2005

2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2005th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 5th year of the 3rd millennium, the 5th year of the 21st century, and the 6th year of the 2000s decade.

2005 was designated as:

The year 2005 was the end of the International Decade of the World's Indigenous People (1995–2005).

Millennium: 3rd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
2005 by topic:
Arts
ArchitectureComicsFilmHome videoLiterature (Poetry) – Music (Country, Metal, UK) – Radio – Photo – TelevisionVideo gaming
Politics
Elections – International leadersSovereign states
Sovereign state leadersTerritorial governors
Science and technology
ArchaeologyAviationBirding/OrnithologyPalaeontologyRail transportSpaceflight
Sports
Badminton – BaseballBasketball – Volleyball
By place
AfghanistanAlbaniaAlgeria – Angola – Antarctica – Argentina – Armenia – Australia – Austria – Azerbaijan – Bangladesh – The Bahamas – Barbados – Belgium – Benin – Bhutan – Bosnia and HerzegovinaBrazil – Bulgaria – Burkina Faso – Burundi – Cambodia – Cameroon – CanadaCape Verde – Central African Republic – ChadChileChina – Colombia – Costa Rica – Croatia – Cuba – Cyprus – Czechia – Denmark – Ecuador – Egypt – El Salvador – Estonia – EthiopiaEuropean Union – Finland – France – Gabon – GeorgiaGermanyGhanaGreece – Guatemala – Hungary – IcelandIndiaIndonesiaIraqIranIrelandIsrael – Italy – Ivory CoastJapanKazakhstan – Kenya – KuwaitLaos – Latvia – Libya – Lithuania – LuxembourgMacau – Madagascar – Malawi – Malaysia – Mali – Mexico – Moldova – Montenegro – Morocco – Mozambique – Myanmar – NepalNetherlandsNew Zealand – Niger – NigeriaNorth KoreaNorway – Oman – PakistanPalestine – Peru – PhilippinesPolandPortugalRomaniaRussiaRwandaSaudi Arabia – Senegal – Serbia – Singapore – Slovakia – Slovenia – SomaliaSouth AfricaSouth KoreaSouth SudanSpain – Sri Lanka – Sudan – SwedenSwitzerland – Syria – Taiwan – Tanzania – ThailandTurkeyUganda – Ukraine – United Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited States – Uruguay – Uzbekistan – Venezuela – Vietnam – Yemen – Zambia – Zimbabwe
Other topics
Religious leaders
Birth and death categories
Births – Deaths
Establishments and disestablishments categories
Establishments – Disestablishments
Works and introductions categories
Works – Introductions
Works entering the public domain
2005 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar2005
MMV
Ab urbe condita2758
Armenian calendar1454
ԹՎ ՌՆԾԴ
Assyrian calendar6755
Bahá'í calendar161–162
Balinese saka calendar1926–1927
Bengali calendar1412
Berber calendar2955
British Regnal year53 Eliz. 2 – 54 Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar2549
Burmese calendar1367
Byzantine calendar7513–7514
Chinese calendar甲申(Wood Monkey)
4701 or 4641
    — to —
乙酉年 (Wood Rooster)
4702 or 4642
Coptic calendar1721–1722
Discordian calendar3171
Ethiopian calendar1997–1998
Hebrew calendar5765–5766
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2061–2062
 - Shaka Samvat1926–1927
 - Kali Yuga5105–5106
Holocene calendar12005
Igbo calendar1005–1006
Iranian calendar1383–1384
Islamic calendar1425–1426
Japanese calendarHeisei 17
(平成17年)
Javanese calendar1937–1938
Juche calendar94
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4338
Minguo calendarROC 94
民國94年
Nanakshahi calendar537
Thai solar calendar2548
Tibetan calendar阳木猴年
(male Wood-Monkey)
2131 or 1750 or 978
    — to —
阴木鸡年
(female Wood-Rooster)
2132 or 1751 or 979
Unix time1104537600 – 1136073599

Events

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Births

Deaths

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal

New English words and terms

  • didymo
  • functional calculus
  • glamping
  • locavore
  • microblogging
  • pre-exposure prophylaxis
  • ransomware
  • rock snot
  • sexting
  • truther
  • vodcast[47]

References

  1. ^ Hamilton, Calvin J. "Dwarf Planet Eris". Solar Views. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  2. ^ "Comet probe Deep Impact launches". BBC. January 12, 2005. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  3. ^ Malik, Tariq; de Selding, Peter (January 14, 2005). "Touchdown on Titan: Huygens Probe Hits its Mark". Space.com. Archived from the original on October 10, 2009. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  4. ^ Faiola, Anthony (February 10, 2005). "N. Korea Declares Itself a Nuclear Power". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  5. ^ Watson, Roland (February 16, 2005). "Outraged Bush turns up heat on Damascus after bomb". The Times. London. Retrieved October 14, 2009.
  6. ^ "Kyoto Protocol comes into effect". CBC News. February 16, 2005. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  7. ^ "Countries support Anti-Secession Law". China Daily. March 16, 2005. Retrieved October 21, 2009.
  8. ^ "Kyrgyz citizens overthrow President Ayakev (Tulip Revolution), 2005". Global Nonviolent Action Database. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  9. ^ "Pope John Paul II Laid to Rest Today Amidst Huge Crowds". CNN International. April 8, 2005. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
  10. ^ Coates, Sam; Asthana, Anushka (April 8, 2005). "What is Pope John Paul II's legacy?". The Times. London. Retrieved October 23, 2009.
  11. ^ "The funeral of Pope John Paul II". BBC News. April 8, 2005. Retrieved October 23, 2009.
  12. ^ Johnson, Daniel (April 20, 2005). "Pope Benedict XVI may be more controversial than his predecessor but he can still be a great leader". The Times Online. London. Retrieved October 27, 2009.
  13. ^ "Pope Benedict XVI". New York Times. April 19, 2005. Retrieved October 27, 2009.
  14. ^ Early, Chas (April 9, 2005). "April 9, 2005: Prince Charles marries Camilla Parker-Bowles at Windsor's Guildhall". BT. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  15. ^ "Syria withdrawal: Lebanese speak". BBC News. April 27, 2009. Retrieved October 27, 2009.
  16. ^ "Airbus A380 Completes First Flight". Fox News. Associated Press. April 27, 2005. Retrieved October 27, 2009.
  17. ^ "Toll from Uzbekistan violence disputed". USA Today. Associated Press. May 17, 2005. Retrieved October 28, 2009.
  18. ^ "Solar Sail Spacecraft Launch Fails". Fox News. Associated Press. June 22, 2005. Retrieved November 1, 2009.
  19. ^ "Millions gather for Live 8". CNN. July 3, 2005. Retrieved April 3, 2010.
  20. ^ "Software patent bill thrown out". BBC News. July 6, 2005. Retrieved November 8, 2009.
  21. ^ "On this day – 6 July 2005". BBC News. Retrieved September 17, 2017.
  22. ^ "London bombings: Police updates". BBC News. July 9, 2005. Retrieved November 8, 2009.
  23. ^ "Death toll from Egypt blasts rises to 59 - TV". Xinhua News Agency. July 23, 2005. Retrieved November 9, 2009.
  24. ^ Frankel, Glenn (July 29, 2005). "IRA Says It Will Abandon Violence". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 9, 2009.
  25. ^ Howell, Elizabeth (January 26, 2015). "Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: Mapping Mars in High Definition". Space. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  26. ^ Ellsworth, Brian; Forero, Juan (August 17, 2005). "160 Die in Crash of Airliner in Venezuela". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  27. ^ Parfitt, Tom (August 18, 2005). "Russia and China rattle sabres with joint war games". the Guardian. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  28. ^ Library, C. N. N. "Hurricane Katrina Statistics Fast Facts". CNN. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  29. ^ "Iraq stampede deaths near 1,000". BBC. August 31, 2005. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  30. ^ "Egypt's Ugly Election". The Washington Post. December 10, 2005. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  31. ^ "Demolition of Gaza homes completed". Ynetnews News. September 12, 2005. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  32. ^ Traynor, Ian; Watts, Jonathan; Borger, Julian (September 19, 2005). "North Korea vows to abandon nuclear weapons project". the Guardian. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  33. ^ "French court clears weekly in Mohammad cartoon row". Reuters. March 22, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  34. ^ Associated Press (October 20, 2005). "New figures put quake toll at more than 79,000". MSNBC. Retrieved February 6, 2017.
  35. ^ Malik, Tariq (October 11, 2005). "Shenzhou 6 Away! China Launches Two Astronauts in Second Manned Spaceflight". Space.com. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  36. ^ "2005: Trial of Saddam Hussein Begins". National Geographic. October 19, 2005. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  37. ^ "Strongest Atlantic Hurricane: Wilma Brought Havoc to Mexico, Florida". www.accuweather.com. Retrieved August 3, 2018.
  38. ^ "Jordan 'not afraid' after bombs". BBC. November 10, 2005. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  39. ^ http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/articles/eav111405.shtml
  40. ^ "Caution over HIV 'cure' claims". BBC. November 13, 2005. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  41. ^ "2005: Merkel becomes German chancellor". BBC. November 22, 2005. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  42. ^ Fickling, David (November 23, 2005). "Johnson-Sirleaf declared Liberian president". the Guardian. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  43. ^ "UN summit seeks climate solutions". BBC. November 29, 2005. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  44. ^ "'My face transplant saved me'". BBC. October 17, 2006. Retrieved June 5, 2016.
  45. ^ Handwerk, Brian (December 14, 2005). "Mice With Human Brain Cells Created". National Geographic. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  46. ^ Khamsi, Roxanne (July 6, 2005). "Leap second to be added to 2005". Nature. Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  47. ^ "Time Traveler by Merriam-Webster: Words from 2005". merriam-webster.com. Retrieved May 9, 2018.
2005 United Kingdom general election

The 2005 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 5 May 2005, to elect 646 members to the House of Commons. The Labour Party led by Tony Blair won its third consecutive victory, with Blair becoming the only Labour leader beside Harold Wilson to form three majority governments. However, its majority now stood at 66 seats compared to the 160-seat majority it had previously held. As of 2019, it remains the last general election victory for the Labour Party.

The Labour campaign emphasised a strong economy; however, Blair had suffered a decline in popularity, which was exacerbated by the decision to send British troops to invade Iraq in 2003. Despite this, Labour mostly retained its leads over the Conservatives in opinion polls on economic competence and leadership, and Conservative leaders Iain Duncan Smith (2001-3) and Michael Howard (2003-5) struggled to capitalise on Blair's unpopularity, with the party consistently trailing Labour in the polls throughout the 2001-5 Parliament.

The Conservatives campaigned on policies, such as immigration limits, improving poorly-managed hospitals and reducing high crime rates, all under the slogan "Are you thinking what we're thinking?". The Liberal Democrats, led by Charles Kennedy, were opposed to the Iraq War, given that there had been no second UN resolution, and collected votes from disenchanted Labour voters.

Tony Blair was returned as Prime Minister, with Labour having 355 MPs, but with a popular vote of 35.2%; the lowest of any majority government in UK electoral history. In terms of votes, it was only narrowly ahead of the Conservatives, but still had a comfortable lead in terms of seats. The Conservatives returned 198 MPs, with 32 more seats than they had won at the previous general election, and won the popular vote in England, while still ending up with 91 fewer MPs in England than Labour; this indicated the party lost many close races and won more large majorities in its heartlands. The Liberal Democrats saw their popular vote increase by 3.7% and won the most seats of any third party since 1923, with 62 MPs. Anti-war activist and former Labour MP George Galloway was elected as the MP for Bethnal Green and Bow under the Respect – The Unity Coalition banner; Richard Taylor was re-elected for Kidderminster Health Concern in Worcestershire; and independent candidate Peter Law was elected in Blaenau Gwent.

In Northern Ireland, the Ulster Unionist Party, the more moderate of the main unionist parties, which had dominated Northern Irish politics since the 1920s, was reduced from six MPs to one, with party leader David Trimble himself being unseated. The more hardline Democratic Unionist Party became the largest Northern Irish party, with nine MPs elected. Following the election, Conservative leader Michael Howard resigned and was succeeded by future Prime Minister David Cameron. Blair resigned as both Prime Minister and Leader of the Labour Party in June 2007, and was replaced by then-Chancellor of the Exchequer Gordon Brown. The election results were broadcast live on the BBC, and presented by Peter Snow, David Dimbleby, Jeremy Paxman and Andrew Marr.

2005–06 UEFA Champions League

The 2005–06 UEFA Champions League was the 51st season of UEFA's premier European club football tournament, the UEFA Champions League and the 14th since it was rebranded from the European Cup in 1992. 74 teams from 50 football associations took part, starting with the first qualifying round played on 12 July 2005.

The tournament ended with a final between Arsenal and Barcelona at Stade de France, Paris, on 17 May 2006. Barcelona won 2–1 with Juliano Belletti scoring a late winner. Arsenal had taken the lead through a Sol Campbell header in the 37th minute, despite Jens Lehmann being sent off in the 18th minute. Samuel Eto'o brought Barcelona back on level terms in the 76th minute before Belletti scored the winner five minutes later.

The defending champions Liverpool were eliminated by Benfica in the first knockout round.

7 July 2005 London bombings

The 7 July 2005 London bombings, often referred to as 7/7, were a series of coordinated terrorist suicide attacks in London, England that targeted commuters travelling on the city's public transport system during the morning rush hour.

Four radical Islamic terrorists separately detonated three homemade bombs in quick succession aboard London Underground trains across the city and, later, a fourth on a double-decker bus in Tavistock Square. The train bombings occurred on the Circle line near Aldgate and at Edgware Road, and on the Piccadilly line near Russell Square.

Fifty-two people of 18 different nationalities, all of whom were UK residents, were killed, and more than 700 were injured in the attacks, making it Britain's deadliest terrorist incident since the 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 near Lockerbie, Scotland, and England's deadliest since the 1974 Birmingham pub bombings, as well as the country's first Islamist suicide attack.

The explosions were caused by triacetone triperoxide IEDs packed into backpacks. The bombings were followed two weeks later by a series of attempted attacks that failed to cause injury or damage. The 7 July attacks occurred the day after London had won its bid to host the 2012 Olympic Games.

Adolf Eichmann

Otto Adolf Eichmann (; German: [ˈʔɔtoː ˈʔaːdɔlf ˈʔaɪ̯çman]; 19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German-Austrian Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer ("Senior Assault Unit Leader") and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust. He was tasked by SS-Obergruppenführer ("Senior Group Leader") Reinhard Heydrich with facilitating and managing the logistics involved in the mass deportation of Jews to ghettos and extermination camps in Nazi-occupied Eastern Europe during World War II. He was captured by the Mossad in Argentina on 11 May 1960 and subsequently found guilty of war crimes in a widely publicised trial in Jerusalem, Israel. Eichmann was executed by hanging in 1962.

After an unremarkable school career, Eichmann briefly worked for his father's mining company in Austria, where the family had moved in 1914. He worked as a travelling oil salesman beginning in 1927, and joined both the Nazi Party and the SS in 1932. He returned to Germany in 1933, where he joined the Sicherheitsdienst (SD; Security Service); there he was appointed head of the department responsible for Jewish affairs—especially emigration, which the Nazis encouraged through violence and economic pressure. After the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, Eichmann and his staff arranged for Jews to be concentrated in ghettos in major cities with the expectation that they would be transported either farther east or overseas. He also drew up plans for a Jewish reservation, first at Nisko in southeast Poland and later in Madagascar, but neither of these plans was ever carried out.

The Nazis began the invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, and their Jewish policy changed from emigration to extermination. To co-ordinate planning for the genocide, Heydrich, who was Eichmann's superior, hosted the regime's administrative leaders at the Wannsee Conference on 20 January 1942. Eichmann collected information for him, attended the conference, and prepared the minutes. Eichmann and his staff became responsible for Jewish deportations to extermination camps, where the victims were gassed. Germany invaded Hungary in March 1944, and Eichmann oversaw the deportation of much of the Jewish population. Most of the victims were sent to Auschwitz concentration camp, where about 75 per cent were murdered upon arrival. By the time that the transports were stopped in July 1944, 437,000 of Hungary's 725,000 Jews had been killed. Dieter Wisliceny testified at Nuremberg that Eichmann told him he would "leap laughing into the grave because the feeling that he had five million people on his conscience would be for him a source of extraordinary satisfaction".After Germany's defeat in 1945, Eichmann was captured by US forces, but escaped from a detention camp and moved around Germany to avoid re-capture. He ended up in a small village in Lower Saxony, where he lived until 1950, when he moved to Argentina using false papers. Information collected by the Mossad, Israel's intelligence agency, confirmed his location in 1960. A team of Mossad and Shin Bet agents captured Eichmann and brought him to Israel to stand trial on 15 criminal charges, including war crimes, crimes against humanity, and crimes against the Jewish people. During the trial, he did not deny the Holocaust or his role in organising it, but claimed that he was simply following orders in a totalitarian Führerprinzip system. He was found guilty on all of the charges, and was executed by hanging on 1 June 1962. The trial was widely followed in the media and was later the subject of several books, including Hannah Arendt's Eichmann in Jerusalem, in which Arendt coined the phrase "the banality of evil" to describe Eichmann.

Amazon rainforest

The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Spanish: Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; French: Forêt amazonienne; Dutch: Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America. This basin encompasses 7,000,000 km2 (2,700,000 sq mi), of which 5,500,000 km2 (2,100,000 sq mi) are covered by the rainforest. This region includes territory belonging to nine nations. The majority of the forest is contained within Brazil, with 60% of the rainforest, followed by Peru with 13%, Colombia with 10%, and with minor amounts in Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname and France (French Guiana). States or departments in four nations contain "Amazonas" in their names. The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests, and comprises the largest and most biodiverse tract of tropical rainforest in the world, with an estimated 390 billion individual trees divided into 16,000 species.

Batman Begins

Batman Begins is a 2005 superhero film based on the DC Comics character Batman, directed by Christopher Nolan and written by Nolan and David S. Goyer. It stars Christian Bale, Michael Caine, Liam Neeson, Katie Holmes, Gary Oldman, Cillian Murphy, Tom Wilkinson, Rutger Hauer, Ken Watanabe, and Morgan Freeman. The film reboots the Batman film series, telling the origin story of Bruce Wayne from the death of his parents to his journey to become Batman and his fight to stop Ra's al Ghul and the Scarecrow from plunging Gotham City into chaos.

Following the poor reception of Batman & Robin (1997) a series of unsuccessful attempts were made to resurrect Batman on the big screen which put the Batman film series on hold for nearly eight years, Nolan and Goyer began work on the film in early 2003. Aiming for a darker, more realistic tone compared to the previous films, a primary goal for their vision was to engage the audience's emotional investment in both the Batman and Bruce Wayne identities of the lead character. The film, which was principally shot in the United Kingdom, Iceland and Chicago, relied heavily on traditional stunts and miniature effects, with computer-generated imagery being used in a minimal capacity compared to other action films. Comic book storylines such as The Man Who Falls, Batman: Year One and Batman: The Long Halloween served as inspiration.

Batman Begins opened on June 17, 2005, in the United States and Canada in 3,858 theaters. It grossed over $48 million in its opening weekend in North America, eventually grossing over $374 million worldwide. The film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Cinematography and three BAFTA awards. It was followed by The Dark Knight (2008) and The Dark Knight Rises (2012), which constitute The Dark Knight Trilogy.

Battle of Midway

The Battle of Midway was a decisive naval battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II that took place between 4 and 7 June 1942, only six months after Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor and one month after the Battle of the Coral Sea. The United States Navy under Admirals Chester Nimitz, Frank Jack Fletcher, and Raymond A. Spruance defeated an attacking fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy under Admirals Isoroku Yamamoto, Chūichi Nagumo, and Nobutake Kondō near Midway Atoll, inflicting devastating damage on the Japanese fleet that proved irreparable. Military historian John Keegan called it "the most stunning and decisive blow in the history of naval warfare".The Japanese operation, like the earlier attack on Pearl Harbor, sought to eliminate the United States as a strategic power in the Pacific, thereby giving Japan a free hand in establishing its Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. The Japanese hoped another demoralizing defeat would force the U.S. to capitulate in the Pacific War and thus ensure Japanese dominance in the Pacific. Luring the American aircraft carriers into a trap and occupying Midway was part of an overall "barrier" strategy to extend Japan's defensive perimeter, in response to the Doolittle air raid on Tokyo. This operation was also considered preparatory for further attacks against Fiji, Samoa, and Hawaii itself.

The plan was handicapped by faulty Japanese assumptions of the American reaction and poor initial dispositions. Most significantly, American cryptographers were able to determine the date and location of the planned attack, enabling the forewarned U.S. Navy to prepare its own ambush. Four Japanese and three American aircraft carriers participated in the battle. The four Japanese fleet carriers—Akagi, Kaga, Sōryū and Hiryū, part of the six-carrier force that had attacked Pearl Harbor six months earlier—were all sunk, as was the heavy cruiser Mikuma. The U.S. lost the carrier Yorktown and a destroyer.

After Midway and the exhausting attrition of the Solomon Islands campaign, Japan's capacity to replace its losses in materiel (particularly aircraft carriers) and men (especially well-trained pilots and maintenance crewmen) rapidly became insufficient to cope with mounting casualties, while the United States' massive industrial and training capabilities made losses far easier to replace. The Battle of Midway, along with the Guadalcanal Campaign, is widely considered a turning point in the Pacific War.

Charles I of England

Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was the monarch over the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649.

Charles was born into the House of Stuart as the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life. He became heir apparent to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1612. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Two years later, he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead.

After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings, and was determined to govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics, such as Richard Montagu and William Laud, and failed to aid Protestant forces successfully during the Thirty Years' War. His attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, strengthened the position of the English and Scottish parliaments, and helped precipitate his own downfall.

From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and temporarily escaped captivity in November 1647. Re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight, Charles forged an alliance with Scotland, but by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England. Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The monarchy would be restored to Charles's son, Charles II, in 1660.

Frida Kahlo

Frida Kahlo de Rivera (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈfɾiða ˈkalo]; born Magdalena Carmen Frida Kahlo y Calderón; 6 July 1907 – 13 July 1954) was a Mexican artist who painted many portraits, self-portraits and works inspired by the nature and artifacts of Mexico. Inspired by the country's popular culture, she employed a naïve folk art style to explore questions of identity, postcolonialism, gender, class and race in Mexican society. Her paintings often had strong autobiographical elements and mixed realism with fantasy. In addition to belonging to the post-revolutionary Mexicayotl movement, which sought to define a Mexican identity, Kahlo has been described as a surrealist or magical realist.Born to a German father and a mestiza mother, Kahlo spent most of her childhood and adult life at her family home in Coyoacán, La Casa Azul, now known and publicly accessible as the Frida Kahlo Museum. She was disabled by polio as a child. Until a traffic accident at age eighteen caused lifelong pain and medical problems, she had been a promising student headed for medical school. During her recovery, she returned to her childhood hobby of art with the idea of becoming an artist.

Kahlo's interests in politics and art led to the next stage of her life. In 1927, she joined the Mexican Communist Party, through which she met fellow Mexican artist Diego Rivera, whom she married in 1928. Kahlo spent the late 1920s and early 1930s travelling in Mexico and the United States with Rivera. During this time, she developed her artistic style, drew her main inspiration from Mexican folk culture, and painted mostly small self-portraits which mixed elements from pre-Columbian and Catholic mythology. Her paintings raised the interest of Surrealist artist André Breton, who arranged for Kahlo's first solo exhibition at the Julien Levy Gallery in New York in 1938. The exhibition was a success and was followed by another in Paris in 1939. While the French exhibition was less successful, the Louvre purchased a painting from Kahlo, The Frame, making her the first Mexican artist to be featured in their collection. Throughout the 1940s, Kahlo participated in exhibitions in Mexico and the United States. She taught at the Escuela Nacional de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado "La Esmeralda" and became a founding member of the Seminario de Cultura Mexicana. Kahlo's always fragile health began to decline in the same decade. She had her first solo exhibition in Mexico in 1953, shortly before her death in 1954 at the age of 47.

Kahlo's work as an artist remained relatively unknown until the late 1970's, when her work was rediscovered by art historians and political activists. By the early 1990s, she had become not only a recognized figure in art history, but also regarded as an icon for Chicanos, the feminism movement and the LGBTQ movement. Kahlo's work has been celebrated internationally as emblematic of Mexican national and indigenous traditions and by feminists for what is seen as its uncompromising depiction of the female experience and form.

Guy Fawkes

Guy Fawkes (; 13 April 1570 – 31 January 1606), also known as Guido Fawkes while fighting for the Spanish, was a member of a group of provincial English Catholics who planned the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605. He was born and educated in York, England; his father died when Fawkes was eight years old, after which his mother married a recusant Catholic.

Fawkes converted to Catholicism and left for mainland Europe, where he fought for Catholic Spain in the Eighty Years' War against Protestant Dutch reformers in the Low Countries. He travelled to Spain to seek support for a Catholic rebellion in England without success. He later met Thomas Wintour, with whom he returned to England, and Wintour introduced him to Robert Catesby, who planned to assassinate King James I and restore a Catholic monarch to the throne. The plotters leased an undercroft beneath the House of Lords, and Fawkes was placed in charge of the gunpowder which they stockpiled there. The authorities were prompted by an anonymous letter to search Westminster Palace during the early hours of 5 November, and they found Fawkes guarding the explosives. He was questioned and tortured over the next few days, and he finally confessed.

Immediately before his execution on 31 January, Fawkes fell from the scaffold where he was to be hanged and broke his neck, thus avoiding the agony of being hanged, drawn and quartered. He became synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot, the failure of which has been commemorated in Britain as Guy Fawkes Night since 5 November 1605, when his effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, commonly accompanied by fireworks.

Hurricane Katrina

Hurricane Katrina was an extremely destructive and deadly Category 5 hurricane that made landfall on Florida and Louisiana, particularly the city of New Orleans and the surrounding areas, in August 2005, causing catastrophic damage from central Florida to eastern Texas. Subsequent flooding, caused largely as a result of fatal engineering flaws in the flood protection system known as levees around the city of New Orleans, precipitated most of the loss of lives. The storm was the third major hurricane of the record-breaking 2005 Atlantic hurricane season, as well as the fourth-most intense Atlantic hurricane on record to make landfall in the United States, behind only the 1935 Labor Day hurricane, Hurricane Camille in 1969, and Hurricane Michael in 2018.

The storm originated over the Bahamas on August 23, 2005, from the merger of a tropical wave and the remnants of Tropical Depression Ten. Early on the following day, the tropical depression then intensified into a tropical storm as it headed generally westward toward Florida, strengthening into a hurricane only two hours before making landfall at Hallandale Beach and Aventura on August 25. After very briefly weakening again to a tropical storm, Katrina emerged into the Gulf of Mexico on August 26 and began to rapidly intensify. The storm strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane over the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico but weakened before making its second landfall as a Category 3 hurricane on August 29, over southeast Louisiana and Mississippi. As Katrina made landfall, its front right quadrant, which held the strongest winds, slammed into Gulfport, Mississippi, devastating it.Overall, at least 1,836 people died in the hurricane and subsequent floods, making Katrina the deadliest United States hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane. Severe property damage occurred in numerous coastal areas, such as Mississippi beachfront towns where boats and casino barges rammed buildings, pushing cars and houses inland; water reached 6–12 miles (10–19 km) from the beach. The total property damage was estimated at $125 billion (2005 USD), roughly four times the damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew in 1992, tying Katrina with Hurricane Harvey of 2017 as the costliest Atlantic tropical cyclone on record.Over fifty breaches in surge protection levees surrounding the city of New Orleans, Louisiana was the cause of the majority of the death and destruction during Katrina. Eventually, 80% of the city, as well as large tracts of neighboring parishes, became flooded, and the floodwaters lingered for weeks. Most of the transportation and communication networks servicing New Orleans were damaged or disabled by the flooding, and tens of thousands of people who had not evacuated the city prior to landfall became stranded with little access to food, shelter or basic necessities. The scale of the disaster in New Orleans provoked massive national and international response efforts; federal, local and private rescue operations evacuated displaced persons out of the city over the following weeks. Multiple investigations in the aftermath of the storm concluded that the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which had designed and built the region's levees decades earlier, was responsible for the failure of the flood-control systems, though federal courts later ruled that the Corps could not be held financially liable because of sovereign immunity in the Flood Control Act of 1928.There were also widespread criticisms and investigations of the emergency responses from federal, state and local governments, which resulted in the resignations of Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) director Michael D. Brown and New Orleans Police Department (NOPD) Superintendent Eddie Compass. Many other government officials were criticized for their responses, especially New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin, Louisiana Governor Kathleen Blanco, and President George W. Bush. Several agencies including the United States Coast Guard (USCG), National Hurricane Center (NHC) and National Weather Service (NWS) were commended for their actions. The NHC was found to have provided accurate hurricane forecasts with sufficient lead time.

J. Robert Oppenheimer

Julius Robert Oppenheimer (; April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. Oppenheimer was the wartime head of the Los Alamos Laboratory and is among those who are credited with being the "father of the atomic bomb" for their role in the Manhattan Project, the World War II undertaking that developed the first nuclear weapons. The first atomic bomb was successfully detonated on July 16, 1945, in the Trinity test in New Mexico. Oppenheimer later remarked that it brought to mind words from the Bhagavad Gita: "Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds." In August 1945, the weapons were used in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in Japan's unconditional surrender.

After the war ended, Oppenheimer became chairman of the influential General Advisory Committee of the newly created United States Atomic Energy Commission. He used that position to lobby for international control of nuclear power to avert nuclear proliferation and a nuclear arms race with the Soviet Union. After provoking the ire of many politicians with his outspoken opinions during the Second Red Scare, he suffered the revocation of his security clearance in a much-publicized hearing in 1954, and was effectively stripped of his direct political influence; he continued to lecture, write and work in physics. Nine years later, President John F. Kennedy awarded (and Lyndon B. Johnson presented) him with the Enrico Fermi Award as a gesture of political rehabilitation.

Oppenheimer's achievements in physics included the Born–Oppenheimer approximation for molecular wave functions, work on the theory of electrons and positrons, the Oppenheimer–Phillips process in nuclear fusion, and the first prediction of quantum tunneling. With his students he also made important contributions to the modern theory of neutron stars and black holes, as well as to quantum mechanics, quantum field theory, and the interactions of cosmic rays. As a teacher and promoter of science, he is remembered as a founding father of the American school of theoretical physics that gained world prominence in the 1930s. After World War II, he became director of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

Joseph Smith

Joseph Smith Jr. (December 23, 1805 – June 27, 1844) was an American religious leader and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement. When he was 24, Smith published the Book of Mormon. By the time of his death, 14 years later, he had attracted tens of thousands of followers and founded a religion that continues to the present.

Smith was born in Sharon, Vermont. By 1817, he had moved with his family to the burned-over district of western New York; an area of intense religious revivalism during the Second Great Awakening. Smith said he experienced a series of visions, including one in 1820 during which he saw "two personages" (presumably God the Father and Jesus Christ), and another in 1823 in which an angel directed him to a buried book of golden plates inscribed with a Judeo-Christian history of an ancient American civilization. In 1830, Smith published what he said was an English translation of these plates called the Book of Mormon. The same year he organized the Church of Christ, calling it a restoration of the early Christian church. Members of the church were later called "Latter Day Saints" or "Mormons", and Smith announced a revelation in 1838 which renamed the church as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.

In 1831, Smith and his followers moved west, planning to build a communalistic American Zion. They first gathered in Kirtland, Ohio and established an outpost in Independence, Missouri which was intended to be Zion's "center place". During the 1830s, Smith sent out missionaries, published revelations, and supervised construction of the Kirtland Temple. The collapse of the church-sponsored Kirtland Safety Society Anti-Banking Company and violent skirmishes with non-Mormon Missourians caused Smith and his followers to establish a new settlement at Nauvoo, Illinois, where he became a spiritual and political leader. In 1844, Smith and the Nauvoo city council angered non-Mormons by destroying a newspaper that had criticized Smith's power and practice of polygamy. Smith was imprisoned in Carthage, Illinois where he was killed when a mob stormed the jailhouse.

Smith published many revelations and other texts that his followers regard as scripture. His teachings discuss the nature of God, cosmology, family structures, political organization, and religious collectivism. His followers regard him as a prophet comparable to Moses and Elijah, and several religious denominations consider themselves the continuation of the church that he organized, including The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and the Community of Christ.

Katie Holmes

Kate Noelle Holmes (born December 18, 1978) is an American actress, producer, and director. She first achieved fame as Joey Potter on the television series Dawson's Creek (1998–2003).

She made her feature film debut in Ang Lee's The Ice Storm in 1997. Subsequent film roles include: Go, Teaching Mrs. Tingle (both 1999), Wonder Boys, The Gift (both 2000), Abandon, Phone Booth (both 2002), The Singing Detective, Pieces of April (both 2003), Batman Begins, Thank You for Smoking (both 2005), Mad Money (2008), Don't Be Afraid of the Dark (2010), Jack and Jill (2011), Miss Meadows (2014), Woman in Gold, Touched with Fire (both 2015) and Logan Lucky (2017).

In 2008, she made her Broadway theatre debut in a production of Arthur Miller's All My Sons. In 2011, she played Jacqueline Kennedy in the TV miniseries The Kennedys, a role she reprised in The Kennedys: After Camelot (2017). She made her directorial debut with the 2016 film All We Had, in which she also starred.

Her marriage to actor Tom Cruise, which lasted from 2006 to 2012, led to a great deal of media attention, with the pair being called a supercouple and being given the nickname "TomKat" in various countries.

List of Doctor Who episodes (2005–present)

Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. As of 1 January 2019, 851 episodes of Doctor Who have aired, concluding the eleventh series. This includes one television movie and multiple specials, and encompasses 287 stories over 37 seasons. Additionally, four charity specials and two animated serials have also been aired. The programme's high episode count has resulted in Doctor Who holding the world record for the highest number of episodes of a science-fiction programme. In May 2017, it was announced that BBC Worldwide sold the right of refusal on future series of the programme until and including Series 15 in China.Doctor Who ceased production in 1989, then resumed in 2005. The original series (1963–1989), generally consists of multi-episode serials. The 2005 revival trades the earlier serial format for a run of self-contained episodes, interspersed with occasional multi-part stories and structured into loose story arcs.

The story numbers below are not official designations; they are meant as a rough guide to placement in the overall context of the programme. There is some dispute, for instance, about whether to count Season 23's The Trial of a Time Lord as one or as four serials, and whether the unfinished serial Shada should be included. The numbering scheme in this list reflects an internal practice of describing "Planet of the Dead" (2009) as the 200th story. Other sources, such as the Region 1 classic Doctor Who DVD releases, use different numbering schemes, which diverge after the 108th story, The Horns of Nimon (1979–1980).

Lists of deaths by year

This is a list of notable deaths, organized by year. New deaths articles are added to their respective month (e.g., Deaths in April 2019), and then linked here.

Microsoft Visual Studio

Microsoft Visual Studio is an integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft. It is used to develop computer programs, as well as websites, web apps, web services and mobile apps. Visual Studio uses Microsoft software development platforms such as Windows API, Windows Forms, Windows Presentation Foundation, Windows Store and Microsoft Silverlight. It can produce both native code and managed code.

Visual Studio includes a code editor supporting IntelliSense (the code completion component) as well as code refactoring. The integrated debugger works both as a source-level debugger and a machine-level debugger. Other built-in tools include a code profiler, forms designer for building GUI applications, web designer, class designer, and database schema designer. It accepts plug-ins that enhance the functionality at almost every level—including adding support for source control systems (like Subversion and Git) and adding new toolsets like editors and visual designers for domain-specific languages or toolsets for other aspects of the software development lifecycle (like the Team Foundation Server client: Team Explorer).

Visual Studio supports 36 different programming languages and allows the code editor and debugger to support (to varying degrees) nearly any programming language, provided a language-specific service exists. Built-in languages include C, C++, C++/CLI, Visual Basic .NET, C#, F#, JavaScript, TypeScript, XML, XSLT, HTML, and CSS. Support for other languages such as Python, Ruby, Node.js, and M among others is available via plug-ins. Java (and J#) were supported in the past.

The most basic edition of Visual Studio, the Community edition, is available free of charge.

The currently supported Visual Studio version is 2019.

Ringo Starr

Sir Richard Starkey (born 7 July 1940), known professionally as Ringo Starr, is an English musician, singer, songwriter and actor who gained worldwide fame as the drummer for the Beatles. He occasionally sang lead vocals with the group, usually for one song on each album, including "With a Little Help from My Friends", "Yellow Submarine", "Good Night", and their cover of "Act Naturally". He also wrote and sang the Beatles' songs "Don't Pass Me By" and "Octopus's Garden", and is credited as a co-writer of others, including "What Goes On" and "Flying".

Starr was afflicted by life-threatening illnesses during childhood, and he fell behind in school as a result of prolonged hospitalisations. He briefly held a position with British Rail before securing an apprenticeship at a Liverpool equipment manufacturer. Soon afterwards, he became interested in the UK skiffle craze and developed a fervent admiration for the genre. In 1957, he co-founded his first band, the Eddie Clayton Skiffle Group, which earned several prestigious local bookings before the fad succumbed to American rock and roll by early 1958. When the Beatles formed in 1960, Starr was a member of another Liverpool group, Rory Storm and the Hurricanes. After achieving moderate success in the UK and Hamburg, he quit the Hurricanes and joined the Beatles in August 1962, replacing Pete Best.

Starr played key roles in the Beatles' films and appeared in numerous others. After the band's break-up in 1970, he released several successful singles including the US number-four hit "It Don't Come Easy", and number ones "Photograph" and "You're Sixteen". In 1972, he released his most successful UK single, "Back Off Boogaloo", which peaked at number two. He achieved commercial and critical success with his 1973 album Ringo, which was a top-ten release in both the UK and the US. He has featured in a number of documentaries and hosted television shows. He also narrated the first two series of the children's television programme Thomas & Friends and portrayed "Mr Conductor" during the first season of the PBS children's television series Shining Time Station. Since 1989, he has toured with thirteen variations of Ringo Starr & His All-Starr Band.

Starr's musicianship has received praise from other drummers, including Phil Collins and Journey's Steve Smith. He was inducted into the Modern Drummer Hall of Fame in 1998. In 2011, Rolling Stone readers named Starr the fifth-greatest drummer of all time. Starr, who was previously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a Beatle in 1988, was inducted for his solo career in 2015, making him one of 21 performers inducted more than once. He is the richest drummer in the world with a net worth of US$350 million. He was appointed a Knight Bachelor in the 2018 New Year Honours for services to music.

Time 100

Time 100 (often stylized as TIME 100) is an annual listicle of the 100 most influential people in the world assembled by the American news magazine Time. First published in 1999 as the result of a debate among American academics, politicians, and journalists, the list is now a highly publicized annual event. Although appearing on the list is often seen as an honor, Time makes it clear that entrants are recognized for changing the world, regardless of the consequences of their actions. The final list of influential individuals is exclusively chosen by Time editors with nominations coming from the TIME 100 alumni and the magazine's international writing staff. Only the winner of the Reader's Poll, conducted days before the official list is revealed, is chosen by the general public.

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