The 2002 Olympic Winter Games bid scandal was a scandal involving allegations of bribery used to win the rights to host the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. Prior to its successful bid in 1995, the city had attempted four times to secure the games, failing each time. In 1998 members of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) were accused of taking bribes from the Salt Lake Organizing Committee (SLOC) during the bidding process. The allegations resulted in the expulsion of several IOC members, and the adoption of new IOC rules. Legal charges were brought against the leaders of Salt Lake's bid committee by the United States Department of Justice, of which all parties were later acquitted. Investigations were also launched into prior bidding process by other cities, finding that members of the IOC received gifts during the bidding process for both the 1998 Winter Olympics and 2000 Summer Olympics.
Ogden-born lawyer Tom Welch and a Utah Economic Development Professional David Johnson were in charge of the Salt Lake Bid Committee. From 1986 to 1995, they worked in support for Salt Lake City's bid in Europe, Latin America, and Africa meeting with the International Olympic Committee Members and International Sport organizations.
Despite their efforts, the 1998 Games went to Nagano, Japan, in a 46-to-42 vote. Many felt the reason was that the US had recently been awarded the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia. Others, including Welch, believed it was because Nagano had better wined and dined the officials. A Salt Lake Olympic Bid Committee member complained about competing with the Japanese bid committee for the 1998 Olympic Winter Games: "We were giving out saltwater taffy and cowboy hats, and they were giving out computers. IOC members who came to inspect Nagano were put up in ritzy hot spring resorts, where they washed down expensive sushi with sake poured by kimono-clad geisha. They went home laden with souvenir gifts and expensive paintings." The Nagano Olympic bid committee had spent approximately $14 million to entertain the 62 International Olympic Committee members and many of their companions. The precise figures are unknown since Nagano, after the IOC asked that the entertainment expenditures not be made public, destroyed the financial records. The Melbourne bid committee for the 1996 Summer Olympics discovered the quid pro quo expectations of IOC delegates when they received requests from six African IOC delegates for new cars and sexual favours from local brothels. The requests were denied and the 1996 Summer Olympics went to Atlanta.
More than $16 Million was spent on Utah's Olympic bidding. A priority for bidders was bringing each Member of the International Olympic Committee to Salt Lake City. More than 70 of the 100 members of the International Olympic Committee personally visited Salt Lake at Bid Committee expense. The high of costs of bidding was related to bringing members of the International Olympic Committee to Salt Lake City to see the venues proposed to be used for the Games. Community Leaders were 100% behind the bid. Opportunities were created by Spencer Eccles, Salt Lake Olympic Bid Committee Executive Board Member, for IOC family members to be employed at First Security Corporation Bank, Jim Jardine, Legal Advisor to the Bid Committee, assisted IOC Member relatives to be admitted at the University of Utah and Intermountain Health Care made medical facilities and treatment available to IOC Members during their visits.
In June 1995, 50,000 people gathered outside the Salt Lake City Mayor's office to receive the result of the final announcement.
Access to budget documents was routinely denied, Salt Lake City reporters say. In April 1998, the board attempted to safeguard its aura of secrecy by amending its bylaws to stipulate that any member providing the press with confidential information could be dismissed.
Frank Joklik was president of the Salt Lake Organizing Committee until he resigned in January. The former head of Kennecott Copper Corp. was not accustomed to being subjected to a badgering, inquiring press. When the fortnightly Salt Lake Observer sat down with Joklik in the summer of 1998 for a lengthy interview about the Olympics, he became angry when the questioning turned to the $1.45 billion budget for the 2002 Games, the paper reported. "We'd been pushing him about the budget, and he got real testy," says Brooke Adams, the Observer's editor.
The scandal broke on November 24, 1998, when a report came out showing a letter directed to a child of an IOC member indicating the SLOC was paying the child's tuition. Swiss IOC member Marc Hodler, head of the coordination committee overseeing the organization of the 2002 games, made the accusation that a group of members of the IOC had taken bribes since the start of the bidding process in 1990 for the 1996 Olympic games. Soon, four independent investigations were underway, by the IOC, the USOC, the SLOC, and the United States Department of Justice.
Before any of the investigations could even get under way, both Welch and Johnson resigned their posts as the head of the SLOC. Many others soon followed. The Department of Justice filed charges against the two: fifteen charges of bribery and fraud. Johnson and Welch were eventually acquitted of all criminal charges in December 2003.
As part of the investigation, the IOC recommended expelling six IOC members, while continuing the investigation on several others. The six members were Agustin Arroyo of Ecuador, Zein El Abdin Ahmed Abdel Gadir of Sudan, Jean-Claude Ganga of the Republic of Congo, Lamine Keita of Mali, Charles Mukora of Kenya, Sergio Santander Fantini of Chile, and David Sikhulumi Sibandze of Swaziland, though Sibandze resigned during the investigation. Each person was accused of receiving money from the SLOC, either in direct payments, land purchase agreements, tuition assistance, political campaign donations or charitable donations for a local cause.
Ten members of the IOC were expelled and another ten were sanctioned. This was the first expulsion or sanction for corruption in the more than a century the IOC had existed. Although nothing strictly illegal had been done, it was felt that the acceptance of the gifts was morally dubious. Stricter rules were adopted for future bids, and ceilings were put into place as to how much IOC members could accept from bid cities. Additionally, new term and age limits were put into place for IOC membership, and fifteen former Olympic athletes were added to the committee.
In 2006, a report ordered by the Nagano region's governor said the Japanese city provided millions of dollars in an "illegitimate and excessive level of hospitality" to IOC members, including US$4.4 million spent on entertainment alone.
Bain Capital founder and CEO Mitt Romney (who eventually went on to become Governor of Massachusetts) was brought in to head the SLOC. Romney aided in reorganizing the committee, helped to begin fixing the budget, which at the time was US$379 million short, and renewed sponsor enthusiasm. This was achieved in part through successful lobbying for unprecedented levels of federal government support – over $1.3 billion, more than twice that for the 1996 Atlanta games – to pay for infrastructure improvements.
|1932 Winter Olympics||In 1929, only five years after the first games in Chamonix, France, Salt Lake City attempted for the first time to bid for the Winter Olympics. The Utah Ski Club tried to procure the 1932 Games for Salt Lake, but they went to Lake Placid, New York instead. Due to early Olympic rules (which have since changed), Salt Lake could not bid for the 1936 Games, since the summer games host (Germany) had rights to the winter games.|
|1972 Winter Olympics||State and city officials got the United States Olympic Committee (USOC) endorsement, but they lost the bid to Sapporo, Japan.|
|1976 Winter Olympics||The USOC picked Denver, Colorado, over Salt Lake City to represent the United States in bidding. Denver won the bid, but taxpayers voted against funding the games and made them withdraw. Salt Lake put itself forward as a candidate, but in the fallout, the games were awarded to Innsbruck, Austria, which had recently hosted in 1964.|
|1992 Winter Olympics||Salt Lake City did not try to bid again until 1985 for the 1992 Games, but the USOC went with Anchorage, Alaska. After Anchorage lost both bids for the 1992 and 1994 Winter Games, Salt Lake was back in the running for the 2002 Games.|
The 61st FIFA Congress was held between 31 May and 1 June 2011 at the Hallenstadion in Zurich, Switzerland. FIFA is the governing body of world association football, and the congress is the annual meeting of FIFA's supreme legislative body. This is the eighth congress to be held in Zurich, and the first since 2007. After an opening ceremony and a reminder of FIFA events and activities in 2010, the second day witnessed decisions taken, and the unveiling of the 2010 financial results. The opening ceremony was presented by Melanie Winiger, and featured singer Grace Jones, hammered dulcimer player Nicolas Senn, and juggler Alan Šulc.Bern
Bern or Berne (German: Bern [bɛrn] (listen), Alemannic German: Bärn [b̥æːrn], French: Berne [bɛʁn], Italian: Berna [ˈbɛrna], Romansh: Berna [ˈbɛrnɐ] (listen)) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g. in German) Bundesstadt, or "federal city". With a population of 142,493 (January 2019), Bern is the fifth-most populous city in Switzerland. The Bern agglomeration, which includes 36 municipalities, had a population of 406,900 in 2014. The metropolitan area had a population of 660,000 in 2000. Bern is also the capital of the canton of Bern, the second-most populous of Switzerland's cantons.
The official language in Bern is (the Swiss variety of Standard) German, but the most-spoken language is an Alemannic Swiss German dialect, Bernese German.
In 1983, the historic old town (in German: Altstadt) in the centre of Bern became a UNESCO World Heritage Site.Bids for the 2002 Winter Olympics
Four cities made the shortlist with their bids to host the 2002 Winter Olympics (formally known as XIX Olympic Winter Games), which were awarded to Salt Lake City, on June 16, 1995. The other cities shortlisted by the IOC Selection Committee chaired by Thomas Bach were Sion, Östersund and Quebec City. The host city selection procedure to for the 2002 Winter Olympics will go down in history as one of the most controversial, in light of the scandal regarding the interactions between the Salt Lake City bid team and International Olympic Committee (IOC) members; ten IOC members resigned as a result, as did Salt Lake City bid leaders Tom Welch and Dave Johnson. Nevertheless, Salt Lake City overwhelmingly won the right to host the Games, needing only one round to gain the absolute majority of the votes.
Nevertheless, from sporting and business standpoints, this was one of the most successful Winter Olympiads in history; records were set in both the broadcasting and marketing programs. Over 2 billion viewers watched more than 13 billion viewer-hours. The Games were also financially successful raising more money with fewer sponsors than any prior Olympic Games, which left SLOC with a surplus of $40 million. The surplus was used to create the Utah Athletic Foundation, which maintains and operates many of the remaining Olympic venues.Ernest L. Jahncke
Ernest Lee Jahncke (October 13, 1877 – November 16, 1960) was United States Assistant Secretary of the Navy from 1929 to 1933. He was the first, and until the 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal the only person ever to have been expelled from the International Olympic Committee. He was removed in July 1936 for his outspoken opposition to holding the 1936 Summer Olympics in Nazi Germany.Henry Adefope
Henry Edmund Olufemi Adefope (15 March 1926 – 11 March 2012) was a Nigerian Army major general who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and as an honorary member of the International Olympic Committee.List of Peabody Award winners (1990–1999)
The following is a list of Peabody Award winners and honorable mentions from the years 1990 to 1999.List of sporting scandals
This is a list of major sports scandals.Pirjo Häggman
Pirjo Häggman (née Wilmi, born 8 June 1951) is a retired Finnish sprinter who specialized in the 400 metres.
Häggman was a member of the Finnish silver medal 4 × 400 m relay team at the 1974 European Athletics Championships in Rome. She competed at the 1972, 1976 and 1980 Summer Olympics. 1976 Häggman finished fourth, losing the bronze medal by 0.01 seconds.In 1981 Häggman and Venezuelan Flor Isava-Fonseca were the first women to be elected as International Olympic Committee members. She resigned in January 1999 due to the 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal. Häggman's ex-husband had been working as a paid consultant for the Salt Lake Organizing Committee during the bidding process.Ram Ruhee
Ram Ruhee (October 12, 1927 – October 21, 2008) was a Mauritian former International Olympic Committee member and FIFA executive. Ruhee founded the Mauritius National Olympic Committee and remained it Secretary General until his death in 2008.Ruhee, born in Port Louis and former teacher, founded the first division soccer club Cadets Club in Mauritius in 1948. He continued to manage the team after its founding. He later founded the Mauritius National Olympic Committee in 1971 and remained its Secretary General until his death in 2008. Mauritius first competed in the Olympics during the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles and has subsequently competed in every Summer OLympics Game since. The country's first Olympic Medal was won during the 2008 Beijing Olympics by Bruno Julie. The IOC would later commend Ruhee in statement following his death saying, "(He) played a key role in promoting the values of sport to the youth in his country."Ruhee served as a member of the International Olympic Committee from 1988 until 2007. He was investigated in 1999 as part of the 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal. However, Ruhee was completely exonerated and cleared of any wrongdoing in the scandal. He was awarded the Olympic Order of Merit at the Beijing Olympics in 2008.Ruhee also served on the FIFA executive committee from 1992 until 1998. He was also a member of the FIFA finance committee and the FIFA World Cup Organising Committee.Ram Ruhee died on October 21, 2008, at the age of 81 after a long illness.Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games of 2002
The Salt Lake Organizing Committee for the Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games of 2002 (SLOC) was the organization responsible for the 2002 Winter Olympics and 2002 Winter Paralympics in Salt Lake City, USA. The SLOC secured their bid for the 2002 Olympic Games in 1995. After the SLOC was exposed to be in disarray in the ensuing years, Mitt Romney was hired in 1999 to turn around the failing organization. Under Romney's leadership, the SLOC ended up hosting a successful Olympic games with financial surpluses.In June 2001, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) had signed an agreement that would ensure that the staging of the Paralympic Games is automatically included in the bid for the Olympic Games. The agreement came into effect at the 2008 Paralympic Summer Games in Beijing, and the 2010 Paralympic Winter Games in Vancouver. However, the Salt Lake 2002 Organizing Committee, chose to follow the practice of "one bid, one city" already at the 2002 Games in Salt Lake City, and hosted both the Olympics and the Paralympics.