2006 Canadian Census

The 2006 Canadian Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The following census was the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897. This count was lower than the official July 1, 2006 population estimate of 32,623,490 people.[1]

2006 Canadian Census
Canada Census 2006 logo
Statistics Canada logo
General information
Date takenMay 16, 2006
Total population31,612,897


Over 12.7 million households, 32.5 million people were expected to be counted. Canada Post delivered census forms by mail to 70% of the country, primarily residents in urban areas. Census enumerators delivered to the remaining 30% of households. Every fifth home received the long questionnaire (53 questions versus 8 questions on the short form). For the first time, Canadian residents were able to go online to fill in their forms. Statistics Canada expected approximately 20% of households to file their surveys electronically. Persistent census staff are contacting tardy households. The total estimated cost of the 2006 census is $567 million spread over seven years, employing more than 25,000 full and part-time census workers.

New in the 2006 Census Questionnaire:

  • Education. Where did individuals receive their highest level of education? (Only on extended questionnaire)
  • Income. Permission to use income information from an individual's income tax file. Income from child benefits. Income tax paid. (Also only on extended questionnaire)
  • Access to personal information. Permission to make information public in 92 years.

Questions not asked in the 2006 Census:

  • Religion. Normally asked only once every 10 years, and the religion question was asked in the 2001 Census.
  • Education. The number of years of schooling received.

Modified questions

  • Education

Data products

As the data were compiled, Statistics Canada released various census data products. The first set of data products was released on March 13, 2007, originally scheduled for release on February 13, 2007,[2] covering population and dwelling counts by geographical unit. This was followed by other census data products.[3]

Population and dwelling counts

The first release of 2006 Census data[4] was on March 13, 2007, covering population and dwelling counts by geographical unit.

Population of the provinces and territories[5]

Province / territory
% Change
Population density
per square kilometre
Newfoundland and Labrador 505,469 -1.5 235,958 1.36
Prince Edward Island 135,851 +0.4 62,753 23.9
Nova Scotia 913,462 +0.6 425,681 17.63
New Brunswick 729,997 +0.1 331,619 10.5
Quebec 7,546,131 +4.3 3,452,300 5.63
Ontario 12,160,282 +6.6 4,972,869 13.8
Manitoba 1,148,401 +2.6 491,724 2.14
Saskatchewan 968,157 -1.1 387,160 1.67
Alberta 3,290,350 +10.6 1,335,745 5.38
British Columbia 4,113,487 +5.3 1,788,474 4.7
Yukon 30,372 +5.9 15,296 0.065
Northwest Territories 41,464 +11.0* 16,774 0.037
Nunavut 29,474 +10.2 9,041 0.015
Canada 31,612,897 +5.4 13,576,855 3.41

* This change is likely overstated due to improvements in coverage of the Northwest Territories in 2006.[6]

Age and sex

The second release of 2006 Census data[7] was on July 17, 2007, covering age and sex of the Canadian population. Among other findings, Statistics Canada reported that the 65-and-over population was at a record high of 13.7% of the total population of Canada.[8] By comparison, the 2001 census found that the 65-and-over population was 13.0% of the total population of Canada.[9]

Population of each province and territory by age[10] and sex[11]

Province / territory 0 to 14 15-64 65+ Males Females
Newfoundland and Labrador 78,230 356,975 70,265 245,730 259,740
Prince Edward Island 23,985 91,685 20,185 65,595 70,260
Nova Scotia 146,435 628,815 138,210 439,835 473,630
New Brunswick 118,255 504,110 107,635 355,495 374,500
Quebec 1,252,510 5,213,335 1,080,285 3,687,695 3,858,435
Ontario 2,210,800 8,300,300 1,649,180 5,930,700 6,229,580
Manitoba 225,175 761,340 161,890 563,275 585,125
Saskatchewan 187,695 631,155 149,305 475,240 492,915
Alberta 631,515 2,305,425 353,410 1,646,800 1,643,550
British Columbia 679,605 2,834,075 599,810 2,013,985 2,099,495
Yukon 5,720 22,365 2,290 15,280 15,090
Northwest Territories 9,920 29,570 1,975 21,225 20,240
Nunavut 10,000 18,660 810 15,105 14,365
Canada 5,579,835 21,697,805 4,335,255 15,475,970 16,136,925

Families, marital status, households and dwelling characteristics

The third release of 2006 Census data[12] was on September 12, 2007 and covered families/households,[13] marital status,[14] and dwelling characteristics.[15]

The following table displays various census data (derived from the 20% sample that completed the long questionnaire) on marital status for the Canadian population aged 15 years or more, as well as data on the number of couples by various criteria, and where available the percentage change from the 2001 census:

% Change
Population aged 15 years and over[16] 26,033,060 +7.2
Legally married (and not separated) 12,470,400 +3.8
Separated, but still legally married 775,425 +5.7
Divorced 2,087,390 +12.5
Widowed 1,612,815 +4.6
In a common-law relationship 2,731,635 +19.6
In a same-sex union[17] 90,695 +32.6
Same-sex couples[18] 45,350
Male same-sex married couples 4,010
Female same-sex married couples 3,455
Male same-sex common-law couples 20,730
Female same-sex common-law couples 17,155
All couples[19] 7,482,780 +6.0
Married couples with children 3,443,775 -0.7
Married couples without children 2,662,130 +9.5
Common-law couples with children 618,150 +16.4
Common-law couples without children 758,715 +20.9

Immigration, citizenship, language, mobility and migration

The fourth release of 2006 Census data[20] was on December 4, 2007 and covered immigration, citizenship, language, mobility, migration and other population data.

Aboriginal peoples

The fifth release of 2006 Census data[21] was on January 15, 2008, covering aboriginal peoples.

Labour, place of work/commuting to work, education, language

The sixth release of 2006 Census data[22] was on March 4, 2008, covering labour,[23] education[24] and some other topics going with that.

Ethnic origin, visible minorities

The seventh release of 2006 Census data[25] was on April 2, 2008, covering ethnic origins and visible minorities[26] and commuting to work.[27]

Income/earnings, shelter costs

The eighth release of 2006 Census data was on May 1, 2008, covering income and earnings, and shelter costs.[28]


In contrast to 1996 focus-groups that found it important to know the legal requirement at the outset, participants of 2005 focus-groups were annoyed or provoked by draft ads reminding Canadians about the census law. As a result of the finding, Statistics Canada's initial newspaper, radio and TV ads avoided mention of the legal requirement. Instead, reference to the census law was highlighted only in ads appearing after census day, to capture late filers.

To encourage participation, Statistics Canada set aside $13 million for "saturation" advertising, including billboards, bookmarks, inserts in municipal tax bills, and ads on bags of sugar and milk cartons.[29]


Statistics Canada reports less than 20% of the work will be outsourced, spending $85 million over 5 years. Despite an open public tender process, controversy arose on the announcement of a $43.3 million deal awarded to Lockheed Martin Canada—a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, the world's largest defense contractor by defense revenue—for the purchase of scanning and printing software and hardware.[30]


A variety of forms were available in both official languages, varying in length, colour, and recipient's location.[31]

Most households (80%) received the short form (2A):

  • English: orange
  • French: yellow

One in five received the long form (2B):

  • English: red
  • French: purple

Federal and provincial employees and their families working in embassies and National Defence bases abroad (2C):

  • English: purple
  • French: red

In the three northern territories and on Aboriginal communities and settlements (2D):

  • English: orange
  • French: yellow

Census of Agriculture (6):

  • English: yellow
  • French: orange


Special interest groups criticised Statistics Canada over the design of questions, accuracy, and the future of the census data:[32]

  • Question 6: Relationship. Couples in same-sex marriages were offended by and/or objected to Statistics Canada's instruction that they use the write-in field "Other" instead of checking the "husband or wife" box.
  • Question 16: Mother tongue. An anonymous email misinformation campaign advised bilingual francophones to not mention their knowledge of English.
  • Question 53: Election to release census data after 92 years.[33] Genealogists worried that future research will be hampered if Canadians didn't check this box.
Nationally, there was a yes response in respect of 55.58% of persons enumerated in the census. The yes percentage was highest in Prince Edward Island, 64.50%, and lowest in Nunavut, 51.39%.[34] Individual respondents are permitted to change their response to this question by mailing in a request-for-change form.[35]

In addition, Statistics Canada's online questionnaire had been criticized over accessibility issues:[36]

  • Failure to comply with Treasury Board, guidelines to meet W3C accessibility recommendations for the visually impaired
  • Failure to support open source, operating systems. Support for Linux was eventually added,[37] but support for other operating systems was not.

The quality of data was further hampered by individuals who advocated minimal cooperation or non-cooperation, in protest to the outsourcing contract awarded to Lockheed Martin.[38] Many people believed that Lockheed Martin would have access to their information, and that the US government could then access that information through the USA PATRIOT Act. However, despite assurances to the contrary (i.e., only Statistics Canada employees would and could handle, store, and access the information), some people refused to participate fully in the Census.

The release of data was postponed to numerous issues during enumeration.[2] These included:

  • the recruitment of enumerators amid a competitive job market, particularly in Western Canada
  • the requirement of some people to fill out a second form after their first forms did not arrive in the mail; and
  • delays in payments to enumerators

As a result, the first release of data from the census, originally scheduled for release on February 13, 2007, was delayed to March 13, 2007.[2]

See also

External links


  1. ^ "Differences between Statistics Canada's census counts and population estimates". Statistics Canada. 2006. Archived from the original on April 10, 2008. Retrieved August 21, 2008.
  2. ^ a b c "2006 census results delayed amid problems". CBC. February 12, 2007. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
  3. ^ "2006 Census release dates". 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. 2006. Retrieved May 16, 2006.
  4. ^ Statistics Canada, The Daily, Tuesday, March 13, 2007 Archived March 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine The Daily (pdf) Archived May 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Statistics Canada, Population and Dwelling Count Highlight Tables, 2006 Census, Catalogue number 97-550-XWE2006002, released March 13, 2007, Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, province and territories, 2006 and 2001 censuses - 100% data
  6. ^ "Symbol". 2.statcan.ca. November 5, 2008. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
  7. ^ Statistics Canada, The Daily, Tuesday, July 17, 2007 Archived May 18, 2008, at the Wayback Machine The Daily (pdf) Archived May 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Release no. 2: Age and sex
  9. ^ Age and Sex, 2001 Counts for Both Sexes, for Canada, Provinces and Territories - 100% Data
  10. ^ Statistics Canada, Age and Sex Highlight Tables, 2006 Census, catalogue number 97-551-XWE2006002, released July 17, 2007, Population by broad age groups, 2006 counts for both sexes, for Canada, provinces and territories - 100% data
  11. ^ Age and Sex Highlight Tables, 2006 Census, 2006 counts for males, for Canada, provinces and territories - 100% data, 2006 counts for females, for Canada, provinces and territories - 100% data
  12. ^ Statistics Canada, The Daily, Wednesday, September 12, 2007 Archived February 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine The Daily (pdf) Archived May 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ Release no. 3: September 12, 2007, Families and households
  14. ^ Release no. 3: September 12, 2007, Marital status (including common-law status)
  15. ^ Release no. 3: dwelling and household characteristics
  16. ^ Statistics Canada, Catalogue number 97-552-XWE2006007, Legal Marital Status (6), Common-law Status (3), Age Groups (17) and Sex (3) for the Population 15 Years and Over of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2001 and 2006 Censuses - 100% Data
  17. ^ Persons in same-sex unions by broad age groups and sex for both sexes, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data
  18. ^ "Same-sex couples by type of union (married, common-law) and sex, 2006 Census - 20% sample data". Archived from the original on June 2, 2008. Retrieved April 21, 2008.
  19. ^ Couple families by presence of children in private households
  20. ^ Statistics Canada, The Daily, Tuesday, December 4, 2007 Archived February 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine The Daily (pdf) Archived May 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Statistics Canada, The Daily, Tuesday, January 15, 2008 Archived February 19, 2008, at the Wayback Machine The Daily (pdf) Archived May 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Statistics Canada, The Daily, Tuesday, March 4, 2008 Archived May 8, 2008, at the Wayback Machine The Daily (pdf) Archived May 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ Release no. 6: labour
  24. ^ Release no. 6: Education
  25. ^ Statistics Canada, The Daily, Wednesday, April 2, 2008 Archived April 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine The Daily (pdf) Archived May 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Release no. 7: Ethnic origin and visible minorities
  27. ^ Release no. 7: Place of work and commuting to work
  28. ^ Statistics Canada, Census 2006 Release topics and dates.
  29. ^ Beeby, Dean (March 26, 2005). "Statistics Canada revamps census ad campaign to play down legal requirements". Canoe Inc. Retrieved April 28, 2006.
  30. ^ Lambert, Steve (October 10, 2004). "Census contractor comes under fire". The London Free Press. Retrieved April 28, 2006.
  31. ^ "2006 Census: Census questionnaires and guides". Statistics Canada. February 14, 2008. Retrieved March 22, 2008.
  32. ^ Freeze, Colin. (May 15, 2006). "Census coloured by broad array of interests". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved May 16, 2006.
  33. ^ Statistics Canada, Genealogy corner
  34. ^ Statistics Canada, 2006 Census results: The 92-year question. Retrieved April 21, 2008.
  35. ^ Statistics Canada, Change or verify your response to the consent question on the 2006 Census of Population
  36. ^ Byfield, Bruce (May 12, 2006). "Canadian Census controversy continues". NewsForge. Archived from the original on November 14, 2006. Retrieved May 16, 2006.
  37. ^ "Notice to Linux users". Statistics Canada. 2006. Archived from the original on June 15, 2006. Retrieved May 16, 2006.
  38. ^ Riga, Andy (May 8, 2006). "Census faces attack from blog rumours". National Post. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved May 16, 2006.
Cloridorme, Quebec

Cloridorme is a township municipality in the Gaspé Peninsula, Quebec, Canada. Cloridorme's economy is centered on fishing. Its population, according to the 2006 Canadian Census was 764. The township stretches for 16 kilometres (10 mi) along the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and includes Cloridorme Bay where the Little and Great Cloridorme Rivers have their mouths.

In addition to the village of Cloridorme itself, the township's territory also includes the communities of Cloridorme-Ouest, Petite-Anse, Pointe-à-la-Frégate, and Saint-Yvon.

The name Cloridorme is of uncertain origin. It is believed that it was named after an early settler from the early 19th century named Cloridan Côté, originally from Saint-Thomas-de-Montmagny. But this is unlikely since the name had been in use since the 18th century. A map of 1755 shows the plural form "Les Cloridormes", which had changed to "Les Chlorydormes" by the 19th century and remained in use until the early 20th century.

Codys, New Brunswick

Codys is a community in Queens County, New Brunswick named after the United Empire Loyalist Cody Family. The 2006 Canadian Census found a population of 406.

Czech Canadians

Czech Canadians are Canadian citizens of Czech ancestry or Czech Republic-born people who reside in Canada. It also includes people descended from, the territory of the historic Czech lands, constituting the Kingdom of Bohemia (consisting of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia), or successor states, now known as the Czech Republic the Czechs' nation state. In the 19th century, they were frequently called Bohemians. According to the 2006 Canadian census, there were 98,090 Canadians of full or partial Czech descent.

Fairbank, Toronto

Fairbank is a neighbourhood in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The area covers a large central portion of the former City of York, Ontario centered on the intersection of Dufferin Street and Eglinton Avenue West. Fairbank includes the neighbourhoods of Briar Hill–Belgravia (North of Eglinton Avenue West) and Caledonia–Fairbank (South of Eglinton Avenue West). The western border is the CNR lines. The northern and southern borders are the former borders of the City of York and the eastern border is Dufferin Street (Oakwood–Vaughan).

Filipino Canadians

Filipino Canadians (French: Canadiens philippins; Filipino: Pilipinong Kanadyano; Baybayin: ᜉᜒᜎᜒᜉᜒᜈᜓ ᜃᜈᜇᜒᜌᜈᜓ) are Canadians of Filipino descent. Filipino Canadians are the third largest subgroup of the overseas Filipinos and one of the fastest growing groups in Canada.

Canada only had a small population of Filipinos until the late 20th century. As of the 2016 Canadian Census, there are 851,410 people of Filipino descent living in Canada, most living in urbanized areas. This number is growing yearly due to Canada's more liberal immigration laws to compensate for their low population growth. Filipino Canadians are the third-largest Asian Canadian group in the nation after the Indian and Chinese communities. They are also the largest Southeast Asian group in the country. Between the 2011 Census and the 2016 Census, the Filipino community in Canada grew from 662,605 to 851,410, a growth of about 27%, compared to the rest of Canada which grew by 5% in the same time period.

Flemish Canadians

According to the 2006 Canadian census, 12,425 Canadians claimed full or partial Flemish ancestry while another 168,915 people claimed Belgian ancestry.

Jackson's Arm

Jackson's Arm is a town in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, located on White Bay. It was settled by John Wicks of Christchurch, England, around 1870. The Post Office was established in 1892 and the first Postmistress was Belinda Peddle. The town had a population of 435 in 1956 and 374 as of the 2006 Canadian census. The primary industry of the town is fishing.

Kensington Market

Kensington Market is a distinctive multicultural neighbourhood in Downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Market is an older neighbourhood and one of the city's most well-known. In November 2006, it was designated a National Historic Site of Canada. Robert Fulford wrote in 1999 that "Kensington today is as much a legend as a district. The (partly) outdoor market has probably been photographed more often than any other site in Toronto."Its approximate borders are College St. on the north, Spadina Ave. on the east, Dundas St. W. to the south, and Bathurst St. to the west. Most of the neighbourhood's eclectic shops, cafes, and other attractions are located along Augusta Ave. and neighbouring Nassau St., Baldwin St., and Kensington Ave. In addition to the Market, the neighbourhood features many Victorian homes, the Kensington Community School and Toronto Western Hospital.

Lanigan, Saskatchewan

Lanigan (pop. 1300) is a town in south-central Saskatchewan, Canada, at the intersection of TransCanada Yellowhead Highway 16 and Highway 20, approximately 117 km east of Saskatoon and 170 km north of Regina.


Luseland, Saskatchewan is a small town in Rural Municipality Progress No. 351, Saskatchewan in the west central region of the province. Its population as of the 2006 Canadian Census is 571, down 5% from the 2001 Census.It is known as the hometown of Canadian business magnate Jim Pattison.

Meota, Saskatchewan

Meota is a village in Meota Rural Municipality No. 468, Saskatchewan, Canada. The village's population was 297 at the 2006 Canadian Census. The village name is derived from the Cree phrase Meotate or Mo-Was-In-Ota, meaning "good place to camp" or "it is good here."

Moore Park, Toronto

Moore Park is a neighbourhood in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It lies along both sides of St. Clair Avenue East between the Vale of Avoca section of Rosedale ravine and Moore Park ravine (formerly Spring Valley ravine). The northern boundary is Mount Pleasant Cemetery and the southern the Canadian Pacific Railway tracks. Moore Park is one of Toronto's most affluent neighbourhoods.

The neighbourhood takes its name from its developer, John T. Moore. To encourage buyers, he built two bridges in 1891: the original steel bridge on St. Clair over the Vale of Avoca, and the original wooden bridge on Moore Avenue over Spring Valley ravine. He also helped establish railway service to the neighbourhood, overseeing the connection of the area to the Toronto Belt Line Railway, a commuter railway. The development was marketed to the wealthy, and the neighbourhood remains wealthy. Moore Park was annexed by the City of Toronto on December 16, 1912.Census tract 0125.00 of the 2006 Canadian census covers Moore Park. According to that census, the neighbourhood has 4,474 residents, down 2% from the 2001 census. Average income is CA$154,825, one of the highest incomes of all Toronto neighbourhoods, and not far below neighbouring Rosedale. The neighbourhood is almost entirely English speaking.

Norquay, Saskatchewan

Norquay is a town in the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. It was named after John Norquay, premier of Manitoba from 1878 to 1887. It is the administrative headquarters of the Key Saulteaux First Nation band government.

Pointe-Calumet, Quebec

Pointe-Calumet is a municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec. The municipality is located within the Deux-Montagnes Regional County Municipality in the Laurentides region. It is situated about 30 minutes northwest of Montreal. Its population as of the 2006 Canadian Census is just over 6 000.

Saint-Basile, New Brunswick

Not to be confused with Saint-Basile Parish, New Brunswick.

Saint-Basile is a community in Madawaska County, New Brunswick, Canada. Formerly a separate municipality, it was amalgamated into the City of Edmundston on May 25, 1998. The 2006 Canadian Census recorded a population of 3751.


The District Municipality of Sechelt is located on the lower Sunshine Coast of British Columbia. Approximately 50 km northwest of Vancouver, it is accessible from mainland British Columbia by a 40-minute ferry trip between Horseshoe Bay and Langdale, and a 25-minute drive from Langdale along Highway 101, also known as the Sunshine Coast Highway. The name Sechelt is derived from the Sechelt language word, shishalh, the name of the First Nations people who first settled the area thousands of years ago.

The original Village of Sechelt was incorporated on February 15, 1956. Sechelt later expanded its boundaries in 1986 with the inclusion of a number of adjacent unincorporated areas. The District of Sechelt, as it is known today, encompasses some 39.71 km² (15.33 sq mi) at the isthmus of the Sechelt Peninsula, between the southern tip of Sechelt Inlet (Porpoise Bay) and the Strait of Georgia that separates the provincial mainland from Vancouver Island.

Sechelt is a seaside community with approx. 35 kilometers of Pacific Ocean shoreline that extends primarily along the coastline of the Sunshine Coast, and is bounded to the west and east by the unincorporated communities of Halfmoon Bay and Roberts Creek, respectively. The 2006 Canadian census placed its population at 8,455. Sechelt is the seat of the Sunshine Coast Regional District of British Columbia.

Although its population is relatively small for its geographical area, Sechelt has several distinct neighbourhoods. From east to west, they are Wilson Creek, Davis Bay, Selma Park, the original Village of Sechelt, and West Sechelt. Several neighbourhoods around Sechelt Inlet were also included in Sechelt's 1986 incorporation as a district; these include West Porpoise Bay, East Porpoise Bay, Sandy Hook, Tillicum Bay and Tuwanek. The municipal government of the Shishalh First Nation, which contains a substantial commercial district, is immediately east of Sechelt's "downtown" village.

Slovak Canadians

Slovak Canadians are citizens of Canada who were born in Slovakia or who are of full or partial Slovak ancestry. According to the 2006 Canadian census, there were 64,145 Canadians of full or partial Slovak descent.

Squamish-Lillooet Regional District

The Squamish-Lillooet Regional District is a quasi-municipal administrative area in British Columbia, Canada. It stretches from Britannia Beach in the south to Pavilion in the north. Lillooet, Pemberton, Whistler and Squamish are the four municipalities in the regional district. Its administrative offices are in the Village of Pemberton, although the district municipalities of Squamish, Whistler, and Lillooet are all larger population centres. The district covers 16,353.68 km² (6,314.19 sq mi) of land area.

The southern end of the regional district comprises the northern part of the traditional territory of the Squamish people, and the northern half constitutes the traditional homeland of the St'at'imc people.

Sturgis, Saskatchewan

Sturgis is a town of 620 people in east central Saskatchewan, Canada. The Town of Sturgis is 95 km north of Yorkton on Highway 9. It is located in the Assiniboine river valley near the lakes and woods region of the province.

The community was named for Sturgis, South Dakota, where Fred Clyde Brooks, the first postmaster, had been raised.The Sturgis railway station receives scheduled Via Rail service.

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