2006

2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2006th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 6th year of the 3rd millennium, the 6th year of the 21st century, and the 7th year of the 2000s decade.

2006 was designated as:

Millennium: 3rd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
2006 by topic:
Arts
ArchitectureComicsFilmHome videoLiterature (Poetry) – Music (Country, Metal, UK) – Radio – Photo – TelevisionVideo gaming
Politics
Elections – International leadersSovereign states
Sovereign state leadersTerritorial governors
Science and technology
ArchaeologyAviationBirding/OrnithologyPalaeontologyRail transportSpaceflight
Sports
Badminton – BaseballBasketball – Volleyball
By place
AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeria – Angola – Antarctica – ArgentinaArmeniaAustralia – Austria – Azerbaijan – Bangladesh – The Bahamas – Barbados – BelgiumBenin – Bhutan – Bosnia and HerzegovinaBrazil – Bulgaria – Burkina Faso – BurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCentral African Republic – Chad – ChileChina – Colombia – Costa Rica – Croatia – Cuba – Cyprus – Czechia – Denmark – Ecuador – Egypt – El Salvador – Estonia – EthiopiaEuropean UnionFinlandFrance – Gabon – GeorgiaGermanyGhana – Greece – Guatemala – Hungary – IcelandIndiaIndonesiaIraqIranIrelandIsrael – Italy – Ivory CoastJapan – Kazakhstan – KenyaKuwaitLaos – Latvia – Libya – Lithuania – LuxembourgMacau – Madagascar – Malawi – Malaysia – Mali – Mexico – Moldova – Montenegro – Morocco – Mozambique – Myanmar – NepalNetherlandsNew Zealand – Niger – NigeriaNorth KoreaNorway – Oman – PakistanPalestine – Peru – PhilippinesPolandPortugal – Romania – RussiaRwandaSaudi Arabia – Senegal – Serbia – Singapore – Slovakia – Slovenia – SomaliaSouth AfricaSouth KoreaSouth SudanSpain – Sri Lanka – SudanSweden – Switzerland – Syria – Taiwan – Tanzania – ThailandTurkey – Uganda – Ukraine – United Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited States – Uruguay – Uzbekistan – Venezuela – Vietnam – Yemen – Zambia – Zimbabwe
Other topics
Religious leaders
Birth and death categories
Births – Deaths
Establishments and disestablishments categories
Establishments – Disestablishments
Works and introductions categories
Works – Introductions
Works entering the public domain
2006 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar2006
MMVI
Ab urbe condita2759
Armenian calendar1455
ԹՎ ՌՆԾԵ
Assyrian calendar6756
Bahá'í calendar162–163
Balinese saka calendar1927–1928
Bengali calendar1413
Berber calendar2956
British Regnal year54 Eliz. 2 – 55 Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar2550
Burmese calendar1368
Byzantine calendar7514–7515
Chinese calendar乙酉(Wood Rooster)
4702 or 4642
    — to —
丙戌年 (Fire Dog)
4703 or 4643
Coptic calendar1722–1723
Discordian calendar3172
Ethiopian calendar1998–1999
Hebrew calendar5766–5767
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2062–2063
 - Shaka Samvat1927–1928
 - Kali Yuga5106–5107
Holocene calendar12006
Igbo calendar1006–1007
Iranian calendar1384–1385
Islamic calendar1426–1427
Japanese calendarHeisei 18
(平成18年)
Javanese calendar1938–1939
Juche calendar95
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4339
Minguo calendarROC 95
民國95年
Nanakshahi calendar538
Thai solar calendar2549
Tibetan calendar阴木鸡年
(female Wood-Rooster)
2132 or 1751 or 979
    — to —
阳火狗年
(male Fire-Dog)
2133 or 1752 or 980
Unix time1136073600 – 1167609599

Events

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Births

Deaths

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal

New English words and terms

  • agender
  • bucket list
  • crowdfunding
  • crowdsourcing
  • Eris
  • hypermiling
  • mumblecore
  • sizzle reel
  • ski cross[47]

References

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  11. ^ Mihelich, Peggy (2006-03-10). "Payoff high in risky Mars mission". CNN. Retrieved 2009-07-06.
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  13. ^ "OHCHR | Welcome to the Human Rights Council". www.ohchr.org. Retrieved 2018-01-28.
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  16. ^ "European Space Probe Goes Into Orbit Around Venus". Fox News. Associated Press. April 12, 2006. Archived from the original on July 23, 2009. Retrieved July 9, 2009.
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  21. ^ "M 6.3 - Java, Indonesia". earthquake.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2018-01-28.
  22. ^ "U.S. Military Joins Indonesia Quake Relief". CBS News. May 31, 2006. Archived from the original on June 14, 2006.
  23. ^ "Montenegro declares independence from Serbia". USA Today. 2006-06-03. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  24. ^ Xuequan, Mu (June 4, 2006). "EU reiterates respect for independence of Montenegro". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on July 28, 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  25. ^ "BBC SPORT | Football | World Cup 2006 | for World Cup". BBC News. 2006-06-09. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  26. ^ "Zidane off as Italy win World Cup". BBC News. 2006-07-09. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  27. ^ Butcher, Tim (2006-06-29). "Israel launches warning air strikes on Gaza". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2009-07-25.
  28. ^ White, Josh (2006-03-17). "U.S. to Remove Military Forces And Aircraft From Iceland Base". ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
  29. ^ Olesen, Alexa (2006-07-02). "China's first train to Tibet conquers high-altitude hurdles". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
  30. ^ Baodong, Li; Shuangqi, Fu (July 7, 2006). ""Silk Road" rejoins at Nathu La Pass after 44 years". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on August 11, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-05.
  31. ^ "CNN.com - India police: Pakistan spy agency behind Mumbai bombings - Oct 1, 2006". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 2018-01-29.
  32. ^ "Hezbollah vows 'open war' as violence escalates". CTV Television Network. 2006-07-14. Retrieved 2009-10-09.
  33. ^ Chance, Matthew (2006-08-23). "Russian jet crash kills all 170 on board". CNN. Retrieved 2009-10-10.
  34. ^ Battersby, Stephen (2006-08-24). "Pluto gets the boot as the planet count drops". New Scientist. Retrieved 2009-10-10.
  35. ^ Luying, Sun (2006-09-20). "Coup d´etat launched in Thailand". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 2009-10-10.
  36. ^ "Passports of Legacy jet pilots seized pending investigation in Brazil crash". Europe Intelligence Wire. 2006-10-04. Retrieved 2009-10-10.
  37. ^ "North Korea claims first nuclear test". The Guardian. London. 2006-10-09. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  38. ^ "Profile: Ban Ki-moon". BBC. 2006-10-13. Retrieved 2009-10-11.
  39. ^ "Art Market Watch". Artnet. November 3, 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-08.
  40. ^ "Saddam buried in village of his birth". Associated Press. 2006-12-31. Retrieved 2006-12-31.
  41. ^ Danilova, Maria (2006-11-11). "Georgia: Separatist Vote Illegitimate". The Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 2009-10-12.
  42. ^ "Iraqi militias take fiery revenge for slaughter". Associated Press. 2006-11-25. Retrieved 2009-10-12.
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  44. ^ CNN Wire Staff (December 4, 2011). "Mexico's president pledges to continue fighting cartels". CNN. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2012.
  45. ^ "Ethiopia dismisses Somali threat". BBC. 2006-12-24. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
  46. ^ Fouquet, Helene (2006-12-26). "Nigerian Pipeline Explosion Kills at Least 200 (Update1)". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2009-10-13.
  47. ^ "Time Traveler by Merriam-Webster: Words from 2006". merriam-webster.com. Retrieved May 8, 2018.
2006 FIFA World Cup

The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament. It was held from 9 June to 9 July 2006 in Germany, which won the right to host the event in July 2000. Teams representing 198 national football associations from all six populated continents participated in the qualification process which began in September 2003. Thirty-one teams qualified from this process, along with the host nation, Germany, for the finals tournament. It was the second time that Germany staged the competition (the first was in 1974 as West Germany), and the tenth time that it was held in Europe.

Italy won the tournament, claiming their fourth World Cup title. They defeated France 5–3 in a penalty shoot-out in the final, after extra time had finished in a 1–1 draw. Germany defeated Portugal 3–1 to finish in third place. Angola, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Trinidad and Tobago, and Togo made their first appearances in the finals. It was also the first appearance of Serbia and Montenegro under that name; they had previously appeared in 1998 as Yugoslavia.

The 2006 World Cup stands as one of the most watched events in television history, garnering an estimated 26.29 billion times viewed, compiled over the course of the tournament. The final attracted an estimated audience of 715.1 million people.

2006–07 UEFA Champions League

The 2006–07 UEFA Champions League was the 15th season of UEFA's premier European club football tournament, the UEFA Champions League, since it was rebranded from the European Cup, and the 52nd season overall. The final was contested by Milan and Liverpool on 23 May 2007. Beforehand, the match was billed as a repeat of the 2005 final, the only difference being that the 2007 final was to be played at the Olympic Stadium in Athens, Greece. Milan won the match 2–1 to claim their seventh European Cup, with both goals coming from Filippo Inzaghi. Dirk Kuyt scored for Liverpool.

Barcelona were the defending champions, but were eliminated by Liverpool in the first knockout round.

Arctic Monkeys

Arctic Monkeys are an English rock band formed in 2002 in High Green, a suburb of Sheffield. The band consists of Alex Turner (lead vocals, guitar, piano), Matt Helders (drums, vocals), Jamie Cook (guitar, keyboards) and Nick O'Malley (bass guitar, backing vocals). Former band member Andy Nicholson (bass guitar, backing vocals) left the band in 2006 shortly after their debut album was released.

They have released six studio albums: Whatever People Say I Am, That's What I'm Not (2006), Favourite Worst Nightmare (2007), Humbug (2009), Suck It and See (2011), AM (2013), and Tranquility Base Hotel & Casino (2018), as well as one live album, At the Apollo (2008). Their debut album is the fastest-selling debut album by a band in UK chart history, and in 2013, Rolling Stone ranked it the 30th-greatest debut album.The band has won seven Brit Awards – winning both Best British Group and Best British Album three times, and have been nominated for five Grammy Awards. They also won the Mercury Prize in 2006 for their debut album, in addition to receiving nominations in 2007, 2013 and 2018. The band have headlined at the Glastonbury Festival twice, in 2007 and again in 2013.

Arctic Monkeys were heralded as one of the first bands to come to public attention via the Internet, with commentators suggesting they represented the possibility of a change in the way in which new bands are promoted and marketed.

Brokeback Mountain

Brokeback Mountain is a 2005 American romantic drama film directed by Ang Lee and produced by Diana Ossana and James Schamus. Adapted from the 1997 short story of the same name by Annie Proulx, the screenplay was written by Ossana and Larry McMurtry. The film stars Heath Ledger, Jake Gyllenhaal, Anne Hathaway, and Michelle Williams, and depicts the complex emotional and sexual relationship between Ennis Del Mar and Jack Twist in the American West from 1963 to 1983.The film received critical acclaim and commercial success. It won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival, Best Picture and Best Director at the British Academy Film Awards, Golden Globe Awards, Producers Guild of America Awards, Critics' Choice Movie Awards, and Independent Spirit Awards, among others. The film was nominated for eight Academy Awards, the most nominations at the 78th Academy Awards, where it won three—Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Original Score—though it lost the Best Picture award to Crash in a controversial Oscars upset.In 2018, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". It is currently the most recent film chosen to be in the Registry.

Casino Royale (2006 film)

Casino Royale is a 2006 spy film, the twenty-first in the Eon Productions James Bond film series, and the third screen adaptation of Ian Fleming's 1953 novel of the same name. Directed by Martin Campbell and written by Neal Purvis & Robert Wade and Paul Haggis, it is the first film to star Daniel Craig as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond, and was produced by Eon Productions for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Columbia Pictures, making it the first Eon-produced Bond film to be co-produced by the latter studio. Following Die Another Day, Eon Productions decided to reboot the series, allowing them to show a less experienced and more vulnerable Bond.Casino Royale takes place at the beginning of Bond's career as Agent 007, as he is earning his licence to kill. The plot sees Bond on an assignment to bankrupt terrorist financier Le Chiffre in a high-stakes poker game; Bond falls in love with Vesper Lynd, a treasury employee assigned to provide the money he needs for the game. The film begins a story arc that continues in the 2008 film, Quantum of Solace.

Casting involved a widespread search for a new actor to succeed Pierce Brosnan as James Bond; the choice of Craig, announced in October 2005, drew controversy. Location filming took place in the Czech Republic, The Bahamas, Italy and the United Kingdom with interior sets built at Barrandov Studios and Pinewood Studios.

Casino Royale premiered at the Odeon Leicester Square on 14 November 2006. It received an overwhelmingly positive critical response, with reviewers highlighting Craig's reinvention of the character and the film's departure from the tropes of previous Bond films. It earned almost $600 million worldwide, becoming the highest-grossing James Bond film until the release of Skyfall in 2012.

Desmond Tutu

Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African Anglican cleric and theologian known for his work as an anti-apartheid and human rights activist. He was the Bishop of Johannesburg from 1985 to 1986 and then the Archbishop of Cape Town from 1986 to 1996, in both cases being the first black African to hold the position. Theologically, he sought to fuse ideas from black theology with African theology; politically, he identifies as a socialist.

Tutu was born of mixed Xhosa and Motswana heritage to a poor family in Klerksdorp, British Imperial South Africa. Entering adulthood, he trained as a teacher and married Nomalizo Leah Tutu, with whom he had several children. In 1960, he was ordained as an Anglican priest and in 1962 moved to the United Kingdom to study theology at King's College London. In 1966 he returned to southern Africa, teaching at the Federal Theological Seminary and then the University of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. In 1972, he became the Theological Education Fund's director for Africa, a position based in London but necessitating regular tours of the African continent. Back in southern Africa in 1975, he served first as dean of St Mary's Cathedral in Johannesburg and then as Bishop of Lesotho, taking an active role in opposition to South Africa's apartheid system of racial segregation and white-minority rule. From 1978 to 1985 he was general-secretary of the South African Council of Churches, emerging as one of South Africa's most prominent anti-apartheid activists. Although warning the National Party government that anger at apartheid would lead to racial violence, as an activist he stressed non-violent protest and foreign economic pressure to bring about universal suffrage.

In 1985 he became Bishop of Johannesburg and in 1986 the Archbishop of Cape Town, the most senior position in southern Africa's Anglican hierarchy. In this position he emphasised a consensus-building model of leadership and oversaw the introduction of women priests. Also in 1986, he became president of the All Africa Conference of Churches, resulting in further tours of the continent. After President F. W. de Klerk released the anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela from prison in 1990 and the pair led negotiations to dissolve apartheid and introduce multi-racial democracy, Tutu assisted as a mediator between rival black factions. After the 1994 general election resulted in a coalition government headed by Mandela, the latter selected Tutu to chair the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses committed by both pro and anti-apartheid groups. Since apartheid's fall, Tutu has campaigned for gay rights and spoken out on a wide range of subjects, among them the Israel-Palestine conflict, his opposition to the Iraq War, and his criticism of South African Presidents Thabo Mbeki and Jacob Zuma. In 2010, he retired from public life.

Tutu polarised opinion as he rose to notability in the 1970s. White conservatives who supported apartheid despised him, while many white liberals regarded him as too radical; many black radicals accused him of being too moderate and focused on cultivating white goodwill, while Marxist-Leninists criticised his anti-communist stance. He was widely popular among South Africa's black majority, and was internationally praised for his anti-apartheid activism, receiving a range of awards, including the Nobel Peace Prize. He has also compiled several books of his speeches and sermons.

Hezbollah

"UK to ban Hezbollah as terrorist organisation". BBC News. 2019-02-25. Retrieved 2019-03-25.

Hezbollah (pronounced ; Arabic: حزب الله‎ Ḥizbu 'llāh, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.—is a Shi'a Islamist political party and militant group based in Lebanon. Hezbollah's paramilitary wing is the Jihad Council, and its political wing is Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc party in the Lebanese parliament. Since the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the group has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General. The group is considered a terrorist organization by the United States, Israel, Canada, the Arab League, the Gulf Cooperation Council, and the United Kingdom, along with its military wing by Australia and the European Union.

After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 in support of the Free Lebanon State, Israel occupied a strip of south Lebanon, which was controlled by the South Lebanon Army (SLA), a Lebanese Christian militia supported by Israel. Hezbollah was founded in the early 1980s as part of an Iranian effort to aggregate a variety of militant Lebanese Shi'a groups into a unified organization. Hezbollah acts as a proxy for Iran in the ongoing Iran–Israel proxy conflict. Hezbollah was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran primarily to harass the Israeli occupation. Its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, and its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran with permission from the Syrian government, which was in occupation of Lebanon at the time. Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its objectives as the expulsion of "the Americans, the French and their allies definitely from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land", submission of the Phalangists to "just power" and bringing them to justice "for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians", and permitting "all the sons of our people" to choose the form of government they want, while calling on them to "pick the option of Islamic government".Hezbollah waged a guerilla campaign in South Lebanon and as a result, Israel withdrew from Lebanon on 24 May 2000, and the SLA collapsed and surrendered. Hezbollah organised volunteers who fought on the Bosnian side during the Bosnian War. Hezbollah's military strength has grown so significantly that its paramilitary wing is considered more powerful than the Lebanese Army. Hezbollah has been described as a "state within a state", and has grown into an organization with seats in the Lebanese government, a radio and a satellite TV station, social services and large-scale military deployment of fighters beyond Lebanon's borders. Hezbollah is part of the March 8 Alliance within Lebanon, in opposition to the March 14 Alliance. Hezbollah maintains strong support among Lebanon's Shi'a population, while Sunnis have disagreed with the group's agenda. Hezbollah also finds support from within some Christian areas of Lebanon that are Hezbollah strongholds. Hezbollah receives military training, weapons, and financial support from Iran, and political support from Syria. Hezbollah and Israel fought each other in the 2006 Lebanon War.

After the 2006–08 Lebanese protests and clashes, a national unity government was formed in 2008, with Hezbollah and its opposition allies obtaining eleven of thirty cabinets seats, enough to give them veto power. In August 2008, Lebanon's new Cabinet unanimously approved a draft policy statement which recognized Hezbollah's existence as an armed organization and guarantees its right to "liberate or recover occupied lands" (such as the Shebaa Farms). Since 2012, Hezbollah has helped the Syrian government during the Syrian civil war in its fight against the Syrian opposition, which Hezbollah has described as a Zionist plot and a "Wahhabi-Zionist conspiracy" to destroy its alliance with Assad against Israel. It has deployed its militia in both Syria and Iraq to fight or train local forces to fight against ISIS. Once seen as a resistance movement throughout much of the Arab world, this image upon which the group's legitimacy rested has been severely damaged due to the sectarian nature of the Syrian Civil War in which it has become embroiled.

Mark Webber

Mark Alan Webber (born 27 August 1976) is an Australian former professional racing driver, who last competed in the FIA World Endurance Championship as a Porsche works driver in LMP1, in which he won the championship in 2015. Webber won nine Formula One Grands Prix and finished third in the championship in 2010, 2011 and 2013, all of which achieved while driving for Red Bull Racing.

After some racing success in Australia driving Formula Ford and Formula Holden, Webber moved to the United Kingdom in 1995 to further his motorsport career. Webber began a partnership with fellow Australian Paul Stoddart, at that time owner of the European Racing Formula 3000 team, which eventually took them both into Formula One when Stoddart bought the Minardi team. He also beat future F1 World Champion Fernando Alonso, then 19, in the 2000 International Formula 3000 season.

Webber made his Formula One debut in 2002, scoring Minardi's first points in three years at his and Stoddart's home race. After his first season, Jaguar took him on as lead driver. During two years with the generally uncompetitive team, Webber qualified on the front two rows of the grid several times and outperformed his teammates. His first F1 win was with Red Bull at the 2009 German Grand Prix, which followed second places at the 2009 Chinese Grand Prix, 2009 Turkish Grand Prix and 2009 British Grand Prix. By the end of 2009, Webber had scored eight podiums, including another victory in Brazil. His eight podiums in 2009 compares with only two podiums in the first seven years of his career. He added ten more podiums in 2010, including victories in Spain, Monaco, Britain and Hungary. Webber finished the 2010 season in third place having led for a long period, losing out to teammate Sebastian Vettel in the final race of the season. Webber added another race victory in the 2011 Brazilian Grand Prix, as he once again finished third behind champion Vettel and runner-up Jenson Button. Webber partnered Vettel again in the 2012 season, outperforming him in the early season and looked to be a major title contender but fell away with no wins in the second half of the season after two in the Monaco and British Grands Prix. The latter win turned out to be his final Grand Prix victory. He finished the season in sixth position. Webber was also a long-term director of the Grand Prix Drivers' Association, the Formula One drivers' union.

On 27 June 2013, Webber announced he would be retiring from Formula One at the end of the season. He began to race for Porsche in 2014, on a long-term deal, racing LMP1 Sportscars in the FIA World Endurance Championship. Webber is one of six drivers of the Porsche 919 Hybrid, and in November 2015 he became World Endurance Champion in the #17 car, alongside Timo Bernhard and Brendon Hartley. The trio race with the #1 on their car in 2016. After his retirement from F1 Webber joined the BBC F1 team as an occasional pundit and reporter from 2014–2015 and has joined the Channel 4 F1 Team in the UK for their coverage in 2016 as a full-time pundit.

On 13 October 2016, Webber announced that he would retire from driving at the end of the 2016 season in order to take up a representative role with Porsche and to focus on media roles with Channel 4's coverage of F1 and WEC.

Michael Schumacher

Michael Schumacher (; German: [ˈmɪçaːʔeːl ˈʃuːmaxɐ] (listen); born 3 January 1969) is a retired German racing driver who raced in Formula One for Jordan Grand Prix, Benetton and Ferrari, where he spent most of his career, as well as for Mercedes upon his return to the sport. Widely regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers ever, and regarded by some as the greatest of all time, Schumacher is the only driver in history to win seven Formula One World Championships, five of which he won consecutively. The most successful driver in the history of the sport, Schumacher holds the records for the most World Championship titles (7), the most Grand Prix wins (91), the most fastest laps (77) and the most races won in a single season (13), and according to the official Formula One website (Formula1.com), Schumacher was "statistically the greatest driver the sport has ever seen" at the time of his retirement from the sport.After success in karting as a child, Schumacher won titles in Formula König and Formula Three before joining Mercedes in the World Sportscar Championship. In 1991, his Mercedes-funded race debut for the Jordan Formula One team resulted in Schumacher being signed by Benetton for the rest of that season. He finished third in 1992 and fourth in 1993, before becoming the first German World Drivers' Champion in 1994 by one point over Damon Hill, albeit in controversial circumstances. In 1995 he repeated the success, this time with a greater margin. In 1996, Schumacher moved to Ferrari, who had last won the Drivers' Championship in 1979, and helped them transform into the most successful team in Formula One history, as he came close to winning the 1997 and 1998 titles, before breaking his leg at the 1999 British Grand Prix, ending another title run.

Schumacher won five consecutive drivers' titles from 2000 to 2004, including an unprecedented sixth and seventh title. In 2002, Schumacher won the title with a record six races remaining and finished on the podium in every race. In 2004, Schumacher won twelve out of the first thirteen races and went on to win a record 13 times as he won his final title. Schumacher retired from Formula One in 2006, after finishing runner-up to Renault's Fernando Alonso. Schumacher returned to Formula One in 2010 with Mercedes. He produced the fastest qualifying time at the 2012 Monaco Grand Prix, and achieved his only podium on his return at the 2012 European Grand Prix, where he finished third. In October 2012, Schumacher announced he would retire for a second time at the end of the season.His career was frequently controversial, as he was twice involved in collisions in the final race of a season that determined the outcome of the World Championship, with Damon Hill in 1994 in Adelaide, and with Jacques Villeneuve in 1997 in Jerez. Schumacher is an ambassador for UNESCO and has been involved in numerous humanitarian efforts throughout his life, donating tens of millions of dollars to charity. Schumacher and his younger brother, Ralf, are the only siblings to win races in Formula One, and they were the first brothers to finish 1st and 2nd in the same race, a feat they repeated in four subsequent races.

On 29 December 2013, Schumacher suffered a traumatic brain injury in a skiing accident. He was placed in a medically induced coma for six months until 16 June 2014. He left the hospital in Grenoble for further rehabilitation at the University Hospital of Lausanne. On 9 September 2014, Schumacher was relocated to his home where he continues to receive medical treatment and rehabilitation privately. As of 2016 he remained unable to walk or stand.

PlayStation 3

The PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment. It is the successor to PlayStation 2, and is part of the PlayStation brand of consoles. It was first released on November 11, 2006, in Japan, November 17, 2006, in North America, and March 23, 2007, in Europe and Australia. The PlayStation 3 competed mainly against consoles such as Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Nintendo's Wii as part of the seventh generation of video game consoles.

The console was first officially announced at E3 2005, and was released at the end of 2006. It was the first console to use Blu-ray Disc as its primary storage medium. The console was the first PlayStation to integrate social gaming services, including the PlayStation Network, as well as the first to be controllable from a handheld console, through its remote connectivity with PlayStation Portable and PlayStation Vita. In September 2009, the Slim model of the PlayStation 3 was released. It no longer provided the hardware ability to run PS2 games. It was lighter and thinner than the original version, and featured a redesigned logo and marketing design, as well as a minor start-up change in software. A Super Slim variation was then released in late 2012, further refining and redesigning the console.

During its early years, the system had a critically negative reception, due to its high price ($599 for a 60 gigabyte model, and $499 for a 20 GB model), a complex processor architecture and a lack of quality games, but was praised for its Blu-ray capabilities and "untapped potential". The reception would get more positive over time. The system had a slow start in the market but managed to recover, particularly after the introduction of the Slim model. Its successor, the PlayStation 4, was released later in November 2013. On September 29, 2015, Sony confirmed that sales of the PlayStation 3 were to be discontinued in New Zealand, but the system remained in production in other markets. Shipments of new units to Europe and Australia ended in March 2016, followed by North America which ended in October 2016. Heading into 2017, Japan was the last territory where new units were still being produced until May 29, 2017, when Sony confirmed the PlayStation 3 was discontinued in Japan.

Prison Break

Prison Break is an American television serial drama created by Paul Scheuring, that was broadcast on Fox for four seasons, with 81 episodes from August 29, 2005 to May 15, 2009, and a fifth season which aired from April 4, to May 30, 2017. The series revolves around two brothers, Lincoln Burrows (Dominic Purcell) and Michael Scofield (Wentworth Miller); Burrows has been sentenced to death for a crime he did not commit, and Scofield devises an elaborate plan to help his brother escape prison and clear his name. The series was produced by Adelstein-Parouse Productions, in association with Original Television and 20th Century Fox Television. Along with creator Paul Scheuring, the series is executive produced by Matt Olmstead, Kevin Hooks, Marty Adelstein, Dawn Parouse, Neal H. Moritz, and Brett Ratner who directed the pilot episode. The series' theme music, composed by Ramin Djawadi, was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award in 2006.The series was originally turned down by Fox in 2003, which was concerned about the long-term prospects of such a series. Following the popularity of serialized prime time television series Lost and 24, Fox decided to back production in 2004. The first season received generally positive reviews, and performed well in the ratings. The first season was originally planned for a 13-episode run, but was extended to include an extra nine episodes due to its popularity. Prison Break was nominated for several industry awards, including the 2005 Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series Drama and the 2006 People's Choice Award for Favorite New TV Drama, which it won. In the United States, all five seasons have been released on DVD and released on Blu-ray internationally.

The success of the series has inspired short videos for mobile phones, several official tie-ins in print and on the Internet, as well as a video game. A spin-off series, Prison Break: Proof of Innocence, was produced exclusively for mobile phones. The series has spawned an official magazine and a tie-in novel. The fourth season of Prison Break returned from its mid-season break in a new timeslot on April 17, 2009, for the series' last six episodes. Two additional episodes, titled "The Old Ball and Chain" and "Free" were produced, and were later transformed into a standalone feature, titled The Final Break. The events of this feature take place before the last scene of the series finale, and are intended to conclude unfinished plotlines. The feature was released on DVD and Blu-ray July 21, 2009.A nine-episode fifth season was announced by Fox in January 2016. The revival series, dubbed Prison Break: Resurrection, premiered on April 4, 2017, and aired on Tuesdays at 9:00 pm. The season concluded on May 30, 2017. On December 12, 2017, Dominic Purcell announced via Instagram that season 6 is "in the works." Then on January 4, 2018, Fox officially confirmed that season 6 is in early development.

Slayer

Slayer is an American thrash metal band from Huntington Park, California. The band was formed in 1981 by vocalist and bassist Tom Araya and guitarists Kerry King and Jeff Hanneman. Slayer's fast and aggressive musical style made them one of the founding "big four" bands of thrash metal, alongside Metallica, Megadeth and Anthrax. Slayer's current lineup comprises King, Araya, drummer Paul Bostaph and guitarist Gary Holt. Hanneman and drummers Dave Lombardo and Jon Dette are former members of the band.

In the original line-up, King, Hanneman and Araya contributed to the band's lyrics, and all of the band's music was written by King and Hanneman. The band's lyrics and album art, which cover topics such as murder, serial killers, necrophilia, torture, genocide, human experimentation, Satanism, hate crimes, terrorism, religion, antireligion, Nazism and war, have generated album bans, delays, lawsuits and criticism from religious groups and factions of the general public. However, its music has been highly influential, often being cited by many bands as an influence musically, visually and lyrically; the band's third album, Reign in Blood (1986), was described as one of the heaviest and most influential thrash metal albums.

Slayer has released twelve studio albums, two live albums, a box set, six music videos, two extended plays and a cover album. Four of the band's studio albums have received gold certification in the United States. The band has received five Grammy Award nominations, winning one in 2007 for the song "Eyes of the Insane" and one in 2008 for the song "Final Six", both of which were from the album Christ Illusion (2006). Between 1991 and 2013, the band sold five million albums in the United States. After 37 years of recording and performing, Slayer announced in January 2018 that they would embark on their final world tour, which began that May and is estimated to wrap up in 2019 or 2020.

Spanish Civil War

The Spanish Civil War (Spanish: Guerra Civil Española) took place from 1936 to 1939. Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with the Anarchists and Communists, fought against the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, Monarchists, and Catholics, led by General Francisco Franco. The war was known as a struggle between democracy and fascism, particularly due to the international political climate. The Nationalists won the war in early 1939 and ruled Spain until Franco's death in November 1975.

The war began after a pronunciamiento (a declaration of military opposition) against the Republican government by a group of generals of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces, originally under the leadership of José Sanjurjo. The government at the time was a moderate, liberal coalition of Republicans, supported in the Cortes by communist and socialist parties, under the leadership of centre-left President Manuel Azaña. The Nationalist group was supported by a number of conservative groups, including the Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups (Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas, or CEDA), monarchists such as the religious conservative (Roman Catholic) Carlists, and the Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (FE y de las JONS), a fascist political party. Sanjurjo was killed in an aircraft accident while attempting to return from exile in Portugal, whereupon Franco emerged as the leader of the Nationalists.

The coup was supported by military units in the Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Pamplona, Burgos, Zaragoza, Valladolid, Cádiz, Córdoba, and Seville. However, rebelling units in some important cities—such as Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Bilbao, and Málaga—did not gain control, and those cities remained under the control of the government. Spain was thus left militarily and politically divided. The Nationalists and the Republican government fought for control of the country. The Nationalist forces received munitions, soldiers, and air support from Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, while the Republican (Loyalist) side received support from the Soviet Union and Mexico. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom, France, and the United States, continued to recognize the Republican government, but followed an official policy of non-intervention. Notwithstanding this policy, tens of thousands of citizens from non-interventionist countries directly participated in the conflict. They fought mostly in the pro-Republican International Brigades, which also included several thousand exiles from pro-Nationalist regimes.

The Nationalists advanced from their strongholds in the south and west, capturing most of Spain's northern coastline in 1937. They also besieged Madrid and the area to its south and west for much of the war. After much of Catalonia was captured in 1938 and 1939, and Madrid cut off from Barcelona, the Republican military position became hopeless. Madrid and Barcelona were occupied without resistance, Franco declared victory and his regime received diplomatic recognition from all non-interventionist governments. Thousands of leftist Spaniards fled to refugee camps in southern France. Those associated with the losing Republicans were persecuted by the victorious Nationalists. With the establishment of a dictatorship led by General Franco in the aftermath of the war, all right-wing parties were fused into the structure of the Franco regime.The war became notable for the passion and political division it inspired and for the many atrocities that occurred, on both sides. Organized purges occurred in territory captured by Franco's forces so they could consolidate their future regime. A significant number of killings also took place in areas controlled by the Republicans. The extent to which Republican authorities took part in killings in Republican territory varied.

Stephen Colbert

Stephen Tyrone Colbert ( kohl-BAIR; born May 13, 1964) is an American comedian, writer, producer, political commentator, actor, and television host. He is best known for hosting the satirical Comedy Central program The Colbert Report from 2005 to 2014 and the CBS talk program The Late Show with Stephen Colbert beginning in September 2015.Colbert originally studied to be a dramatic actor, but became interested in improvisational theatre while attending Northwestern University, where he met Second City director Del Close. Colbert first performed professionally as an understudy for Steve Carell at Second City Chicago, where his troupe mates included Paul Dinello and Amy Sedaris, comedians with whom he developed the sketch comedy series, Exit 57. He wrote and performed on the short-lived Dana Carvey Show before collaborating with Sedaris and Dinello again on the cult television series Strangers with Candy. He gained attention for his role on the latter as closeted gay history teacher Chuck Noblet.

Colbert's work as a correspondent on Comedy Central's news-parody series The Daily Show gained him wide recognition. In 2005, he left The Daily Show to host The Colbert Report. Following The Daily Show's news-parody concept, The Colbert Report was a parody of personality-driven political opinion shows including The O'Reilly Factor, in which he portrayed a caricatured version of conservative political pundits. The series became one of Comedy Central's highest-rated series, earning Colbert an invitation to perform as featured entertainer at the White House Correspondents' Association Dinner in 2006. After ending The Colbert Report, he was hired in 2015 to succeed retiring David Letterman as host of the Late Show on CBS. He hosted the 69th Primetime Emmy Awards in September 2017.

Colbert has won nine Primetime Emmy Awards, two Grammy Awards, and two Peabody Awards. Colbert was named one of Time's 100 Most Influential People in 2006 and 2012. Colbert's book, I Am America (And So Can You!), listed #1 on The New York Times Best Seller list in 2007.

Steve Irwin

Stephen Robert Irwin (22 February 1962 – 4 September 2006), nicknamed "The Crocodile Hunter" was an Australian zookeeper, conservationist and television personality. Irwin achieved worldwide fame from the television series The Crocodile Hunter (1996–2007), an internationally broadcast wildlife documentary series which he co-hosted with his wife Terri; the couple also hosted the series Croc Files (1999–2001), The Crocodile Hunter Diaries (2002–2006), and New Breed Vets (2005). They also owned and operated Australia Zoo, founded by Irwin's parents in Beerwah, about 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of the Queensland state capital city of Brisbane.

Irwin died at 44, after being pierced in the heart by a stingray barb while filming an underwater documentary film titled Ocean's Deadliest.

Syd Barrett

Roger Keith "Syd" Barrett (6 January 1946 – 7 July 2006) was an English singer, songwriter, and musician. As a founder member of the band Pink Floyd, Barrett was the lead singer, guitarist and principal songwriter in its early years and is credited with naming the band. He was ousted from Pink Floyd in April 1968 after David Gilmour took over as their new guitarist, and was briefly hospitalised amid speculation of mental illness and his excessive use of psychedelic drugs.

Barrett was musically active for less than ten years. With Pink Floyd, he recorded four singles, their debut album The Piper at the Gates of Dawn (1967), portions of their second album A Saucerful of Secrets (1968), and several unreleased songs. Barrett began his solo career in 1969 with the single "Octopus" from his first solo album, The Madcap Laughs (1970). The album was recorded over the course of a year with five different producers and included two tracks featuring members of Soft Machine. He recorded and released one more album, Barrett (1970), produced by Gilmour and featuring contributions from former Pink Floyd bandmate Richard Wright. Two years later, Barrett left the music industry, retired from public life and strictly guarded his privacy until his death in 2006. In 1988, EMI released an album of unreleased tracks and outtakes, Opel, with Barrett's approval.

Barrett's innovative guitar work and exploration of experimental techniques such as dissonance, distortion and feedback influenced many musicians. His vocals are noted for their strong English accent. After leaving the music industry, Barrett continued painting and dedicated himself to gardening. Pink Floyd recorded several tributes to him, most notably the 1975 album Wish You Were Here, which includes the homage "Shine On You Crazy Diamond".

The Departed

The Departed is a 2006 American crime thriller film directed by Martin Scorsese and written by William Monahan. It is a remake of the 2002 Hong Kong film Infernal Affairs. The film stars Leonardo DiCaprio, Matt Damon, Jack Nicholson, and Mark Wahlberg, with Martin Sheen, Ray Winstone, Vera Farmiga, Anthony Anderson and Alec Baldwin in supporting roles.

The film takes place in Boston. Irish Mob boss Francis "Frank" Costello (Nicholson) plants Colin Sullivan (Damon) as a mole within the Massachusetts State Police; simultaneously, the police assign undercover state trooper William "Billy" Costigan (DiCaprio) to infiltrate Costello's crew. When both sides realize the situation, Sullivan and Costigan each attempt to discover the other's identity before they are found out. The two characters are loosely based on famous gangster Whitey Bulger and corrupt FBI agent John Connolly.The Departed was a critical and commercial success and won several awards, including four Oscars at the 79th Academy Awards, for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Film Editing; Mark Wahlberg was also nominated for Best Supporting Actor.

The World's Billionaires

The World's Billionaires is an annual ranking by documented net worth of the world's wealthiest billionaires compiled and published in March annually by the American business magazine Forbes. The list was first published in March 1987. The total net worth of each individual on the list is estimated and is cited in United States dollars, based on their documented assets and accounting for debt. Royalty and dictators whose wealth comes from their positions are excluded from these lists. This ranking is an index of the wealthiest documented individuals, excluding and ranking against those with wealth that is not able to be completely ascertained.In 2018, there was a record of 2,208 people on the list, that included 259 newcomers mostly from China and the U.S.; there were 63 people under 40 and it had a record number of 256 women. The average net worth of the list came in at US$4.1 billion, up US$350 million from 2017. Added together, the total net worth for 2018's billionaires was US$9.1 trillion, up from US$7.67 trillion in 2017. As of 2018, Microsoft founder Bill Gates had topped the list 18 of the past 24 years, while Amazon founder Jeff Bezos is ranked at the top for the first time and he became the first centibillionaire included in the ranking. Additionally, Mark Zuckerberg is currently the only person in the top 10 billionaires list who is under the age of 50, and the only one in the top 20 billionaires list who is under the age of 40.In 2017, 500 of the richest people in the world became richer by $1 trillion, according to a report by Bloomberg News. According to a 2017 Oxfam report, the top eight billionaires own as much combined wealth as "the poorest half of the human race".

Wii

The Wii ( WEE; known unofficially as the Nintendo Wii) is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19, 2006. As a seventh-generation console, the Wii competed with Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Sony's PlayStation 3. Nintendo states that its console targets a broader demographic than that of the two others. As of the first quarter of 2016, the Wii led its generation over the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 in worldwide sales, with more than 101 million units sold; in December 2009, the console broke the sales record for a single month in the United States.The Wii introduced the Wii Remote controller, which can be used as a handheld pointing device and which detects movement in three dimensions. The console runs games supplied on Wii optical discs. It also supported the now discontinued WiiConnect24 service, which enabled Wii to receive messages and updates over the Internet while in standby mode. Like other seventh-generation consoles it supported a service, called "Virtual Console", that downloaded emulated games from past Nintendo consoles, support for online video streaming such as BBC iPlayer, and other services provided by Nintendo over the Internet. Internet services were withdrawn; since 31 January 2019 only re-download of games, system software update, and transfer of data between Wii and Wii U continued to be available, to be withdrawn at an unspecified future date. Wii Points could no longer be purchased after March 2018, and could not be used and were permanently lost from 31 January 2019.The Wii succeeded the GameCube; early models are fully backward-compatible with all GameCube games and most accessories. Nintendo first spoke of the console at the E3 2004 press conference and later unveiled it at E3 2005. Nintendo CEO Satoru Iwata revealed a prototype of the controller at the September 2005 Tokyo Game Show. At E3 2006, the console won the first of several awards. By December 8, 2006, it had completed its launch in the four key markets.

Later models are no longer compatible with Nintendo GameCube. In late 2011, Nintendo released a reconfigured model, the "Wii Family Edition", which was not released in Japan. The Wii Mini, Nintendo's first major console redesign since the compact SNES, succeeded the standard Wii model and was released first in Canada on December 7, 2012. The Wii Mini can only play Wii optical discs, as it has neither GameCube compatibility nor any networking capabilities; this model was not released in Japan, Australia, or New Zealand. The Wii's successor, the Wii U, was released on November 18, 2012. On October 20, 2013, Nintendo confirmed it had discontinued production of the Wii in Japan and Europe.

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