team Chennai Super Kings, and Dhoni has been its captain since the first IPL season. Dhoni is the co-owner of Indian Super League team Chennaiyin FC.

Microsoft Word

Microsoft Word (or simply Word) is a word processor developed by Microsoft. It was first released on October 25, 1983 under the name Multi-Tool Word for Xenix systems. Subsequent versions were later written for several other platforms including IBM PCs running DOS (1983), Apple Macintosh running the Classic Mac OS (1985), AT&T Unix PC (1985), Atari ST (1988), OS/2 (1989), Microsoft Windows (1989), SCO Unix (1994), and macOS (formerly OS X; 2001).

Commercial versions of Word are licensed as a standalone product or as a component of Microsoft Office, Windows RT or the discontinued Microsoft Works suite. Microsoft Word Viewer and Office Online are freeware editions of Word with limited features.

Oklahoma

Oklahoma ( (listen)) is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, and Colorado on the northwest. It is the 20th-most extensive and the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States. The state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is also known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which dramatically increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907. Its residents are known as Oklahomans (or colloquially, "Okies"), and its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City.

A major producer of natural gas, oil, and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, energy, telecommunications, and biotechnology. Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas.With ancient mountain ranges, prairie, mesas, and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, and the U.S. Interior Highlands, a region prone mainly to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California.

Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and historically served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, and a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans.

PlayStation 3

The PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to PlayStation 2, and is part of the PlayStation brand of consoles. It was first released on November 11, 2006, in Japan, November 17, 2006, in North America, and March 23, 2007, in Europe and Australia. The PlayStation 3 competed mainly against consoles such as Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles.

The console was first officially announced at E3 2005, and was released at the end of 2006. It was the first console to use Blu-ray Disc as its primary storage medium. The console was the first PlayStation to integrate social gaming services, including the PlayStation Network, as well as the first to be controllable from a handheld console, through its remote connectivity with PlayStation Portable and PlayStation Vita. In September 2009, the Slim model of the PlayStation 3 was released. It no longer provided the hardware ability to run PS2 games. It was lighter and thinner than the original version, and featured a redesigned logo and marketing design, as well as a minor start-up change in software. A Super Slim variation was then released in late 2012, further refining and redesigning the console.

During its early years, the system had a critically negative reception, due to its high price ($599 for a 60 gigabyte model, and $499 for a 20 GB model), a complex processor architecture and a lack of quality games, but was praised for its Blu-ray capabilities and "untapped potential". The reception would get more positive over time. The system had a slow start in the market but managed to recover, particularly after the introduction of the Slim model. Its successor, the PlayStation 4, was released later in November 2013. On September 29, 2015, Sony confirmed that sales of the PlayStation 3 were to be discontinued in New Zealand, but the system remained in production in other markets. Shipments of new units to Europe and Australia ended in March 2016, followed by North America which ended in October 2016. Heading into 2017, Japan was the last territory where new units were still being produced until May 29, 2017, when Sony confirmed the PlayStation 3 was discontinued in Japan.

Reese Witherspoon

Laura Jeanne Reese Witherspoon (born March 22, 1976) is an American actress, producer, and entrepreneur. She is the recipient of several accolades, including an Academy Award, a Primetime Emmy Award, a BAFTA Award, a Screen Actors Guild Award, two Golden Globe Awards and two Critics' Choice Awards.

Born in New Orleans, Louisiana, and raised in Tennessee, she began her career as a teenager, making her professional screen debut in The Man in the Moon (1991), for which she was nominated for a Young Artist Award. Following roles in Desperate Choices: To Save My Child (1992), Jack the Bear (1993), Freeway (1996), and Pleasantville (1998), Witherspoon's breakthrough came with her portrayal of Tracy Flick in the black comedy Election (1999), for which she was nominated for a Golden Globe Award.

She achieved international recognition with her role as Elle Woods in the comedy Legally Blonde (2001), for which she received her second Golden Globe nomination. The following year, she starred in the romantic comedy Sweet Home Alabama, which emerged as her biggest live-action commercial success. In 2005, her portrayal of June Carter Cash in the biographical musical film Walk the Line, received critical acclaim and won her the Academy Award for Best Actress. Her other films include Legally Blonde 2: Red, White & Blonde (2003), Monsters vs. Aliens (2009), Water for Elephants (2011), and Sing (2016). In 2014, Witherspoon produced the thriller Gone Girl and received praise for her portrayal of Cheryl Strayed in the drama Wild, which earned her a second nomination for the Academy Award for Best Actress. In 2017, she co-produced and starred in the HBO drama series Big Little Lies, for which she received two Primetime Emmy Award nominations for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie and Outstanding Limited Series, winning the latter as a producer.

Witherspoon owns a production company Hello Sunshine, a clothing company Draper James, and she is actively involved in children's and women's advocacy organizations. She serves on the board of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF) and was named Global Ambassador of Avon Products in 2007, serving as honorary chair of the charitable Avon Foundation. She received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2010.

Super Bowl XLI

Super Bowl XLI was an American football game played between the American Football Conference (AFC) champion Indianapolis Colts and the National Football Conference (NFC) champion Chicago Bears to decide the National Football League (NFL) champion for the 2006 season. The Colts defeated the Bears by the score of 29–17. The game was played on February 4, 2007 at Dolphin Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida.

This game featured two teams ending long Super Bowl appearance droughts. The Colts, who finished with a 12–4 regular season record, were making their first Super Bowl appearance since winning Super Bowl V in the 1970 season during the team's tenure in Baltimore, they had moved to Indianapolis in 1984. Meanwhile, the Bears, who posted an NFC-best 13–3 regular season record, were making their first appearance since winning Super Bowl XX in the 1985 season. In addition, the Bears' Lovie Smith and the Colts' Tony Dungy both became the first African-American head coaches to coach in the Super Bowl, with Dungy the first to win.

In the first Super Bowl played in rainy conditions, the Colts overcame a 14–6 first-quarter deficit to outscore the Bears 23–3 in the last three quarters. Chicago posted the then-earliest lead in Super Bowl history when returner Devin Hester ran back the opening kickoff 92 yards for a touchdown after 14 seconds had elapsed (a record later broken in Super Bowl XLVIII when the Seattle Seahawks scored a safety 12 seconds into the game). The Colts forced five turnovers, including cornerback Kelvin Hayden's 56-yard interception return for a touchdown. Indianapolis kicker Adam Vinatieri also scored three field goals. Colts quarterback Peyton Manning was named the game's Most Valuable Player (MVP), completing 25 of 38 passes for 247 yards and a touchdown, with one interception for a passer rating of 81.8.

CBS' broadcast of the game was watched by an estimated average of 93.2 million viewers, making it at the time the fifth most watched program in U.S. television history. The halftime show, headlined by the musician Prince, peaked at 140 million television viewers, and was widely acclaimed by music critics.

The Sopranos

The Sopranos is an American crime drama television series created by David Chase. The story revolves around Tony Soprano (James Gandolfini), a New Jersey-based Italian-American mobster, and portrays the difficulties that he faces as he tries to balance his family life with his role as the leader of a criminal organization. These are explored during his therapy sessions with psychiatrist Jennifer Melfi (Lorraine Bracco). The series features Tony's family members, mafia colleagues, and rivals in prominent roles—most notably his wife, Carmela (Edie Falco), and his protégé/distant cousin, Christopher Moltisanti (Michael Imperioli).

The pilot was ordered in 1997, and the show premiered on HBO on January 10, 1999. It ran for six seasons totalling 86 episodes until June 10, 2007. Broadcast syndication followed in the U.S. and internationally. The Sopranos was produced by HBO, Chase Films, and Brad Grey Television. It was primarily filmed at Silvercup Studios in New York City, and on location in New Jersey. The executive producers throughout the show's run were David Chase, Brad Grey, Robin Green, Mitchell Burgess, Ilene S. Landress, Terence Winter, and Matthew Weiner.

The Sopranos is widely regarded as one of the greatest television series of all time. The series won a multitude of awards, including Peabody Awards for its first two seasons, 21 Primetime Emmy Awards, and five Golden Globe Awards. It has been the subject of critical analysis, controversy, and parody, and has spawned books, a video game, soundtrack albums, and assorted merchandise. Several members of the show's cast and crew were largely unknown to the public but have since had successful careers. In 2013, the Writers Guild of America named The Sopranos the best-written TV series of all time, while TV Guide ranked it the best television series of all time. In 2016, the series also ranked first in Rolling Stone's list of the 100 greatest TV shows of all time.In March 2018, New Line Cinema announced that they have purchased a film detailing the Sopranos background story, set in the 1960s during the Newark riots. Titled The Many Saints of Newark, it is written by David Chase and Lawrence Konner and will be directed by Alan Taylor.

Toronto Raptors

The Toronto Raptors are a Canadian professional basketball team based in Toronto, Ontario. The Raptors compete in the National Basketball Association (NBA), as a member club of the league's Eastern Conference Atlantic Division. Founded in 1995 as part of the NBA's expansion into Canada, the Raptors are the only Canadian-based team in the league. They play their home games at the Scotiabank Arena.

Like most expansion teams, the Raptors struggled in their early years, but after the acquisition of Vince Carter through a draft day trade in 1998, the team set league-attendance records and made the NBA playoffs in 2000, 2001, and 2002. Carter was instrumental in leading the team to their first playoff series win in 2001, where they advanced to the Eastern Conference semifinals. During the 2002–03 and 2003–04 seasons, they failed to make significant progress, and Carter was traded in 2004 to the New Jersey Nets.

After Carter left, Chris Bosh emerged as the team leader. In the 2006–07 season, Bryan Colangelo was appointed as General Manager, and through a combination of Bosh, 2006 first overall draft pick Andrea Bargnani, and a revamp of the roster, the Raptors qualified for their first playoff berth in five years, capturing the Atlantic Division title. In the 2007–08 season, they also advanced to the playoffs, but failed to reach the post-season in each of the next five seasons. Colangelo overhauled the team's roster for the 2009–10 season in a bid to persuade pending free agent Bosh to stay, but Bosh departed to sign with the Miami Heat in July 2010, ushering in yet another era of rebuilding for the Raptors.

Masai Ujiri replaced Colangelo in 2013, and helped herald a new era of success, led by backcourt duo Kyle Lowry and DeMar DeRozan. The Raptors returned to the playoffs the following year and became a consistent playoff team in every year of Ujiri's tenure. The team also won four Division titles and registered their most successful regular season in 2018. However, the team's failure to reach beyond the conference finals prompted Ujiri to fire head coach Dwane Casey shortly after the playoffs concluded and conduct the high-profile trade of DeRozan for Kawhi Leonard and Danny Green later that summer.

Wembley Stadium

Wembley Stadium is a football stadium in Wembley, London, which opened in 2007, on the site of the original Wembley Stadium, which was demolished from 2002–2003. The stadium hosts major football matches including home matches of the England national football team, and the FA Cup Final. The stadium is also the temporary home of Premier League football club Tottenham Hotspur until at least March 2019, while White Hart Lane is being demolished and their new stadium is being constructed.

Wembley Stadium is owned by the governing body of English football, the Football Association (the FA), through its subsidiary Wembley National Stadium Ltd (WNSL). The FA headquarters are in the stadium. With 90,000 seats, it is the largest football stadium in England, the largest stadium in the UK and the second-largest stadium in Europe.Designed by Populous and Foster and Partners, the stadium is crowned by the 134-metre-high (440 ft) Wembley Arch which serves aesthetically as a landmark across London as well as structurally, with the arch supporting over 75% of the entire roof load. The stadium was built by Australian firm Multiplex at a cost of £798 million (£1.17 billion today). Contrary to popular belief, Wembley Stadium does not have a retractable roof which covers the playing surface. Two partially retractable roof structures over the east and west end of the stadium can be opened to allow sunlight and aid pitch growth.

In addition to England home games and the FA Cup final, the stadium also hosts other major games in English football, including the season-opening FA Community Shield, the League Cup final, the FA Cup semi-finals, the Football League Trophy, the Football League play-offs, the FA Trophy, the FA Vase and the National League play-offs. A UEFA category four stadium, Wembley hosted the 2011 and 2013 UEFA Champions League Finals, and will host both the semi-finals and final of UEFA Euro 2020. The stadium hosted the Gold medal matches at the 2012 Olympic Games football tournament. The stadium also hosts rugby league's Challenge Cup final, NFL London Games and music concerts.

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