2003 Tuzla island conflict

There was a territorial dispute over the ownership of the Tuzla Island between Ukraine and Russia in October 2003. The Russian authorities claimed the 1954 transfer of Crimea to Ukraine had only included the continental parts of Crimea, even though the Tuzla Island had been administratively part of Crimea since 1941.

Kerch Strait, Ukraine, Russia, near natural colors satellite image, LandSat-5, 2011-08-30
Kerch Strait in 2011 depicting an extensive landform that appears to stretch from the Russian coast towards the island

Events

The Russian side started to build a dam from the Taman Peninsula towards the island to revive the eroded peninsula without any preliminary consultations with the Ukrainian government authorities.[1] After the construction of the 3.8 km long dam was suspended at the exact point of the Russian-Ukrainian border, the distance between the dam and the island is now 1,200 m (3,900 ft). The construction of the dam led to the increase of the intensity of stream in the strait and deterioration of the island. To prevent the deterioration the government of Ukraine funded ground works to deepen the bed of the strait. The reason for those ground works was to stop Russian ships from having to pay a toll to Ukraine for crossing the Strait of Kerch, which is considered as territorial waters of Ukraine. Ukraine refused to recognize the strait as inner waters of both countries until 2003.

On October 21, 2003, the Border Service of Ukraine arrested the Russian tugboat Truzhenik that crossed the State Border of Ukraine and conducted photo and video surveillance of the island. After the incident, a respective protocol was created and the ship was handed over to the Russian border authorities. On October 23, 2003, the Ukrainian parliament issued a resolution "to eliminate a threat to the territorial integrity of Ukraine that appeared as a result of dam construction by the Russian Federation in the strait of Kerch". A provisional special parliamentary commission was created to investigate the case more thoroughly.

On October 30–31, 2003, talks started between Ukraine and Russia that led to suspension of the construction of the dam.[2] Due to the conflict, on December 2, 2003, a border patrol station of Ukraine was installed on the island. On December 5, 2003, the Cabinet of Ukraine issued Order #735p in regards to urgent measures to save the island. On July 4, 2004, the Cabinet of Ukraine issued Order #429p, which foresaw the construction of shore reinforcement structures and population transfer from the flooding territories.

Aftermath

Following the 2003 conflict, the Supreme Council of Crimea ordered the establishment of a new settlement on the island. However, on September 6, 2006, the Kerch city administration refused to create such a settlement, as it conflicted with the administrative-territorial composition of the city.

The distance to the unfinished dam that stretches from the Taman peninsula is about 100 m (330 ft), with water depth along the former shallow no more that 60 cm (24 in).

Disputes about right of passage were resolved by a 2003 bilateral agreement on cooperation in the use of the sea of Azov and the strait of Kerch,[3] which made these water bodies shared internal waters of both countries, but new tensions arose after the 2014 Russian annexation of Crimea and Sevastopol.

References

  1. ^ Murphy, Kim (3 November 2003). "Russia-Ukraine Ties Founder on the Shore of Tiny Isle". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  2. ^ "Russian-Ukrainian dispute over Tuzla escalates (10/26/03)". www.ukrweekly.com. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  3. ^ Kozelsky, Mara (2018-11-22). "The Kerch Strait and the Azov Sea". Oxford Scholarship Online. 1. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190644710.003.0008.
Bay of Arabat

The Bay of Arabat, (Ukrainian: Арабатська затока, Russian: Арабатский залив, Crimean Tatar: Arabat körfezi), is in the southwestern Azov Sea in eastern Europe.

It is located along the northwestern coast of the Kerch Peninsula and northeastern coast of Crimea.

Crimea Air

Crimea Air was an airline on the grounds of Simferopol International Airport in Simferopol, Crimea. It was established and started operations on 4 October 1996 and operated regional feeder services. Its main base is Simferopol International Airport. Regional airline based in Simferopol was liquidated in 2007.Its IATA code has been since reassigned to Arkefly.

Dmitry Rogozin

Dmitry Olegovich Rogozin (Russian: Дми́трий Оле́гович Рого́зин; born 21 December 1963) is a Russian politician, currently serving as the Director General of Roscosmos.

Previously he was Deputy Prime Minister of Russia in charge of Defense industry of Russia from 2011 to 2018.

In January 2008, he became Russia's ambassador to NATO, serving until December 2011. He was a leader of the Rodina (Motherland) party, until it merged with other similar Russian parties to form the Fair Russia party. He holds two doctorate degrees in philosophy and in technology.On 18 February 2011, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev appointed Rogozin as the Special Representative on anti-missile defense; he negotiates with NATO countries on this issue.

On 23 December 2011, Rogozin was appointed as Deputy Prime Minister, in charge of the defense and space industries. For the defense industry, he led the creation of the Russian Foundation for Advanced Research Projects in the Defense Industry. In May 2018, he became the head of the Russian state space corporation Roscosmos.In 2015, Rogozin was the head of Russia's Arctic Commission.Rogozin is an active user of Twitter and Facebook.

Heorhiy Kirpa

Heorhiy Mykolayovych Kirpa (Ukrainian: Георгій Миколайович Кірпа) (July 20, 1946 in Klubivka, Khmelnytskyi Oblast – December 27, 2004 in Bortnychi, Kiev) was a Ukrainian railway manager, statesman and politician, best known as the head of the Ukrzaliznytsia national railway company and Minister of Transportation and Telecommunications under President Leonid Kuchma.

Igor Ivanov

Igor Sergeyevich Ivanov (born 23 September 1945) is a Russian politician who was Foreign Minister of Russia from 1998 to 2004.

Kerch Strait

The Kerch Strait (Russian: Керченский пролив, Ukrainian: Керченська протока, Crimean Tatar: Keriç boğazı) is a strait connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, separating the Kerch Peninsula of Crimea in the west from the Taman Peninsula of Russia's Krasnodar Krai in the east. The strait is 3.1 kilometres (1.9 mi) to 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) wide and up to 18 metres (59 ft) deep.

The most important harbor, the Crimean city of Kerch, gives its name to the strait, formerly known as the Cimmerian Bosporus. The Krasnodar Krai side of the strait contains the Taman Bay encircled by Tuzla Island and the 2003 Russian-built 3.8 kilometres (2.4 mi)-long dam to the south and Chushka Spit to the north. Russia had started the construction of a major cargo port near Taman, the most important Russian settlement on the strait.

Kostyantyn Gryshchenko

Kostyantyn Gryshchenko (also spelled Hryshchenko; Ukrainian: Костянтин Іванович Грищенко; Russian: Константин Иванович Грищенко; born 28 October 1953) is a Ukrainian diplomat and politician.

Since Ukraine gained independence, Kostyantyn Gryshchenko has served in a succession of senior positions with responsibilities ranging from arms control and regional security to education and public health. He served as Vice Prime Minister of Ukraine (2012-2014), Minister of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine (2003-2005 and 2010-2012) and First Deputy Secretary of the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine (2008-2010).

Ambassadorial appointments include: Head of Mission of Ukraine to NATO and the Ambassador of Ukraine to Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg (1998-2000), Ambassador to the United States (2000-2003) and Ambassador to the Russian Federation (2008-2010).

In addition to his posts in the Ukrainian Government, Kostyantyn Gryshchenko participated in personal capacity in a number of high-profile bodies focused chiefly on various aspects of regional and international security: 1991 –Deputy Chief Inspector for biological weapons of the United Nations Special Commission in Iraq (UNSCOM); 1995-1998 –Member of Council of Founders, Geneva Center for Security Policy; 1999-2003 Member of the Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters to the UN Secretary General (in 2003 –Chairman of the Board); 2000-2003 –Member, United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) and 2003-2006, Member of the Board of Directors of Transatlantic Partners Against AIDS.

Kostyantyn Gryshchenko holds the diplomatic rank of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.

Leonid Kuchma

Leonid Danylovych Kuchma (Ukrainian: Леоні́д Дани́лович Ку́чма; born 9 August 1938) is a Ukrainian politician who was the second President of independent Ukraine from 19 July 1994 to 23 January 2005. Kuchma took office after winning the 1994 presidential election against his rival, the incumbent Leonid Kravchuk. Kuchma won re-election for an additional five-year term in 1999.

His presidency was surrounded by numerous corruption scandals and the lessening of media freedoms. Corruption accelerated after Kuchma's election in 1994, but in 2000–2001, his power began to weaken in the face of exposures in the media.On his watch the Ukrainian economy continued to decline until 1999, whereas growth was recorded since 2000, bringing relative prosperity to some segments of urban residents. During his presidency, Ukrainian-Russian ties began to improve.After a successful career in the machine-building industry of the Soviet Union, Kuchma began his political career in 1990, when he was elected to the Verkhovna Rada (the Ukrainian parliament); he was re-elected in 1994. He served as Ukrainian Prime Minister between October 1992 and September 1993.From July 2014 until October 2018 Kuchma was a special presidential representative of Ukraine at the semi-official peace talks regarding the ongoing War in Donbass.

List of cities in Crimea

This is a complete list of cities in Crimea by population at the 2014 Crimean Federal District Census.

Mikhail Kasyanov

Mikhail Mikhailovich Kasyanov (Russian: Михаи́л Миха́йлович Касья́нов – Russian pronunciation: [mʲɪxɐˈiɫ mʲɪˈxajɫəvʲɪtɕ kɐˈsʲjanəf], born 8 December 1957 in Moscow) is a Russian politician who served as the Prime Minister of Russia from May 2000 to February 2004. Previously he had served as First Deputy Prime Minister in 2000 and Minister of Finance in 1999–2000. During the 1990s he worked in President Boris Yeltsin's administration in different positions before joining President Vladimir Putin's first administration. Since leaving the government over disagreements on economic policy, he has become one of the leading critics of President Putin and an opposition leader.

In 2008, Kasyanov was a candidate in the election of President of Russia but in the middle of the campaign was denied participation on political grounds. In 2010, he co-founded the coalition For Russia without Lawlessness and Corruption People's Freedom Party "For Russia without Lawlessness and Corruption" and became one of the leaders of the People's Freedom Party. He was an active speaker during the 2011–2013 Russian protests for fair elections. Since 2015, he has served as the leader of the political party People's Freedom Party (PARNAS). In 2005–2007, he was one of the leaders of the opposition coalition The Other Russia and democratic protest movement.

Mykola Lytvyn

Mykola Lytvyn (Ukrainian: Микола Михайлович Литвин) was a chief of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine since 2003, General of the Army of Ukraine (2008). He resigned in 2014.

President of Crimea

The President of the Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: Президент Республіки Крим; Russian: Президент Республики Крым) was the head of the state of the Republic of Crimea, Ukraine from February 16, 1994 to the time of its liquidation on March 17, 1995. The post was liquidated as it disagrees with the Constitution of Ukraine.The first round of voting in the Crimean presidential elections was held on January 16, 1994, and on January 30, the second round was held. With 72.9% of the vote, the pro-Russian politician Yuriy Meshkov was declared the winner. He was the only person to hold the post of President of the Republic of Crimea.

Tuzla Island

Tuzla Island (Russian: Тузла, Ukrainian: Тузла, Crimean Tatar: Тузла, Tuzla; from Turkish "tuzluk" – saturated solution of salt in water for salting fish), is a sandy islet in the form of a spit located in the middle of the Strait of Kerch between the Kerch Peninsula in the west and the Taman Peninsula in the east. The Strait of Kerch connects the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea. Administratively, Tuzla is part of Kerch city in eastern Crimea.

Vadim Gustov

Vadim Anatolevich Gustov (Russian: Вадим Анатольевич Густов; born 26 December 1948) is a Russian politician who served as first deputy prime minister of Russia from 1998 to 1999 and a regional leader.

Viktor Medvedchuk

Viktor Volodymyrovych Medvedchuk (Ukrainian: Віктор Володимирович Медведчук; born 7 August 1954 in Pochyot, Abansky District, Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union) is a Ukrainian politician, lawyer, and business oligarch. Medvedchuk is regarded as one of Russian President Vladimir Putin’s closest associates and chief of staff to former Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma.Currently Medvedchuk is chairman of the pro-Russia political organization Ukrainian Choice and an opponent of Ukraine joining the European Union. Russian president Vladimir Putin is the godfather of Medvedchuk's daughter Darina (born in 2004). Medvedchuk and his Ukrainian Choice have marginal popular support in Ukraine. In November 2018 Medvedchuk was elected chairman of the political council of (the political party) For life.

Viktor Nazarenko

Viktor Nazarenko (Ukrainian: Віктор Олександрович Назаренко, Belarusian: Віктар Назаранка; 5 March 1956 in Minsk) is a Ukrainian military leader, Soviet veteran of the Afghan war (1979–89) and doctor of military sciences.

From October 2014 until July 2017 Nazarenko was the head of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine.

Volodymyr Lytvyn

Volodymyr Mykhailovych Lytvyn (Ukrainian: Володимир Михайлович Литвин, Ukrainian pronunciation: [vɔɫɔdɪmɪr mɪxɑjɫɔvɪtʃ ɫɪtvɪn]; born April 28, 1956) is a Ukrainian politician best known for being Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada, the Ukrainian parliament. Having previously served in that position from 2002 until 2006, he was re-elected in December 2008 after his party agreed to join the former coalition of Yulia Tymoshenko in an expanded capacity and stayed Chairman till December 2012. From 1994 to 1999, Lytvyn was the aide to President Leonid Kuchma and, later, the head of his office.

Vyalova cave

Vyalova cave (пещера Вялова) is a cave in a lower plateau of the Chatyrdag mountain, Crimea. It also has an 'old' name: Togerik-Alan-Hosar (Тогерик-Алан-Хосар).

The cave has a vertical entrance of 31 m depth, which gradually (at a depth about 16 m) transforms into a steep (almost vertical) shaft. The total depth of the cave is 124 m. It belongs to the Vyalova cave system.

The cave is named after Russian speleologist Vyalov.

Crimea articles
History
Geography
Politics
Economy
Society
Main topics
Background
Main places
Crimea /
Russia
Ukraine

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.