20-N is a symbolic abbreviation used to denote the date of death of two of the best known and controversial figures in 20th-century Spanish history. The first date, 20 November 1936, near the end of the first year of the Spanish Civil War, marks the execution in Alicante of 33-year-old José Antonio Primo de Rivera, the founder of the fascist party, Falange Española [Spanish Phalanx], who became extolled as a cult figure during the years of post-Civil War Estado Español [dictatorship] led by Francisco Franco.

The second date, 39 years later, is 20 November 1975, when Generalissimo Franco - aged 82, and having ruled Spain for close to four decades as its dictator, or as he called himself, caudillo (Spanish for leader) - died in bed following a lengthy illness. The date continues to be commemorated by far-right groups which mark it by organizing public demonstrations.

Other incidents

  • In a startling coincidence, the same day also proved to be fatal to Primo de Rivera's political opposite, 40-year-old Buenaventura Durruti, a key leader of Spain's two largest anarchist organizations, Federación Anarquista Ibérica [Iberian Anarchist Federation] and the anarcho-syndicalist trade union Confederación Nacional del Trabajo [National Confederation of Labor]. Durruti's death occurred, according to his chauffeur, in the midst of distant gunfire in the trenches of Madrid.
  • The Spanish general election on November 20, 2011 coincided with the 75th anniversary of Primo de Rivera's execution.
  • November 20 is also the anniversary of the assassination of Basque nationalist politicians Santiago Brouard, murdered in 1984, and Josu Muguruza, assassinated in 1989. In both cases it is believed that the date of the assassination was symbolically chosen to coincide with 20-N.


  • Payne, Stanley G. (1961) Falange. A History of Spanish Fascism. Stanford University Press.
  • Thomas, Hugh. "The Hero in the Empty Room: Jose Antonio and Spanish Fascism," Journal of Contemporary History (1966) 1#1 pp. 174–182 in JSTOR
  • Velarde Fuertes, Juan. "José Antonio y la economía" Grafite ediciones. ISBN 84-96281-10-8
  • Hugh Thomas The Spanish Civil War. Middlesex, England: Penguin Books Ltd., 1965.
  • Emma Goldman Durruti is Dead, Yet Living (1936).
  • Antony Beevor The Spanish Civil War (1982).
  • Abel Paz Durruti in the Spanish Revolution, Translated by Chuck W. Morse, AK Press, 2007. ISBN 1-904859-50-X.
  • Pedro de Paz The Man Who Killed Durruti Read and Noir (2005).
  • Hans Magnus Enzensberger The Short Summer of Anarchy: Life and Death of Buenaventura Durruti (1972) (originally: Der kurze Sommer der Anarchie: Buenaventura Durrutis Leben und Tod).
  • Collective work Buenaventura Durruti, a double CD [1] nato, (1996).

External links


Austria ( (listen), ; German: Österreich [ˈøːstɐraɪç] (listen)), officially the Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich, listen ), is a country in Central Europe comprising 9 federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi), a population of nearly 9 million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft). The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, and German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.Austria played a central role in European History from the late 18th to the early 20th century. It initially emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and later archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal houses in history. As archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Following the Holy Roman Empire's dissolution, Austria founded its own empire in the 19th century, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation. Subsequent to the Austro-Prussian War and the establishment of a union with Hungary, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was created. Austria was involved in both world wars; it started the first one under Emperor Franz Joseph and served as the birthplace of Adolf Hitler, who provoked the second one.

Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of government. Major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria is consistently ranked as one of the richest countries in the world by per capita GDP terms. The country has developed a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. The republic declared its perpetual neutrality in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union in 1995. It harbours the OSCE and OPEC and is a founding member of the OECD and Interpol. Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999.


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Tower Bridge is a combined bascule and suspension bridge in London, built between 1886 and 1894. The bridge crosses the River Thames close to the Tower of London and has become an iconic symbol of London. Because of this, Tower Bridge is sometimes confused with London Bridge, situated some 0.5 mi (0.80 km) upstream. Tower Bridge is one of five London bridges now owned and maintained by the Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust overseen by the City of London Corporation. It is the only one of the Trust's bridges not to connect the City of London directly to the Southwark bank, as its northern landfall is in Tower Hamlets.

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