2000 Summer Olympics

The 2000 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was the second time that the Summer Olympics were held in Australia, and also the Southern Hemisphere, the first being in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1956.

Sydney was selected as the host city for the 2000 Games in 1993. Teams from 199 countries participated. The Games’ cost was estimated to be A$6.6 billion. The Games received universal acclaim, with the organisation, volunteers, sportsmanship and Australian public being lauded in the international media. Bill Bryson from The Times called the Sydney Games "one of the most successful events on the world stage", saying that they "couldn't be better".[3]

James Mossop of the Electronic Telegraph called the Games "such a success that any city considering bidding for future Olympics must be wondering how it can reach the standards set by Sydney",[4] while Jack Todd in the Montreal Gazette suggested that the "IOC should quit while it's ahead. Admit there can never be a better Olympic Games, and be done with it," as "Sydney was both exceptional and the best".[3]

In preparing for the 2012 Olympic Games in London, Lord Coe declared the Sydney Games the "benchmark for the spirit of the Games, unquestionably" and admitting that the London organising committee "attempted in a number of ways to emulate what the Sydney Organising Committee did."[5] These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch. These were also the second Olympic Games to be held in spring and is to date the most recent games not to be held in its more traditional July or August summer slot.

The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by Russia and China with host Australia at fourth place overall. Several World and Olympic records were broken during the games. With little or no controversies, the games were deemed generally successful with the rising standard of competition amongst nations across the world.

Games of the XXVII Olympiad
2000 Summer Olympics logo
Host citySydney, New South Wales, Australia
MottoShare the Spirit
Nations199
Athletes10,651 (6,582 men, 4,069 women)[1]
Events300 in 28 sports (40 disciplines)
Opening15 September
Closing1 October
Opened by
Cauldron
StadiumStadium Australia
Summer
Atlanta 1996 Athens 2004
Winter
Nagano 1998 Salt Lake 2002

Host city selection

Sydney won the right to host the Games on 24 September 1993, after being selected over Beijing, Berlin, Istanbul and Manchester in four rounds of voting, at the 101st IOC Session in Monte Carlo, Monaco. The Australian city of Melbourne had lost out to Atlanta for the 1996 Summer Olympics four years earlier.[6] Beijing lost its bid to host the games to Sydney in 1993, but was later awarded the 2008 Summer Olympics in July 2001 after Sydney hosted the previous year, and it would eventually be awarded the 2022 Winter Olympics twenty-two years later in 2015. Although it is impossible to know why members of the International Olympic Committee voted for Sydney over Beijing in 1993, it appears that an important role was played by Human Rights Watch's campaign to "stop Beijing" because of China's human rights record. Many in China were angry at what they saw as U.S.-led interference in the vote, and the outcome contributed to rising anti-Western sentiment in China and tensions in Sino-American relations.[7]

Costs

The Oxford Olympics Study 2016 estimates the outturn cost of the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics at USD 5 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 90% in real terms.[9] This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g., the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost for Sydney 2000 compares with a cost of USD 4.6 billion for Rio 2016, USD 40–44 billion for Beijing 2008 and USD 51 billion for Sochi 2014, the most expensive Olympics in history. Average cost for the Summer Games since 1960 is USD 5.2 billion, average cost overrun is 176%.

In 2000, the Auditor-General of New South Wales reported that the Sydney Games cost A$6.6 billion, with a net cost to the public between A$1.7 and A$2.4 billion.[10][11] Many venues were constructed in the Sydney Olympic Park, which failed in the years immediately following the Olympics to meet the expected bookings to meet upkeep expenses.[12] In the years leading up to the games, funds were shifted from education and health programs to cover Olympic expenses.[13]

It has been estimated that the economic impact of the 2000 Olympics was that A$2.1 billion has been shaved from public consumption. Economic growth was not stimulated to a net benefit and in the years after 2000, foreign tourism to NSW grew by less than tourism to Australia as a whole. A "multiplier" effect on broader economic development is not realised, as a simple "multiplier" analysis fails to capture is that resources have to be redirected from elsewhere: the building of a stadium is at the expense of other public works such as extensions to hospitals. Building sporting venues does not add to the aggregate stock of productive capital in the years following the Games: "Equestrian centres, softball compounds and man-made rapids are not particularly useful beyond their immediate function."[14] In the years after the games, infrastructure issues have been of growing concern to citizens, especially those in the western suburbs of Sydney. Proposed rail links to Sydney's west have been estimated to cost in the same order of magnitude as the public expenditure on the games.

Chronological summary of the 2000 Summer Olympics

Preliminary matches – from 13 September

Although the Olympic Games Opening Ceremony was not scheduled until 15 September, the football competitions began with preliminary matches on 13 September. Among the pre-ceremony fixtures, host nation Australia lost 1–0 to Italy at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, which was the main stadium for the 1956 Melbourne Olympics.

Day 1–15 September

Cultural display highlights

The opening ceremony began with a tribute to the Australian pastoral heritage of the Australian stockmen and the importance of the stock horse in Australia's heritage. It was produced and filmed by Sydney Olympic Broadcasting Organisation and the home nation broadcaster, Channel 7.[15] This was introduced by a lone rider, Steve Jefferys, and his rearing Australian Stock Horse Ammo. At the cracking of Jefferys' stockwhip, a further 120 riders entered the Stadium, their stock horses performing intricate steps, including forming the five Olympic Rings, to a special Olympics version of the theme which Bruce Rowland had previously composed for the 1982 film The Man from Snowy River.

The Australian National Anthem was sung, the first verse by Human Nature and the second by Julie Anthony.

The ceremony continued, showing many aspects of the land and its people:- the affinity of the mainly coastal-dwelling Australians with the sea that surrounds the "Island Continent". The indigenous occupation of the land, the coming of the First Fleet, the continued immigration from many nations and the rural industry on which the economy of the nation was built, including a display representing the harshness of rural life based on the paintings of Sir Sidney Nolan. Two memorable scenes were the representation of the "Heart" of the country by 200 Aboriginal women from Central Australia who danced up "the mighty spirit of God to protect the Games" and the overwhelmingly noisy representation of the construction industry by hundreds of tap-dancing teenagers.

Because Bibi Salisachs (the wife of Juan Antonio Samaranch, the IOC President) was seriously ill and not able to accompany her husband to the Olympics, former Australian Olympic Champion swimmer and member of the Parliament of New South Wales, Dawn Fraser, accompanied Samaranch during the Australian cultural display, explaining to him some of the cultural references that are unfamiliar to non-Australians.

Formal presentation

A record 199 nations entered the stadium, with a record 80 of them winning at least one medal. The only missing IOC member was Afghanistan (banned due to the extremist rule of the Taliban's oppression of women and its prohibition of sports[16]). The ceremony featured a unified entrance by the athletes of North and South Korea,[a] using a specially designed unification flag: a white background flag with a blue map of the Korean Peninsula. Four athletes from East Timor also marched in the parade of nations as Individual Olympic Athletes and marched directly before the Host country. Although the country-to-be had no National Olympic Committee then, they were allowed to compete under the Olympic Flag with country code IOA. The Governor-General, Sir William Deane, opened the games.

The Olympic Flag was carried around the arena by eight former Australian Olympic champions: Bill Roycroft, Murray Rose, Liane Tooth, Gillian Rolton, Marjorie Jackson, Lorraine Crapp, Michael Wenden and Nick Green. During the raising of the Olympics Flag, the Olympic Hymn was sung by the Millennium Choir of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia in Greek. Following this, Tina Arena sang a purpose-written pop song, The Flame.[17]

The opening ceremony concluded with the lighting of the Olympic Flame. Former Australian Olympic champion Herb Elliott brought the Olympic Flame into the stadium. Then, celebrating 100 years of women's participation in the Olympic Games, former Australian women Olympic medalists: Betty Cuthbert and Raelene Boyle, Dawn Fraser, Shirley Strickland (later Shirley Strickland de la Hunty), Shane Gould and Debbie Flintoff-King brought the torch through the stadium, handing it over to Cathy Freeman, who lit the flame in the cauldron within a circle of fire. The planned spectacular climax to the ceremony was delayed by the technical glitch of a computer switch which malfunctioned, causing the sequence to shut down by giving a false reading. This meant that the Olympic flame was suspended in mid-air for about four minutes, rather than immediately rising up a water-covered ramp to the top of the stadium. When the cause of the problem was discovered, the program was overridden and the cauldron continued its course, and the ceremony concluded with a spectacular fireworks display.[18]

Day 2–16 September

Nancy Johnson (sport shooter) 5
Gold medallist Nancy Johnson (centre) of the U.S., raises her hands with silver medallist Cho-Hyun Kang (left), of South Korea, and bronze winner Gao Jing (right), of China, during the first medal ceremony of the 2000 Olympic Games.

The first medals of the Games were awarded in the women's 10 metre air rifle competition, which was won by Nancy Johnson of the United States.

The Triathlon made its Olympic debut with the women's race. Set in the surroundings of the Sydney Opera House, Brigitte McMahon representing Switzerland swam, cycled and ran to the first gold medal in the sport, beating the favoured home athletes such as Michelie Jones who won silver. McMahon only passed Jones in sight of the finish line.

The first star of the Games was Ian Thorpe. The 17-year-old Australian first set a new world record in the 400 m freestyle final before competing in an exciting 4 × 100 m freestyle final. Swimming the last leg, Thorpe passed the leading Americans and arrived in a new world record time, two tenths of a second ahead of the Americans. In the same event for women, the Americans also broke the world record, finishing ahead of the Netherlands and Sweden.

Samaranch had to leave for home, as his wife was severely ill. Upon arrival, his wife had already died. Samaranch returned to Sydney four days later. The Olympic flag was flown at half-staff during the period as a sign of respect to Samaranch's wife.

Day 3–17 September

Canadian Simon Whitfield sprinted away in the last 100 metres of the men's triathlon, becoming the inaugural winner in the event.

On the cycling track, Robert Bartko beat fellow German Jens Lehmann in the individual pursuit, setting a new Olympic Record. Leontien Zijlaard-van Moorsel set a world record in the semi-finals the same event for women.

In the swimming pool, American Tom Dolan beat the world record in the 400 m medley, successfully defending the title he won in Atlanta four years prior. Dutchwoman Inge de Bruijn also clocked a new world record, beating her own time in the 100 m butterfly final to win by more than a second.

Day 4–18 September

The main event for the Australians on the fourth day of the Games was the 200 m freestyle. Dutchman Pieter van den Hoogenband had broken the world record in the semi-finals, taking it from the new Australian hero Ian Thorpe, who came close to the world record in his semi-final heat. As the final race finished, Van den Hoogenband's time was exactly the same as in the semi-finals, finishing ahead of Thorpe by half a second.

China won the gold medal in the men's team all-around gymnastics competition, after being the runner-up in the previous two Olympics. The other medals were taken by Ukraine and Russia, respectively.

Zijlaard-van Moorsel lived up to the expectations set by her world record in cycling in the semis by winning the gold medal.

Day 7–21 September

Controversy erupted at the Women's Gymnastics All-Around final, when gymnast after gymnast fell on the vault. Some gymnasts were physically injured, and all were shaken, but nothing was done to try to discover the reason most gymnasts were having severe problems. Finally, in the middle of the third round (out of four), it was determined that the vault horse had been set 5 cm too low – enough of a difference to throw off the impeccable timing of many of these world-class athletes. While athletes were allowed to vault again, the remedy did not fully repair injuries and shaken confidence. The medals were eventually all won by Romanian gymnasts, with Andreea Raducan becoming the first athlete from her country to win the title since Nadia Comaneci in 1976. Teammates Simona Amanar and Maria Olaru took silver and bronze, respectively. This result also marked the first sweep of the event since the Soviet Union's in 1960.

Day 9–23 September

By rowing in the winning coxless four, Steve Redgrave of Great Britain became a member of a select group who had won gold medals at five consecutive Olympics.

The swimming 4 x 100-metre medley relay of B.J. Bedford, Megan Quann (Jendrick), Jenny Thompson and Dara Torres became the first women's relay under 4-minutes, swimming 3:58 and setting a world record, claiming the gold medal for the United States.

Day 10–24 September

Rulon Gardner, never a NCAA champion or a world medalist, beat Alexander Karelin of Russia to win gold in the super heavyweight class, Greco-Roman wrestling. Karelin had won gold in Seoul, Barcelona and Atlanta. Before this fight he had never lost in international competition, had been unbeaten in all competitions in 13 years, and had not surrendered a point in a decade.

Day 11–25 September

Cathy400 mediafrenzy
Cathy Freeman after the 400 metre final

Australian Cathy Freeman won the 400 metre final in front of a jubilant Sydney crowd at the Olympic Stadium, ahead of Lorraine Graham of Jamaica and Katharine Merry of Great Britain. Freeman's win made her the first competitor in Olympic Games history to light the Olympic Flame and then go on to win a Gold Medal. The attendance at the stadium was 112,524 – the largest attendance for any sport in Olympic Games history.

In a men's basketball pool match between the USA and France, the USA's Vince Carter made one of the most famous dunks in basketball history. After getting the ball off a steal, the 6'6"/1.98 m Carter drove to the basket, with 7'2"/2.18 m centre Frédéric Weis in his way. Carter jumped, spread his legs in midair, scraped Weis' head on the way up, and dunked. The French media dubbed the feat le dunk de la mort ("the dunk of death").

Day 14–28 September

The Canadian flag at athletes' village is lowered to half-staff as Canadian athletes pay tribute to former prime minister Pierre Trudeau after hearing of his death in Montreal (Because of the time difference, it was 29 September in Sydney when Trudeau died). The Canadian flag flew at half-staff for the remainder of the Olympics, on orders from both IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch and Canadian Foreign Affairs Minister Lloyd Axworthy, as the state funeral did not take place until 3 October.

Day 16–30 September

Cameroon won a historic gold medal over Spain in the Men's Olympic Football Final at the Olympic Stadium. The game went to a penalty shootout, which was won by Cameroon 5–3.[19]

Day 17–1 October

Fireworks, Sydney Harbour Bridge, 2000 Summer Olympics closing ceremony
Olympic colours on the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

The last event of the games was the Men's Marathon, contested on a course that started in North Sydney. The event was won by Ethiopian Genzhnge Abera, with Eric Wananina second and Tesefe Tola, also of Ethiopia third. It was the first time since the 1968 Olympics that an Ethiopian had won the gold medal in this event.

The Closing Ceremony commenced with Christine Anu singing her version of the Warumpi Band's song, My Island Home. She performed with several Aboriginal dancers atop the Geodome Stage in the middle of the stadium, around which several hundred umbrella and lampbox kids created an image of Aboriginal dreamtime.

The Geodome Stage was used throughout the ceremony, which is a flat stage which is mechanically raised into the shape of a Geode.

IOC President Juan Antonio Samaranch declared at the Closing Ceremony,[20]

"I am proud and happy to proclaim that you have presented to the world the best Olympic Games ever."

Subsequent Summer Olympics held in Athens, Beijing and London have been described by Samaranch's successor, Jacques Rogge, as "unforgettable, dream Games", "truly exceptional" and "happy and glorious games" respectively – the practice of declaring games the "best ever" having been retired after the 2000 games.

The Olympic Hymn was sung by soprano Yvonne Kenny. The ceremony also featured performing artists such as Jimmy Barnes, INXS, Midnight Oil, Kylie Minogue, Slim Dusty, Christine Anu, Nikki Webster, John Paul Young, Men at Work, Melbourne-based singer Vanessa Amorosi, Tommy Emmanuel, and pop duo Savage Garden.

The Games were then handed over to their modern birthplace, Athens, which succeeded Sydney as summer Olympic host city. Two Greek flags were raised; one to honour the birthplace of the Olympics, and the other to honour Athens. The ceremony concluded with a huge fireworks display on Sydney Harbour. The fireworks display itself concluded with a very low flyover of Stadium Australia by an RAAF F-111C which performed a dump-and-burn manoeuvre synchronised with the extinction of the Olympic Flame. This created the appearance of the flame being carried away into the sky, flying in a northeasterly direction out across Sydney Harbour and ultimately towards Athens in a symbolic handover.

In honour of her gold medal win during the games, Cathy Freeman represented Oceania in carrying the Olympic flag, joining Archbishop Desmond Tutu (Africa), John Glenn (The Americas), Kazuyoshi Funaki (Asia), Lech Wałęsa (Europe), Jean-Michel Cousteau (Environment), Jean-Claude Killy (Sport), and Steven Spielberg (Culture) when it was raised again, at the XIX Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City; the opening ceremony there took place on 8 February 2002.

Sports

The 2000 Summer Olympic programme featured 300 events in the following 28 sports:

Although demonstration sports were abolished following the 1992 Summer Olympics the Sydney Olympics featured wheelchair racing as exhibition events on the athletics schedule.[21]

Special quarantine conditions were introduced to allow entry of horses into Australia to participate in equestrian events,[22] avoiding the need for such events to take place elsewhere as had happened at the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne.

Calendar

All dates are in AEDST (UTC+11); the other two cities, Adelaide uses ACST (UTC+9:30) and Brisbane uses AEST (UTC+10)
 ●  Opening ceremony     Event competitions  ●  Event finals  ●  Closing ceremony
Date September October
13th
Wed
14th
Thu
15th
Fri
16th
Sat
17th
Sun
18th
Mon
19th
Tue
20th
Wed
21st
Thu
22nd
Fri
23rd
Sat
24th
Sun
25th
Mon
26th
Tue
27th
Wed
28th
Thu
29th
Fri
30th
Sat
1st
Sun
Archery
Athletics







Badminton
Baseball
Basketball
Boxing

Canoeing

Cycling
Diving
Equestrian
Fencing
Field hockey
Football
Gymnastics

Handball
Judo
Modern pentathlon
Rowing

Sailing
Shooting
Softball
Swimming







Synchronized swimming
Table tennis
Taekwondo
Tennis
Triathlon
Volleyball
Water polo
Weightlifting
Wrestling



Total gold medals 13 14 15 15 18 18 18 26 25 18 11 17 17 11 40 24
Ceremonies
Date 13th
Wed
14th
Thu
15th
Fri
16th
Sat
17th
Sun
18th
Mon
19th
Tue
20th
Wed
21st
Thu
22nd
Fri
23rd
Sat
24th
Sun
25th
Mon
26th
Tue
27th
Wed
28th
Thu
29th
Fri
30th
Sat
1st
Sun
September October

Medal count

These are the top ten nations that won medals in the 2000 Games.
The ranking in this table is based on information provided by the International Olympic Committee.[23] Some other sources[24] may be inconsistent due to not taking into account all later doping cases.

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 United States37243293
2 Russia32282989
3 China28161559
4 Australia*16251758
5 Germany13172656
6 France13141138
7 Italy1381334
8 Netherlands129425
9 Cuba1111729
10 Great Britain1110728
Totals (10 nations)186162161509

  *   Host nation (Australia)

Participating National Olympic Committees

2000 Summer Olympic games countries
Participating countries
2000 Summer olympics team numbers
Number of athletes

199 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated in the Sydney Games, two more than in the 1996 Summer Olympics. In addition, there were four Timorese Individual Olympic Athletes at the 2000 Summer Olympics. Eritrea, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau made their Olympic debut this year.

Afghanistan was the only 1996 participant that did not participate in 2000, having been banned due to the extremist rule of the Taliban's oppression of women and its prohibition of sports.

Venues

Sydney Olympic Park

Sydney

Outside Sydney

Organisation

SOCOG org structure 1998
SOCOG organisational structure circa 1998 – five groups and 33 divisions reporting to the CEO are organised primarily along functional lines with only a limited number of divisions (e.g. Interstate Football and Villages) anticipating a venue focussed design.
SOCOG org structure 1999
SOCOG organisational structure circa 1999 – functional divisions and precinct/venue streams are organised in a matrix structure linked to the Main Operations Centre (MOC). Some functions such as Project Management (in the Games Coordination group) continue to exist largely outside this matrix structure.

Organisations responsible for the Olympics

A number of quasi-government bodies were responsible for the construction, organisation and execution of the Sydney Games. These included:

  • the Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG), primarily responsible for the staging of the Games
  • Olympic Coordination Authority (OCA), primarily responsible for construction and oversight
  • Olympic Roads & Transport Authority (ORTA)
  • Olympic Security Command Centre (OSCC)
  • Olympic Intelligence Centre (OIC)
  • JTF Gold the Australian Defence Force Joint Taskforce Gold
  • Sydney Olympic Broadcasting Organisation (nominally part of SOCOG)
  • IBM, provider of technology and the Technical Command Centre
  • Telstra, provider of telecommunications
  • Great Big Events, event management and marketing

These organisations worked closely together and with other bodies such as:

These bodies are often collectively referred to as the "Olympic Family".

Organisation of the Paralympics

Organisation of the 2000 Summer Paralympics was the responsibility of SPOC the Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee. However much of the planning and operation of the Paralympic Games was outsourced to SOCOG such that most operational programmes planned both the Olympic and Paralympic Games.

Other Olympic events

Organisation of the Games included not only the actual sporting events but also the management (and sometimes construction) of the sporting venues and surrounding precincts, the organisation of the Sydney Olympic Arts Festival and Olympic torch relay. The relay began in Greece and travelled to Australia via numerous Oceania island nations.

Phases of the Olympic project

The staging of the Olympics were treated as a project on a vast scale, with the project broken into several broad phases:

  • 1993 to 1996 – positioning
  • 1997 – going operational
  • 1998 – procurement/venuisation
  • 1999 – testing/refinement
  • 2000 – implementation
  • 2001 – post implementation and wind-down

SOCOG organisational design

The internal organisation of SOCOG evolved over the phases of the project and changed, sometimes radically, several times.

In late 1998 the design was principally functional. The top two tiers below the CEO Sandy Hollway consisted of five groups (managed by Group General Managers and the Deputy CEO) and twenty divisions (managed by divisional General Managers), which in turn were further broken up into programmes and sub-programmes or projects.

In 1999 functional areas (FAs) broke up into geographic precinct and venue teams (managed by Precinct Managers and Venue Managers) with functional area staff reporting to both the FA manager and the venue manager. Ie, SOCOG moved to a matrix structure. The Interstate Football division extant in 1998 was the first of these geographically based venue teams.

Volunteer programme

The origins of the volunteer programme for Sydney 2000 dates back to the bid, as early as 1992.

On 17 December 1992, a group of Sydney citizens, interested in the prospect of hosting the 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games, gathered for a meeting at Sports House, at Wentworth Park in Sydney.

In the period leading up to 1999, after Sydney had won the bid, the small group of volunteers grew from approximately 42 to around 500. These volunteers became known as Pioneer Volunteers. The Pioneer Volunteer programme was managed internally by SOCOG's Volunteer Services Department in consultation with prominent peak groups like The Centre for Volunteering (Volunteering and TAFE. Some of the Pioneer Volunteers still meet every four months, an unseen legacy of the games which brought together a community spirit not seen before.

During the Olympic games tens of thousands of volunteers, the official figure was placed at 46,967,[25] helped everywhere at the Olympic venues and elsewhere in the city. They were honoured with a parade like the athletes had a few days before.[26]

Marketing

The bid logo, designed by architect and designer Michael Bryce,[27] featured a colourful, stylised image of the Sydney Opera House.

The official logo – also referred to as the "Millennium Man"[28] – took the image of the bid logo and combined it with a stylised image of a runner to form a torchbearer in motion; formed by two small yellow boomerangs for arms and a larger red boomerang for legs. The Olympic torch is represented through a blue smoke trail, which draws the iconic peaks of the Sydney Opera House.

The design process of the official logo, as well as all other aspects of the Olympic Games' visual design identity, was awarded to Melbourne design studio FHA Image Design.[29] The Sydney Olympics brand identity project officially commenced in 1993.

The Mascots

The official mascots chosen for the 2000 Summer Olympics were Syd the platypus, Millie the echidna, and Olly the kookaburra[30] and were designed by Matthew Hattan and Jozef Szekeres and named by Philip Sheldon of agency Weekes Morris Osborn in response to the original SOCOG recommendation of Murray, Margery and Dawn after famous Australian athletes.

There was also an unofficial mascot, Fatso the Fat-Arsed Wombat, which was popularised by comedy team Roy Slaven and HG Nelson on the TV series The Dream with Roy and HG. Roy and HG also frequently disparaged the official mascots on their television program.[31][32][33]

Sponsors

Medals and bouquets

The bronze medals for the 2000 Olympics were created from melted down Australian 1 cent and 2 cent coins[34][35] – which had been removed from circulation from 1992 onward.

The bouquets handed to medal recipients incorporated foliage from the Grevillea baileyana, also known as the white oak.[36]

Awards and commendations

The International Olympic Committee awarded Sydney and its inhabitants with the "Pierre de Coubertin Trophy" in recognition of the collaboration and happiness shown by the people of Sydney during the event to all the athletes and visitors around the world.[37]

The New South Wales Police Force was granted use of the Olympic Rings in the New South Wales Police Force Olympic Commendation and the New South Wales Police Force Olympic Citation for having staged the "safest" games ever.

Broadcast rights

In popular culture

In F.J. Campbell's 2018 novel No Number Nine, the last part of the book is set at the Sydney 2000 Olympics.[38]

In Tom Clancy's thriller Rainbow Six, the 2000 Olympic Games are the setting of a plot by eco-terrorists, who plan to use the games in order to spread a terrible new plague throughout the world.[39]

In Morris Gleitzman's children's book Toad Rage, a cane toad travels to Sydney in a bid to become the Olympic mascot.[40]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The national teams of North Korea and South Korea competed separately in the Olympic events, even though they marched together as a unified Korean team in the opening ceremony.

References

  1. ^ "The Olympic Summer Games Factsheet" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  2. ^ a b "Factsheet - Opening Ceremony of the Games of the Olympiad" (PDF) (Press release). International Olympic Committee. 9 October 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  3. ^ a b How the media viewed the Sydney Olympics. Cool Running. Retrieved on 19 April 2015.
  4. ^ Mossop, James (1 October 2000). "Sydney has set the highest standards for future hosts". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  5. ^ "Sydney 2000 the Olympic Games benchmark, Sebastian Coe says". The Australian. 25 July 2012.
  6. ^ IOC Vote History
  7. ^ Keys, Barbara (2018). "Harnessing Human Rights to the Olympic Games: Human Rights Watch and the 1993 'Stop Beijing' Campaign". Journal of Contemporary History. 53 (2): 415–438. doi:10.1177/0022009416667791.
  8. ^ GamesBids.com Past Olympic Host Cities List
  9. ^ Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 9, 13. SSRN 2804554.
  10. ^ "Sydney 2000 – Auditor Slams Costs". liebreich.com. 23 April 2003. Archived from the original on 7 February 2005.
  11. ^ "Cost of the Olympic and Paralympic Games" (PDF). pp. 10–11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 June 2005. Olympic Co-ordination Authority ... OCA's current report on the actual result ... Total net impact in A$$ million: ... 1,326.1
  12. ^ Poynter, Gavin; MacRury, Iain (6 October 2009). Olympic Cities: 2012 and the Remaking of London. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 137–. ISBN 9780754671008. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  13. ^ Findling, John E.; Pelle, Kimberly D. (2004). Encyclopedia of the Modern Olympic Movement. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 252–. ISBN 9780313322785. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  14. ^ Saulwick, Jacob (12 April 2008). "No medals for economic benefits of the Games". Business Day. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 16 April 2008. The article is based largely on a recent study by James Giesecke and John Madden from the Centre of Policy Studies at Monash University.
  15. ^ Commentary on the official DVD of the opening ceremony of the 2000 Summer Olympics
  16. ^ [1] Afghanistan-Analysts. Retrieved on 19 April 2015.
  17. ^ 11 Olympic Theme Songs, Dissected. Time (26 July 2012). Retrieved 3 May 2014.
  18. ^ Information given by Ric Birch, Director of Ceremonies, during an interview at the end of the official DVD of the 2000 Summer Olympics Opening Ceremony
  19. ^ "Patrick Mboma". Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2010.
  20. ^ Longman, Jere (2 October 2000). "Sydney 2000: Closing Ceremony; A fond farewell from Australia". New York Times. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
  21. ^ "Reflections on the Olympic Wheelchair Racing Exhibition Races". Archived from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  22. ^ "Strict quarantine conditions for overseas horses competing in the Sydney 2000 Games". Department of Agriculture. 26 November 1999. Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  23. ^ "Sydney 2000". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  24. ^ "2000 Summer Games". Database Olympics. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2013.
  25. ^ "Sydney 2000 International Olympic Committee". Archived from the original on 22 July 2009. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
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External links

Preceded by
Atlanta
Summer Olympic Games
Sydney

XXVII Olympiad (2000)
Succeeded by
Athens
2000 Summer Olympics medal table

The 2000 Summer Olympics medal table is a list of National Olympic Committees ranked by the number of medals won during the 2000 Summer Olympics, held in Sydney, Australia, from 15 September to 1 October 2000. A total of 10,651 athletes from 199 nations (with four individual athletes from East Timor) competed in 300 events in 28 sports.Athletes from 80 countries won at least one medal. The United States won the most medals overall with 93, as well as the most gold (37) medals. Host nation Australia finished the Games with 58 medals overall (16 gold, 25 silver, and 17 bronze). Cameroon, Colombia, Latvia, Mozambique and Slovenia won a gold medal for the first time in their Olympic histories, while Vietnam, Barbados, Macedonia, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, and Saudi Arabia won their first ever Olympic medals, a silver in taekwondo, a bronze in athletics, a bronze in wrestling and a bronze in judo, respectively.

Athletics at the 2000 Summer Olympics

At the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, 46 events in athletics were contested, 24 for men and 22 for women. There were a total number of 2134 participating athletes from 193 countries.

Athletics at the 2000 Summer Olympics – Men's 4 × 400 metres relay

The 4 × 400 metres relay races at the 2000 Summer Olympics as part of the athletics program were held on 29 and 30 September. The top two teams in each of the initial five heats automatically qualified for the semi-final. The next six fastest teams from across the heats also qualified. The top three teams in each of the semi-finals automatically qualified for the final. The next two fastest team from the semi-finals also qualified.

The United States, with Alvin Harrison, Antonio Pettigrew, Calvin Harrison and Michael Johnson, originally won the gold medal. On 18 July 2004, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) ruled that Jerome Young was ineligible to compete in Sydney and annulled all his past results, including those achieved as part of relay teams. Young had competed for the USA team in the heats and semi-final of this event. Therefore, the United States team was stripped of the gold medal and Nigeria, Jamaica, and the Bahamas were moved up one position each. On 22 July 2005, the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) overturned this decision and restored the original finish order of the race based on a ruling that a team should be disqualified because of a doping offense by an athlete who did not compete in the finals.In June 2008, Antonio Pettigrew "admitted in court he cheated to win" by using banned performance-enhancing substances, and agreed to return his gold medal. Michael Johnson announced that he would return his own gold medal, won as part of the relay team with Pettigrew. Johnson stated that he felt "cheated, betrayed and let down" by what Pettigrew had done at the Games. On 12 July 2012, the IOC confirmed the medal reallocation.

Basketball at the 2000 Summer Olympics

Basketball contests at the 2000 Summer Olympics were held from 16 September 2000 to 1 October 2000. Games took place at the Sydney SuperDome and the Dome in Sydney, Australia. The United States claimed the gold medals in both the men's and women's competitions.

Boxing at the 2000 Summer Olympics

The boxing competition at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney was held at the Sydney Convention and Exhibition Centre in Darling Harbour. The event was only open to men and bouts were contested over four rounds of two minutes each. Five judges scored the fighters in real time and the boxer with the most points at the end was the winner.Like other Olympic combat sports, two bronze medals are awarded; in the case of boxing, both losing semi-finalists receive a bronze medal, with no further play-off. As a result, the quarter-final essentially equates to a bronze medal match, a semi-final to a silver medal match, and the final to a gold medal match. 48 medals are therefore available, half of which are bronze medals.

Cycling at the 2000 Summer Olympics

At the 2000 Summer Olympics, 3 different bicycle racing disciplines were contested: Road cycling, track cycling, and mountain biking.

Equestrian at the 2000 Summer Olympics

The equestrian events at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney included dressage, eventing, and show jumping. All three disciplines had both individual and team competitions.

Field hockey at the 2000 Summer Olympics

Field Hockey at the 2000 Summer Olympics was held at the Sydney Olympic Park Hockey Centre.

Football at the 2000 Summer Olympics

The football tournament at the 2000 Summer Olympics started on 15 September. The men's tournament is played by U-23 (under 23 years old) national teams, with up to three over age players allowed per squad. Article 1 of the tournament regulations states: "The Tournaments take place every four years, in conjunction with the Summer Olympic Games. The associations affiliated to FIFA are invited to participate with their men's U-23 and women's representative teams."

Football at the 2000 Summer Olympics – Men's tournament

The men's football tournament was held at the 2000 Summer Olympics from 15 to 30 September. It was the 20th edition of the men's Olympic football tournament.

The final, played at the Olympic Stadium, attracted the Olympic Games Football attendance record of 104,098 to break the previous record of 101,799 set at the Rose Bowl for the gold medal match of the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, with Cameroon winning the gold.

Great Britain at the 2000 Summer Olympics

Great Britain, represented by the British Olympic Association (BOA), competed at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia. British athletes have competed in every Summer Olympic Games. 310 competitors, 181 men and 129 women, took part in 179 events in 23 sports. These were the first Summer Olympics in which the team of selected athletes was officially known as Team GB in a highly successful attempt to unify all the competing athletes across all the sports and events and boost team morale. Going into the games following their exceptionally poor performance in Atlanta widespread expectations of the team were low.

The Sydney Games was at the time the best performance by Great Britain in the Summer Olympic Games since 1920, with British competitors winning a total of 28 medals, 11 of which were gold. This represented a vast improvement in performance over the previous Summer Olympics in 1996, in which Great Britain won only one gold medal and 15 in total, and was the first of five consecutive Summer Olympics in which Great Britain would not only dramatically increase its overall performance and expectations but also see them dramatically increase its overall Summer Olympics medal tally and were also the first Summer Olympic Games where British competitors benefited from £58.9m of National Lottery funding when it was introduced in 1997.

Gymnastics at the 2000 Summer Olympics

At the 2000 Summer Olympics, three different gymnastics disciplines were contested: artistic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics, and trampoline. The artistic gymnastics and trampoline events were held at the Sydney SuperDome on 16–25 September and 22–23 September, respectively. The rhythmic gymnastics events were held at Pavilion 3 of the Sydney Olympic Park on 28 September – 1 October.

Rowing at the 2000 Summer Olympics – Men's eight

The men's eight competition at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia took place at the Sydney International Regatta Centre.

Sailing at the 2000 Summer Olympics

Sailing at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney was held from 17–30 September 2000 at the Olympic Sailing Shore Base in the Sydney Harbour.

The quota for sailing at the 2000 Summer Olympics was 400, of which 124 positions were for men, 92 for women and 184 'open' to men or women. The Sailing Program of 2000 consisted of a total of eleven sailing classes (disciplines). For each class with the exception of the Soling and the 49er, eleven races were scheduled from 17–30 September 2000. For the Soling six fleet races were scheduled followed by a series of match races for the top twelve boats of the fleet race result. The 49er had sixteen scheduled fleet races. The sailing was done on six course areas and several types of course configurations.

The Sydney 2000 Games featured a name change for the sport, previously known as yachting.

Swimming at the 2000 Summer Olympics

The swimming competitions at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney took place from 16 to 23 September 2000 at the Sydney International Aquatic Centre in Homebush Bay. It featured 32 events (16 male, 16 female), and a total of 954 swimmers from 150 nations.The swimming program for 2000 was expanded from 1996, with the inclusion of the semifinal phase in each of the events except for some special cases. Long-distance swimming events (400 m freestyle, 800 m freestyle, 1500 m freestyle, and 400 m individual medley) and all relays still maintained the old format with only two phases: heats and final. Because of the radical changes in the competition format, it was extended into an eight-day program and thereby continued into the present era.Swimmers from the United States were the most successful, winning 14 golds, 8 silver, and 11 bronze to lead the overall medal count with 33. Meanwhile, Australia had produced a total of 18 medals (five golds, nine silver, and four bronze) to claim the second spot in the tally. A total of fourteen world records and thirty-eight Olympic records were set during the competition.

Tennis at the 2000 Summer Olympics

The tennis competition at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia consisted of singles and doubles events for both men and women.

Volleyball at the 2000 Summer Olympics

At the 2000 Summer Olympics, four volleyball events were contested — men’s and women’s indoor volleyball, and men's and women's beach volleyball.

Water polo at the 2000 Summer Olympics

The water polo competition at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia saw Hungary’s return to the gold medal platform and the introduction of the women’s tournament. The Australian women had lobbied the IOC hard for the inclusion of women’s water polo in the Olympics, including showing up at the airport dressed only in their swimsuits during one pre-Olympic visit by members of the IOC.

Six nations competed in the women’s tournament with home team Australia winning the gold medal over the United States.

Twelve nations competed in the men’s tournament and played a total of 48 matches. Spain was unable to follow up their 1996 gold medal performance with a medal. Hungary defeated Russia for the gold medal.

Women matches were held in Ryde Leisure Aquatic Centre and men and women finals were held in Sydney International Aquatic Centre.

Weightlifting at the 2000 Summer Olympics

The Weightlifting Competition at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia saw the introduction of women's weightlifting.

2000 Summer Olympics bidding results[8]
City NOC Name Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Round 4
Sydney  Australia 30 30 37 45
Beijing  China 32 37 40 43
Manchester  Great Britain 11 13 11
Berlin  Germany 9 9
Istanbul  Turkey 7
Participating National Olympic Committees
Sponsors of the 2000 Summer Olympics
Worldwide Olympic Partners
Australia Partners
Supporters
Providers
Summer
Games
Winter
Games
Nations at the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia
Africa
America
Asia
Europe
Oceania
Other
Events at the 2000 Summer Olympics (Sydney)
Venues of the 2000 Summer Olympics (Sydney)
Sydney Olympic Park
Sydney
Outside Sydney

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