1st millennium

The first millennium was a period of time spanning the years AD 1 to AD 1000 (1st to 10th centuries; in astronomy: JD 1721425.52086667.5[1]). World population rose more slowly than during the preceding millennium, from about 200 million in AD 1 to about 300 million in AD 1000.[2]

In Western Eurasia (Europe and Near East), the first millennium was a time of great transition from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages. The 1st century saw the peak of the Roman Empire, followed by its gradual decline during the period of Late Antiquity, the rise of Christianity and the Great Migrations. The second half of the millennium is characterized as the Early Middle Ages in Europe, and marked by the Viking expansion in the west, the rise of the Byzantine Empire in the east.

Islam expands rapidly from Arabia to western Asia, India, North Africa and the Iberian peninsula, culminating in the Islamic Golden Age (700–1200 AD).

In East Asia, the first millennium was also a time of great cultural advances, notably the spread of Buddhism to East Asia. In China, the Han dynasty is replaced by the Jin dynasty and later the Tang dynasty until the 10th century sees renewed fragmentation in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. In Japan, a sharp increase in population followed when farmers' use of iron tools increased their productivity and crop yields. The Yamato court was established.

In South Asia, the Indian subcontinent was divided among numerous kingdoms throughout the first millennium, until the formation of the Gupta Empire.

In Mesoamerica, the first millennium was a period of enormous growth known as the Classic Era (200–900 AD). Teotihuacan grew into a metropolis and its empire dominated Mesoamerica. In South America, pre-Incan, coastal cultures flourished, producing impressive metalwork and some of the finest pottery seen in the ancient world. In North America, the Mississippian culture rose at the end of the millennium in the Mississippi and Ohio river valleys. Numerous cities were built; Cahokia, the largest, was based in present-day Illinois. The construction of Monks Mound at Cahokia was begun in 900–950 AD.

In Sub-Saharan Africa, the Bantu expansion reaches Southern Africa by about the 5th century. The Arab slave trade spans the Sahara and the Swahili coast by the 9th century.

Jesus ChristRoman EmpireGunpowderChessAttila the HunMount VesuviusEarly Middle AgesAztec EmpirePilate's court
From left, clockwise: Depiction of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity; The Colosseum, a landmark of the once-mighty Roman Empire; Gunpowder is invented during the latter part of the millennium, in China; Chess, a new board game, becomes popular around the globe; The Western Roman Empire falls, ushering in the Early Middle Ages; The skeletal remains of a young woman, known as the "ring lady", killed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; Attila the Hun, leader of the Hunnic Empire, which takes most of Eastern Europe (Background: Reproduction of ancient mural from Teotihuacan, National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City)

Civilizations, kingdoms and dynasties

Kingdoms and civilizations of the 1st millennium AD
Africa Asia / Oceania Europe Pre-Columbian Americas
North Africa
East Africa
Sahara / West Africa
Central / Southern Africa
West Asia
East Asia
Central Asia
South Asia
Southeast Asia
Southeastern Europe
Western / Central Europe
Eastern Europe
Northern Europe
South America
North America


The events in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme

Events and trends of the 1st millennium AD
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
1st century AD 70 Kandake Amanikhatashan sends Kushite cavalry to aid Roman Emperor in Jerusalem revolt[3]
AD 100 rise of the Aksum
AD 100 Khoekhoe reach southern coast of Africa[4]
AD 1 Cahuachi established[5]
AD 50 Pyramid of the Sun began[5]
AD 25 Han Dynasty reestablished under Guangwu
AD 33 Christianity begins
AD 70 Jewish diaspora
AD 9 Rhine established as boundary between Rome and Germany[6]
AD 47 London founded
AD 58 Alpes Cottiae becomes a Roman province[6]
AD 79 Pompeii destroyed
AD 1 Caroline Islands colonized[7]
2nd century 150 Rhapta, hint of pre-Swahili, Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
200 Bantu reach east Africa[8]
200 Nok culture ends
150 Cahuachi becomes dominant ceremonial site in southern Peru[5] 184 Yellow Turban Rebellion 106 Dacia becomes a Roman province[6]
166 Siege of Aquileia[6]
180 End of the Macromannic Wars[6]
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
3rd century 212 Egyptians granted Roman citizenship[8]
230 Aksum wars with Himyar and Saba alliance
300 Aksum prints own coins
250 Rise of Laguna de los Cerros
292 Stela 29 inscribed[5]
300 Tikàl conquers El Mirador[5]
208 Battle of Red Cliffs during the decline of the Han Dynasty
280 Jin reunifies China
212 Roman citizenship extended to all free people in the empire[6]
214 Hispania divided into Gallaecia, Tarraconensis, Baetica and Lusitania[6]
286 Diocletian divides the empire East and West[6]
300 Eastern Polynesian culture develops[9]
4th century 333 Aksum converts to Christianity
350 Meroe comes to an end [8]
350 King of Anwar, Kaja Maja
378 Teotihuacan conquers Waka, Tikal, and Uaxactun, the beginning of its conquest of the Maya[10] 319 Rise of Gupta Empire in South Asia
383 Battle of Fei River
393 Last Olympic Games

313 Edict of Milan[6]
370 Huns invade Eastern Europe[6]
396 Alaric and the Visigoths invade Greece[6]

  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
5th century 401 c. camel main transport for trans-Sahara
429 Vandal invasion[8]
500 Nubia split into Nobadia, Makuria, Alodia
  420 Southern and Northern Dynasties period begins 407 Vandals enter Iberia[11]
421 Romans defeat Persians[11]
476 Fall of Roman Empire[11]
500 Settlement of Hawaii, Easter Island, Society Islands, Tuamotus and Mangareva[9]
6th century 520 Kaleb attacks Yemen
533 Belisarius invades Africa[8]
540 Nubia converts to monophysite Christianity
600 Wari' conquer Peru[12]
600 Construction of Palenque[5]
538 Buddhism introduced in Japan.
570 Birth of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
507 Battle of Vouillé[11]
535 Byzantine army invades Italy[11]
585 Visigoths conquer Suevi kingdom[11]
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
7th century 641 Muslims invade Africa[13]
690 Za Dynasty founded
697 Carthage destroyed[13]
650 Settlement of Xochitecatl and Cacaxtla[12]
700 Teotihuacan destroyed[12]
618 Tang Dynasty established
632 Rise of Islam
651 Islamic conquest of Persia
c.680 Bulgarian Empire was founded; 700 Settlement of the Cook Islands[9]
8th century 702 Aksum attacks Arabia[13]
706 Arabic in Egypt[13]
789 Independent Morocco[13]
738 Quiriguá becomes independent of Copan

750 Sacred Cenote built at Chichén Itzá[12]
780 Murals at Bonampak abandoned[12]

738 Caliphate campaigns in India and invasion of India by Umayyad Caliphate was averted
755 An Shi Rebellion
717 Siege of Constantinople
718 Islamic conquest of Spain
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
9th century   801 c. Kanem Empire founded
801c. Aksum declines, capital moved to interior
900c. Igbo-Ukwu founded[14]
  835 Ganlu Incident 872 Norway unites
c.874 Settlement of Iceland
896 Hungarians invade Carpathia
900 Settlement of New Zealand[9]
10th century 905 Tulunids ejected[13]
909 Fatimid established[13]
969 Fustat captured[13]
950 Great Serpent Mound constructed[12]
990 Toltecs conquer Chichén Itzá
907 Political upheaval of the Five Dynasties begins
960 Song dynasty established
958 Denmark unites
985 Erik the Red founds colony in Greenland
1000 Polynesians build stone temples[9]

Significant people

The people in this section are organized according to the United Nations geoscheme

Significant people of the 1st millennium AD
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
1st century Natakamani
  Jesus of Nazareth
Paul of Tarsus
Mary Magdalene
Caesar Augustus
Pliny the Elder
2nd century Gadarat
Septimius Severus[8]
Yax Moch Xoc[5] Cai Lun
Zhang Heng
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
3rd century Macrinus[8]
King Aphilas of Aksum[8]
Curl Snout[5] Mani
Cao Cao
Zhuge Liang
4th century Ezana
King Kaja Maja
Siyaj K'ak'[10] Empress Jingū
Constantine I  
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
5th century Augustine of Hippo
K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo'[5] Aryabhata Hypatia
Attila the Hun
6th century Saifu
Saint Frumentius[8]
Emperor Wen of Sui
Khosrau I
Clovis I
Theodoric the Great
Justinian I
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
7th century Gregory the Patrician[13]
Bilal Ibn Rabah
Za Alieman
K'inich Janaab' Pakal[12]
Waxaklahùn Ubàh K'awìl[12]
Abu Bakr
Saint Isidore of Seville
8th century Mai Sef of Saif
Ghana Majan Dyabe Cisse
Merkurios of Makuria
  Abū Ḥanīfa
Muḥammad ibn Idrīs al Shāfīʿī
Abi Ishaq
Li Bai
Saint Bede
Charles Martel
  Africa Americas Asia Europe Oceania
9th century Mai Fune
Bilikisu Sungbo
Georgios I
  Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Muhammad al-Bukhari
Abu Dawood
Muhammad Khwarizmi
Bayazid Bastami
Alfred the Great
10th century Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah
Georgios II
Ce Acatl Topiltzin Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī
Ḥasan ibn Alhazen
Al Battani
Emperor Taizu of Song
Simeon I
Otto the Great
Bjarni Herjólfsson
Erik the Red[12]

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Inventions, discoveries and introductions
Communication Math and Science Agriculture Transportation Warfare
  1. Woodblock printing
  2. Paper[15]
  1. Algebra
  2. Ptolemaic system
  3. Steel
  1. Coffee
  2. Hops
  1. Horseshoe
  2. Stirrup
  3. Magnetic compass
  1. Greek fire
  2. Chess
  3. Gunpowder[15]

Centuries and decades

1st century 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s 70s 80s 90s
2nd century 100s 110s 120s 130s 140s 150s 160s 170s 180s 190s
3rd century 200s 210s 220s 230s 240s 250s 260s 270s 280s 290s
4th century 300s 310s 320s 330s 340s 350s 360s 370s 380s 390s
5th century 400s 410s 420s 430s 440s 450s 460s 470s 480s 490s
6th century 500s 510s 520s 530s 540s 550s 560s 570s 580s 590s
7th century 600s 610s 620s 630s 640s 650s 660s 670s 680s 690s
8th century 700s 710s 720s 730s 740s 750s 760s 770s 780s 790s
9th century 800s 810s 820s 830s 840s 850s 860s 870s 880s 890s
10th century 900s 910s 920s 930s 940s 950s 960s 970s 980s 990s


  1. ^ Julian Day Number from Date Calculator (casio.com)
  2. ^ Klein Goldewijk, K. , A. Beusen, M. de Vos and G. van Drecht (2011). The HYDE 3.1 spatially explicit database of human induced land use change over the past 12,000 years, Global Ecology and Biogeography20(1): 73-86. doi:10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010.00587.x (pbl.nl). Goldewijk et al. (2011) estimate 188 million as of AD 1, citing a literature range of 170 million (low) to 300 million (high). Out of the estimated 188 million, 116 million are estimated for Asia (East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Central Asia, excluding Western Asia), 44 million for Europe and the Near East, 15 million for Africa (including Roman Egypt and Roman North Africa), 12 million for Mesoamerica and South America. North America and Oceania were at or below one million. For AD 1000, they estimate the world population at 295 million . [1][2]
  3. ^ Jr Ph D Grant Bishop Williams(2009). Abraham's Other Sons. AuthorHouse: pp. 50,51. ISBN 9781438997094
  4. ^ Ehret, Christopher (2002). The Civilizations of Africa. Charlottesville: University of Virginia, p. 177, ISBN 0-8139-2085-X.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i "World Timeline of the Americas 200 BC - AD 600". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2009-04-01.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "World Timeline of Europe 200 BC-AD 400 Roman". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2009-04-06.
  7. ^ "World Timeline of the Oceania 1500 BC-AD 1". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "World Timeline of Africa 332 BC-AD 400". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
  9. ^ a b c d e "World Timeline of Oceania AD 1-1100". The British Museum. 2005. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
  10. ^ a b http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/print/2007/08/maya-rise-fall/gugliotta-text
  11. ^ a b c d e f "World Timeline of Europe AD 400-800 Early medieval". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-06.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i "World Timeline of the Americas AD 600-1000". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-01.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i "World Timeline of Africa AD 600-1500". The British Museum. 2005. Archived from the original on 2009-03-13. Retrieved 2009-04-02.
  14. ^ Coquery-Vidrovitch, Catherine. The History of African Cities South of the Sahara. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2005, p. 45, ISBN 1-55876-303-1
  15. ^ a b "Who Built it First". Ancient Discoveries. A&E Television Networks. 2008. Archived from the original on 2009-05-13. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
10th century

The 10th century was the period from 901 to 1000 in accordance with the Julian calendar, and the last century of the 1st millennium.

In China the Song dynasty was established. The Muslim World experienced a cultural zenith, especially in al-Andalus under the Caliphate of Córdoba. Additionally, it was the zenith for the Byzantine and Bulgarian Empires.

Medievalist and historian of technology Lynn White said that "to the modern eye, it is very nearly the darkest of the Dark Ages", but concluded that ". . . if it was dark, it was the darkness of the womb." Similarly, Helen Waddell wrote that the 10th century was that which "in the textbooks disputes with the seventh the bad eminence, the nadir of the human intellect." In the 15th century, Lorenzo Valla described it as the Century of Lead and Iron and later Cardinal Baronius as the Leaden Century or Iron Century.

According to one estimate, the tenth century saw fewer deaths in war (as a percentage of the total population) than any other century since 3000 BC.

1st millennium BC

The 1st millennium BC is the period of time between from the year 1000 BC to 1 BC (10th to 1st centuries BC; in astronomy: JD 1356182.5 – 1721425.5).

It encompasses the Iron Age in the Old World and sees the transition from the Ancient Near East to Classical Antiquity.

World population roughly doubled over the course of the millennium,

from about 100 million to about 200–250 million.

1st millennium in Canada

Events from the first millennium AD in Canada.


For the hydroelectric power plant and HVDC-back-to-back facility in Paraguay, see Acaray Power Plant

Acaray, also known as the Fortress of Acaray, is an archaeological site located in the Huaura River Valley on the near north coast of Peru (or the Norte Chico region). The impressive fortress is located on a series of three hilltops, each ringed with a number of perimeter defensive walls that have parapets and bastions, which stand as testaments to the military nature of the site. Radio carbon dating has established it was built about 900-200BC and abandoned 1000–1470AD. Surrounding the hilltop fortress are lower-lying areas of occupation and extensive cemeteries, which have been heavily looted.

Ancient literature

Before the spread of writing, oral literature did not always survive well, though some texts and fragments have persisted. August Nitschke sees some fairy tales as literary survivals dating back to Ice Age and Stone Age narrators.

Canaanite languages

The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite. They were spoken by the ancient Semitic people of the Canaan and Levant regions, an area encompassing what is today Israel, Jordan, Sinai, Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian territories and also some fringe areas of southern Turkey and the northern Arabian Peninsula. The Canaanites are broadly defined to include the Israelites (including Judeans and Samaritans), Phoenicians (including Carthaginians), Amorites, Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, Suteans, Ekronites and Amalekites. The Canaanite languages continued to be everyday spoken languages until at least the 4th century CE, but Hebrew remained in continuous use by many Jews since that period into the Middle Ages as a liturgical language, a literary language and for commerce, until it was revived as an everyday spoken language in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and became the main language of the Jews of Palestine and later the State of Israel. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language today.

This family of languages has the distinction of being the first historically attested group of languages to use an alphabet, derived from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, to record their writings, as opposed to the far earlier Cuneiform logographic/syllabic writing of the region.

The primary reference for extra-biblical Canaanite inscriptions, together with Aramaic inscriptions, is the German-language book Kanaanäische und Aramäische Inschriften, from which inscriptions are often referenced as KAI n (for a number n).

Canton of Nidwalden

The canton of Nidwalden, also canton of Nidwald (German: Kanton Nidwalden ˈnidˌvaldən ) is a canton of Switzerland. It is located in the centre of Switzerland. The population is 40,287 (in 2007) of which 4,046 (or 10%) are foreigners. The capital is Stans.


Cartennae or Cartenna was an ancient Berber, Carthaginian, and Roman port at present-day Ténès, Algeria. Under the Romans, it was part of the province of Mauretania Caesariensis.

Harrow Painter

The Harrow Painter was an ancient Greek painter of archaic red-figure pottery. The painter was named by John Beazley after an oinochoe in the Old Speech Room Gallery collection of Harrow School. The oinochoe shows a picture of a handsome boy holding a hoop. Thirty-nine vases have been attributed to the Harrow Painter.

Joel (prophet)

Joel (; Hebrew: יוֹאֵל‎ Yōw’êl; Syriac: ܝܘܐܝܠ‎ Yu'il) was a prophet of ancient Israel, the second of the twelve minor prophets and the author of the Book of Joel. He is mentioned by name only once in the Hebrew Bible, in the introduction to his own brief book, as the son of Pethuel (Joel 1:1). The name Joel combines the covenant name of God, YHWH (or Yahweh), and El (god), and has been translated as "one to whom YHWH is God," that is, a worshiper of YHWH.He is believed to have lived in the 9th century BCE, but the dating of his book is still debated. The book's mention of Greeks has not given scholars any help in dating the text since the Greeks were known to have had access to Judah from Mycenaean times (c. 1600–1100 BC). However, the book's mention of Judah's suffering and to the standing temple have led some scholars to place the date of the book in the post-exilic period, after the construction of the Second Temple. Joel was originally from Judah/Judea, and, judging from its prominence in his prophecy, was quite possibly a prophet associated with the ritual of Solomon's or even the Second temple.According to a long-standing tradition, Joel was buried in Gush Halav.

List of years

This page indexes the individual years pages.

Lists of state leaders by year

This is a list of heads of state, government leaders, and other rulers in any given year.

Migration Period

The Migration Period was a period that lasted from 375 AD (possibly as early as 300 AD) to 538 AD, during which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, during and after the decline of the Western Roman Empire, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns. This period has also been termed in English by the German loanword Völkerwanderung and—from the Mediterranean perspective—the Barbarian Invasions. Many of the migrations were movements of Germanic, Hunnic, Slavic and other peoples into the territory of the then declining Roman Empire, with or without accompanying invasions or war.

Historians give differing dates regarding the duration of this period, but the Migration Period is typically regarded as beginning with the invasion of Europe by the Huns from Asia in 375 and ending either with the conquest of Italy by the Lombards in 568, or at some point between 700 and 800. Various factors contributed to this phenomenon, and the role and significance of each one is still very much discussed among experts on the subject. Starting in 382, the Roman Empire and individual tribes made treaties regarding their settlement in its territory. The Franks, a Germanic tribe that would later found Francia—a predecessor of modern France and Germany—settled in the Roman Empire and were given a task of securing the northeastern Gaul border. Western Roman rule was first violated with the Crossing of the Rhine and the following invasions of the Vandals and Suebi. With wars ensuing between various tribes, as well as local populations in the Western Roman Empire, more and more power was transferred to Germanic and Roman militaries.

There are contradicting opinions whether the fall of the Western Roman Empire was a result or a cause of these migrations, or both. The Eastern Roman Empire was less affected by migrations and survived until the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453. In the modern period, the Migration Period was increasingly described with a rather negative connotation, and seen more as contributing to the fall of the empire. In place of the fallen Western Rome, Barbarian kingdoms arose in the 5th and 6th centuries and decisively shaped the European Early Middle Ages.

The migrants comprised war bands or tribes of 10,000 to 20,000 people, but in the course of 100 years they numbered not more than 750,000 in total, compared to an average 39.9 million population of the Roman Empire at that time. Although immigration was common throughout the time of the Roman Empire, the period in question was, in the 19th century, often defined as running from about the 5th to 8th centuries AD. The first migrations of peoples were made by Germanic tribes such as the Goths (including the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths), the Vandals, the Anglo-Saxons, the Lombards, the Suebi, the Frisii, the Jutes, the Burgundians, the Alemanni, the Scirii and the Franks; they were later pushed westward by the Huns, the Avars, the Slavs and the Bulgars.Later invasions—such as the Viking, the Norman, the Varangian, the Hungarian, the Moorish, the Turkic and the Mongol—also had significant effects (especially in North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, Anatolia and Central and Eastern Europe); however, they are usually considered outside the scope of the Migration Period.

Mollo culture

The Mollo culture existed in Bolivia's altiplano area after the collapse of the Tiwanaku culture during the period of AD 1000 to 1500; it predated the Inca civilization. While the Mollo showed a continuity with Late Tiwanaku culture in both domestic and village architecture, they left no pyramids. Mollo worshiped the jaguar.


Panticapaeum (Ancient Greek: Παντικάπαιον, translit. Pantikápaion) was an ancient Greek city on the eastern shore of Crimea, which the Greeks called Taurica. The city was built on Mount Mithridat, a hill on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus. It was founded by Milesians in the late 7th or early 6th century BC. The ruins of the site are now located in the modern city Kerch.


Siena (Italian pronunciation: [ˈsjɛːna] (listen); in English sometimes spelled Sienna; Latin: Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the province of Siena.

The historic centre of Siena has been declared by UNESCO a World Heritage Site. It is one of the nation's most visited tourist attractions, with over 163,000 international arrivals in 2008. Siena is famous for its cuisine, art, museums, medieval cityscape and the Palio, a horse race held twice a year.

Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt

The Twenty-first Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXI, alternatively 21st Dynasty or Dynasty 21) is usually classified as the first Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period, lasting from 1069 BC to 945 BC.

Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt

The Twenty-fourth Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXIV, alternatively 24th Dynasty or Dynasty 24), is usually classified as the fourth Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period.

Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt

The Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXIII, alternatively 23rd Dynasty or Dynasty 23) is usually classified as the third dynasty of the ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period. This dynasty consisted of a number of Meshwesh ancient Libyan (Berber) kings, who ruled either as pharaohs or independent kings of parts of Upper Egypt from 880 BC to 720 BC, and pharaohs from 837 BC to 728 BC.


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