1st Ranger Battalion

The 1st Ranger Battalion, currently based at Hunter Army Airfield in Savannah, Georgia, United States, is the first of three ranger battalions belonging to the United States Army's 75th Ranger Regiment.

It was originally formed shortly after the United States' entry into World War II and was modeled after the British Commandos during the war. Members from the unit were the first American soldiers to see combat in the European theater when they participated in the failed raid on Dieppe in France in 1942, during which three Rangers were killed and several more were captured. Later, the 1st Ranger Battalion was sent to North Africa where they participated in the landings in Algeria and the fighting in Tunisia in 1943. Also in 1943 the unit provided cadre for two more Ranger battalions created between the campaigns in Sicily and Italy.[2] After World War II, the 1st Ranger Battalion has gone through a number of changes of name and composition as it has been activated, deactivated and reorganized on a number of occasions. However, the unit has lived on in one form or another since then, serving in the Korean and Vietnam Wars before being consolidated into the 75th Ranger Regiment of which it is a part today. Recent deployments have included operations in both Iraq and Afghanistan as part of the wider global war on terrorism.

1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment
1 Ranger Battalion Shoulder Sleeve Insignia
1st Ranger Battalion shoulder sleeve insignia
Active1942–44, 1948–51, 1974–present
Country United States of America
BranchEmblem of the United States Department of the Army.svg United States Army
TypeSpecialized Light infantry
RoleSpecial operations
SizeBattalion
Part of75th Ranger Regiment SSI (1984-2015).svg 75th Ranger Regiment
Garrison/HQHunter Army Airfield, Georgia
EngagementsWorld War II

Korean War
Vietnam War
Operation Eagle Claw
Operation Urgent Fury
Operation Just Cause
Gulf War
War on terror

Commanders
Notable
commanders
William Orlando Darby
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia
75th Ranger Regiment Distinctive Unit Insignia
Unit beret flash
1 Bn 75 Ranger Regiment Beret Flash

History

Formation

Major General Lucian Truscott, U.S. Army, in liaison with the British General Staff, submitted proposals to General George Marshall that "we undertake immediately an American unit along the lines of the British Commandos" in 1942. A subsequent cable from the U.S. Department of War authorized the activation of the 1st U.S. Army Ranger Battalion.[2]

After much deliberation, Company A, 1st Ranger Battalion was constituted on 27 May 1942. Captain William Orlando Darby, 31-year-old graduate of West Point with amphibious training, was chosen as its commanding officer. Within weeks he was promoted to major for his efforts in organizing the unit. Of the 1,500 men to volunteer for the original Ranger Battalion, only 600 were chosen. Eighty percent of these original Rangers came from the Red Bulls U.S. 34th Infantry Division.[3] On 19 June 1942, Company A, 1st Ranger Battalion, was officially activated in Carrickfergus, Northern Ireland.[4]

A select team of four officers toured the existing commando training camps and selected the center at Achnacarry, Scotland for the Rangers. Here they underwent intense training. Coached by the battle-seasoned commando instructors (commanded by Lt. Col. Charles Vaughan),[5] the Rangers learned the basics of commando warfare. Five hundred of the 600 volunteers (83.33%) that Darby brought with him to Achnacarry completed the commando training. Many could not endure the exercises; one Ranger was killed, while several others were wounded in training so realistic that it was executed under live fire.[6]

World War II

1st Battalion goes active

The first Americans to see active combat in the European theater of World War II were forty-four enlisted men and five officers from the 1st Ranger Battalion. Dispersed among the Canadians and the British commandos, these men were the first American ground soldiers to see action against the Germans in the disastrous Dieppe Raid, officially known as Operation Jubilee. Three Rangers were killed and several captured. The first American soldier killed in Europe in World War II was part of the Dieppe Raid, Ranger Lieutenant E. V. Loustalot. During the mission, the British Captain leading the assault was killed. Loustalot took command and with his men attacked a clifftop machine gun nest. Scaling the steep cliff, Loustalot was wounded three times and then was killed by enemy crossfire.[3]

North Africa

The first efforts to stop the German infiltration of Europe were by the 1st Ranger Battalion. Attempting to prevent German occupation of seaports in North Africa, the 1st Ranger Battalion spearheaded an invasion at the Port of Arzew in Algeria. This was accomplished by executing a surprise night landing, silencing two gun batteries, and opening the way for the capture of Oran.[2]

In Tunisia in 1943, the 1st Battalion executed the first Ranger behind-the-lines night raid for the purpose of gaining information and terrorizing the enemy. On 11 February the Rangers took a 32-mile (51 km) journey, 12 on foot, for their first raid on an Italian camp at Sened Station. Using the cloak of night, the Rangers slipped in 50 yards (46 m) of the Italian outpost and began their attack. It took the battalion only 20 minutes to achieve area control. Fifty enemy were killed and an additional 10 were taken prisoner. Darby, along with fellow commanders, was awarded the Silver Star for this victory and the battalion itself gained the nickname the "Black Death" by the Italians.[2] Later, in March, American units were decimated time and again while trying to break through the critical mountain pass at Djbel Ank. Given this mission, the 1st Rangers undertook a twelve-mile (19 km) night march through rugged terrain to reach the heights of Djbel Ank where, at dawn, the Rangers surprised the enemy from the rear, capturing two hundred prisoners and giving General Patton an opening though which he began the final and victorious battle in North Africa. Rangers played a crucial role in the battle of El Guettar which immediately followed, for which the First Ranger Battalion won its first Presidential Unit Citation (US).[3]

Sicily and Italy

The early success of the 1st Ranger Battalion brought about the creation of the 3rd and 4th Battalions. The original 1st Battalion was divided into thirds. One third of the Headquarters and each company was placed in each of the Battalions 1-3-4. 3rd Ranger Battalion was Activated on 21 May 1943 at Nemours, Morocco, while 4th Ranger Battalion was activated on 29 May 1943 in Tunisia. To provide command and control for these three Ranger Battalions, the 6615th Ranger Force (Provisional) was established. This force was rounded out with the addition of the 83rd Chemical Mortar Battalion, and the 2/509th Parachute Infantry Regiment. The battle seasoned 1st Battalion moved into their newly assigned positions and trained their Ranger colleagues. The 1-3-4 Battalions were trained under Darby in Nemours, Morocco and prepared for the invasion of Sicily and Italy. Following the 1st Ranger Battalion success at the Amphibious Battle of Gela, all four of the initial Ranger Battalions were redesignated as Ranger Infantry Battalions on 1 August 1943

Had it not been for the accomplishments of the 1st Ranger Battalion in the early entry of WWII, there would be no Rangers today. Their successful invasions in North Africa opened the sea and its ports for the Allied forces. The Allies were now able to move ships and equipment to support subsequent campaigns, enabling the later forces to successfully infiltrate enemy lines along the African coast, in Sicily, and up into Italy.

The Ranger Force targeted Salerno on 9 September 1943, and participated in the Naples-Foggia Campaign. Then they moved on to Anzio on 22 January 1944. The entire 6615th Ranger Force (Provisional) was destroyed behind enemy lines in a heavily outnumbered encounter at Cisterna, Italy on 30 January 1944, and was officially disbanded on 15 August 1944. The 4th Ranger Battalion suffered some casualties while attempting to break through enemy lines to rescue their comrades in the 1st and 3rd Battalions. The 1st, 3rd, and 4th Battalions were known as Darby's Rangers.[3]

Postwar

The 1st Ranger Infantry Battalion, in response to parallel missions in Berlin, was reconstituted on 1 September 1948 as Company A, 1st Infantry Battalion, and activated in the Canal Zone. It served there until it was inactivated on 4 January 1950.[7]

Korea

The outbreak of hostilities in Korea in June 1950 again signaled the need for Rangers. Colonel John Gibson Van Houten was selected by the Army Chief of Staff to head the Ranger training program at Ft. Benning, Georgia. 1st Ranger Infantry Company (Airborne) departed from Ft. Benning, Georgia on 15 November 1950, and arrived in Korea on 17 December 1950, where it was attached to the 2nd Infantry Division. The 1st Ranger Infantry Company (Airborne) opened with an extraordinary example of land navigation, then executed a daring night raid 9 miles (14 km) behind enemy lines destroying an enemy complex. The enemy installation was later identified by a prisoner as the Headquarters of the 12th North Korean Division. Caught by surprise and unaware of the size of the American force, two North Korean Regiments hastily withdrew from the area. The 1st Company was in the middle of the major battle of Chipyong-Ni and the "May Massacre." It was awarded two Distinguished Unit Citations.[8]

As a result of budgetary considerations, the US Army spent much of the 1950s and 1960s consolidating and redesignating units that were on inactive status.

This unit was redesignated 24 November 1952 as Company A, 1st Ranger Infantry Battalion, in inactive status and was consolidated on 15 April 1960 with the A Company, 1st Battalion, 1st Regiment, 1st Special Service Force, and the consolidated unit was redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 7th Special Forces Group(SFG), 1st Special Forces Group. The unit was further consolidated 6 June 1960 with Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 77th Special Forces Group, and the consolidated unit was designated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 7th SFG, 1st SFG (organic elements constituted 20 May 1960 and activated 6 June 1960).[7]

Vietnam

On 1 January 1969, under the new U.S. Army Combat Arms Regimental System (CARS), U.S. Army Rangers were re-formed in South Vietnam as the 75th Infantry Regiment (Ranger). Fifteen companies of Rangers, two of which (A-75 & B-75) were based in the US, were raised from units that had been performing missions in Europe since the late 1950s and in Vietnam since 1966 as Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol and Long Range Patrol companies.[9]

Post-Vietnam

After the Vietnam War, division and brigade commanders determined that the U.S. Army needed an elite, rapid deployment, light infantry, so in 1974 General Creighton Abrams charged General Kenneth C. Leuer with the task of activating, organizing, training and leading the first battalion sized Ranger unit since World War II. Because of the success of the 1st Ranger Battalion; eight months later, the 2nd Ranger Battalion was constituted, and in 1984 the 3rd Ranger Battalion and their regimental headquarters were created.[10]

The 1st Ranger Battalion have participated in the following operations: the 1980 rescue attempt of American hostages, Tehran, Iran in (Operation Eagle Claw); Operation Urgent Fury on Grenada in 1983; the U.S. invasion of Panama (Operation Just Cause) in 1989; Bravo Company, 1st Battalion was deployed in the First Persian Gulf War (Operations Desert Storm and Desert Shield) in 1991; soldiers from the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Ranger Battalions deployed to Haiti in 1994 (before operation's cancellation; recalled 5 miles (8.0 km) from the Haitian coast); the entire Ranger Regiment is on deployment since the start of the Iraq War, in 2003.[11]

War on Terror

75thRRPaktiya
A Ranger from the 1st Ranger Battalion scans for insurgents during a combat operation in Afghanistan, April 17, 2013

Since December 2001, after the events of 9/11, elements of Headquarters Company and Company A deployed in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan. In 2002, the entire battalion returned to Afghanistan to support the continuing Global War on Terrorism, in March 2002, during Operation Anaconda, 35 Rangers from the Battalion had been assigned as QRF for all Task Force 11 operations, but only half of the platoon was available for the Battle of Takur Ghar.[12][10][13]

In 2003, 1st Battalion participated in combat operations in support of Iraq War, conducting missions across the entire country of Iraq. 290 Rangers from the battalion and 2nd Battalion distinguished itself during the successful rescue of the prisoner-of-war, PFC Jessica Lynch.[14][15]

The battalion currently supports the Global War on Terrorism, regularly rotating elements to Afghanistan continuing to successfully dismantle terrorist networks;[16] For actions between November 14–16, 2010, Charlie Company received the Valorous Unit Award for extraordinary heroism, combat achievement and conspicuous gallantry while executing combat operations in support of a named operation. With ISAFs surge in Afghanistan at its peak in summer 2011, for actions in support of Operation Enduring Freedom between May 15 – August 28, 2011 that included: conducting continuous combat operations, including time sensitive raids and deliberate movement to contact operations while in enemy held terrain out of reach by other friendly forces, in places like Khost, Paktika and Nangarhar Province, the battalion received the Meritorious Unit Citation in particular its Bravo Company received the Valorous Unit Award; 2 Rangers from the battalion were killed during this time.[17]

Primary tasks include: direct action, national and international emergency crisis response, airfield seizure, airborne & air assault operations, special reconnaissance, intelligence & counter intelligence, combat search and rescue, personnel recovery & hostage rescue, joint special operations, and counter terrorism.

Peter Kassig, a former Ranger who was with the 1st Ranger Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, later became an aid worker in Syria. He was taken hostage by The Islamic State, and ultimately beheaded.[18][19]

As of March 2019, the battalion has made 22 deployments during the Global War on Terrorism.[20]

Honors

Campaign participation credit

World War II

  • Algeria–French Morocco (with arrowhead)
  • Tunisia
  • Sicily (with arrowhead)<
  • Naples–Foggia (with arrowhead)
  • Anzio (with arrowhead)<
  • Rome–Arno

Korean War

  • CCF Intervention
  • First UN Counteroffensive
  • CCF Spring Offensive
  • UN Summer–Fall Offensive

Vietnam

  • Counteroffensive, Phase VI
  • Tet 69/Counteroffensive
  • Summer–Fall 1969
  • Winter–Spring 1970
  • Sanctuary Counteroffensive
  • Counteroffensive, Phase VII
  • Consolidation I

Armed Forces Expeditions

  • Grenada (with arrowhead)
  • Panama (with arrowhead)

Global War on Terror

  • GWOT (expeditionary)
  • Afghanistan Service Medal
  • Iraq Service Medal
  • Valorous Unit Award
  • Joint Meritorious Unit Award

Decorations

See also

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Army Center of Military History document "Lineage and Honors — 1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment".

  1. ^ "DoD Identifies Soldier Killed by Vehicle Rollover in Syria". Military.com. 28 May 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d "1st Ranger Battalion". U.S. Army Ranger Association. Fort Benning, GA. 2013. Archived from the original on 15 November 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d "The 1st Ranger Battalion". www.rangerfamily.org. 2002. Archived from the original on 24 July 2007. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  4. ^ "U.S. Army Rangers". The Saving Private Ryan Online Encyclopedia.
  5. ^ "Col. William O. Darby The Ranger Who Led the Way". www.defensemedianetwork.com. 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2015.
  6. ^ Bahmanyar, Mir (2003). Darby's Rangers 1942–1945. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 18. ISBN 1-84176-627-5.
  7. ^ a b c "Department of the Army, Lineage and Honors, 1st Battalion 75th Ranger Regiment". Lineage And Honors Information. Army Center of Military History. 26 March 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
  8. ^ "Ranger Infantry Companies (Airborne) of the Korean War". U.S. Army Rangers. 2013. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  9. ^ "Vietnam War". U.S. Army Ranger Association. Archived from the original on 24 June 2010. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  10. ^ a b "A Highly Trained and Rapidly Mobile Force". 75th Ranger Regiment, 1st Ranger Battalion. U.S. Army. Retrieved 26 March 2014.
  11. ^ "Modern Rangers". U.S. Army Ranger Association. Archived from the original on 24 June 2010. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
  12. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908, pp. 64–65, 67–69,
  13. ^ "Honor Our Fallen". leadtheway.org.
  14. ^ Neville, Leigh, Special Forces in the War on Terror (General Military), Osprey Publishing, 2015 ISBN 978-1472807908
  15. ^ "75th Ranger Regiment". US Army.
  16. ^ "75th Ranger Regiment". US Army.
  17. ^ "1st Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment honors its heroes". armymil. 5 May 2015.
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ [2]
  20. ^ South, Todd (14 March 2019). "Single Ranger battalion deployment leads to 1,900 terrorists killed or captured, several valor awards". Army Times. Retrieved 14 March 2019.
  21. ^ Tan, Michelle (31 October 2012). "Rangers awarded medals for Afghanistan heroics". Army Times. Gannett Government Media Corporation. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  22. ^ Marrow, Joyce E. (16 December 2009). "General Orders No. 2009–15" (PDF). Headquarters. United States Army. Retrieved 5 November 2012.

External links

17th Special Tactics Squadron

The 17th Special Tactics Squadron is one of the ten Special Tactics Squadrons of United States Air Force Special Operations Command. It is garrisoned at Fort Benning, Georgia.

3rd Ranger Battalion

The 3rd Ranger Battalion, currently based at Fort Benning, Georgia, is the third of three ranger battalions belonging to the United States Army's 75th Ranger Regiment.

4th Ranger Battalion

Activated on 29 May 1943 in Tunisia, 4th Ranger Battalion was a Ranger unit in the United States Army during World War II.

61st Cavalry Regiment (United States)

The 61st Cavalry Regiment is a regiment of the United States Army first established in 2004.

The 61st Cavalry traces its lineage to the 601st Tank Destroyer Battalion. The 601st was activated 19 August 1941 and deployed to England on 2 August 1942. In North Africa, the battalion participated in the battles of Ousseltia Valley, Sbeitla, Kasserine Pass, Mateur, and El Guettar, for which it was awarded the Presidential Unit Citation for destroying 37 tanks in 24 hours.

The battalion conducted its first amphibious assault at Salerno on 9 September 1943, with the 36th Infantry Division and 1st Ranger Battalion. It fought through Salerno until 30 September 1943. The 601st conducted its second amphibious assault at Anzio Beachhead where they destroyed 42 enemy tanks and countless enemy personnel.

In Southern France, SSG Clyde Choate of C Company, 601st Tank Destroyer Battalion was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions near the town of Buyeres, France, on 25 October 1944. During the 16-day battle at Colmar, the battalion succeeded in destroying 18 enemy tanks and dozens of enemy fortification. The 601st was awarded its second Presidential Unit Citation for the battalion's actions and valor. In intense fighting outside of Colmar, Audie Murphy earned the Medal of Honor by single-handedly defeating a German attack atop a 601st M10 Tank Destroyer.

During the latter days of the German campaign, the 601st Reconnaissance Company ranged far ahead of the advancing US forces. It helped keep the disorganized remnants of the German army within the allied zone of advance from consolidating and re-organizing. The 601st earned 10 campaign streamers in WW II and 2 Presidential Unit Citations. After brief occupation duties in Europe, the 601st Tank Destroyer Battalion was deactivated.

On 16 August 2004, 1st Squadron 61st, Cavalry Regiment was activated as part of the 4th BCT, 101st Airborne Division at Fort Campbell, KY. The activation was part of the Army’s transformation towards a modular force.

In November 2005, the 1st Squadron 61st Cavalry Regiment deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom. The squadron was assigned an area of responsibility in southeast Baghdad that consisted of over 1,500 square kilometers and over 1 million people. The AO included the restive towns of Jisr Diyala and Salman Pak, as well as several areas where the enemy had been quite active since 2003.

The squadron conducted over 1,000 combat patrols and executed numerous raids and search and attack operations. Soldiers of the 1st Squadron 61st Cavalry found and cleared over 200 improvised explosive devices as well as numerous caches.

The squadron detained over 200 insurgents including over 20 division-level high-value targets. The soldiers of the squadron also permanently removed many insurgents from the fight.

The squadron had the highest number of detainees sentenced to long-term incarceration and highest number of high-value individuals killed or captured for a battalion-sized unit for all of Multi-National Division Baghdad.Beginning in 2007, there were no more RSTA battalions in the US Army, only cavalry units. So, the 1-61 CAV included C Company in 2004–07, which was changed to C Troop (dismounted cavalry) in 2007; A Troop and B Troop remained mounted cavalry.

6615th Ranger Force

The 6615th Ranger Force was a regiment of the United States Army, raised for service in World War II. It served in the Italian Campaign and lost two whole battalions at the Battle of Cisterna, part of the Battle of Anzio in early 1944.

75th Ranger Regiment (United States)

The 75th Ranger Regiment, also known as Army Rangers, is a light infantry airborne special operations force that is part of the United States Army Special Operations Command. The Regiment is headquartered at Fort Benning, Georgia and is composed of one special troops battalion and three Ranger battalions. The primary mission of the Regiment is to conduct direct action raids in hostile or sensitive environments worldwide, often killing or capturing high value targets.The 75th Ranger Regiment is the U.S. Army's premier light infantry unit, with specialized skills that enable the Regiment to perform a variety of missions. Besides direct action raids, these include: Airfield seizure, special reconnaissance, personnel recovery, clandestine insertion, and site exploitation. The Regiment can deploy one Ranger battalion within 18 hours of alert notification.

Darby's Rangers

Darby's Rangers (released in the UK as The Young Invaders) is a 1958 war film starring James Garner as William Orlando Darby, who organized and led the first units of United States Army Rangers during World War II. The movie was shot by Warner Brothers Studios in black and white to match wartime stock footage included in the production and was directed by William Wellman. The film was based on the 1945 book Darby's Rangers: An Illustrated Portrayal of the Original Rangers by Major James J. Altieri, himself a veteran of Darby's force.

E. V. Loustalot

Edward Vincent Loustalot was a U.S. Army Rangers Lieutenant from Louisiana. He was killed in action on August 19, 1942, while participating in the Dieppe Raid and is considered the first American soldier to be killed by Germans on land in World War II. Fellow 1st Ranger Battalion members Lieutenant Joseph Randall and T-4 Howard Henry were the other two Americans who died at Dieppe.During the mission, Loustalot took command after the British Captain leading the assault was killed. He scaled a steep cliff with his men, was wounded three times, but was eventually cut down by enemy crossfire in his attempts to reach the machine gun nest at the top of the cliff.

Lieutenant Loustalot is buried in the Ardennes American Cemetery in Belgium. He was originally interred with the Canadians at Dieppe by the Germans.

Frequently in accounts of the Dieppe Raid, he has been incorrectly referred to as Edwin rather than Edward.

List of United States Army installations in Italy

The US Armed Forces has military complexes (bases are Italian territory and can be managed anytime by the Italian State authorities, as the Sigonella crisis showed) in Italy:

Caserma Del Din, near Vicenza (northern Italy, in the Veneto region; HQ of 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team, also part of US Army Africa.)

Caserma Ederle, near Vicenza (northern Italy, in the Veneto region — HQ of the US Southern European Task Force and of the US 173rd Airborne Brigade)

Darby Military Community, formerly Camp Darby, located in the Province of Pisa, halfway between Pisa and Livorno. A 1951 US-Italian agreement conceded to the Pentagon the transformation of thousands of acres of Tuscan woods in a secret military base. The complex is named in honour of William O. Darby, founder of the US 1st Ranger Battalion, who died on the battlefield in Italy in 1945 (see it:Camp Darby).

Lucky Vanous

Lucky Joseph Vanous (born 11 April 1961) is an American model and actor. He became nationally known in 1994 after appearing in a series of commercials for Diet Coke.

Max Ferguson Schneider

Max Ferguson Schneider (September 8, 1912 – March 25, 1959) was a colonel in the United States Army Rangers. During World War II, he led the 5th Ranger Battalion on the Battle of Normandy.

Miscellaneous shoulder sleeve insignia of the United States Army

Shoulder sleeve insignia (SSI) are cloth emblems worn on the shoulders of US Army uniforms to identify the primary headquarters to which a Soldier is assigned. Most military units smaller than brigades do not have SSI, but rather wear the SSI of a higher headquarters.

Ranger Creed

The Ranger Creed is the official mission statement of the United States Army Rangers. The Ranger Creed was written in 1974 by CSM Neal R. Gentry, the original command sergeant major of the reactivated 1st Ranger Battalion. It was initiated by the Battalion Commander, then-LTC Kenneth C. Leuer, and re-drafted by the battalion XO, MAJ "Rock" Hudson and finalized at Fort Stewart, Georgia in 1974 when the original cadre deployed there on 1 July 1974. Today, members of Ranger community recite the Ranger Creed during formations, ceremonies, physical training activities and upon graduations from the Ranger Indoctrination Program, the Ranger Orientation Program and the U.S. Army Ranger Course.

Ranger Memorial

The Ranger Memorial is a tribute to the United States Army Rangers at Fort Benning, Georgia. The memorial serves as host to Ranger ceremonies such as Ranger retirement ceremonies to the graduation of the latest Rangers from the Ranger Indoctrination Program.

The original idea of the Ranger Memorial was drawn on a sketch by two Rangers in a mess hall. The idea was to form a permanent memorial to the contributions that Rangers have made to the defense of the United States and its allies throughout their long history. The construction was completed in 1994 with 2,456 polished stones commemorating soldiers. In 1996, Phase II and 2,200 more memorial stones along with indirect lighting, sprinkler system, ledger stones, and a locater system for helping to find the Rangers on the walk.

This memorial is unique as its approval had to be met not only by the Ranger Memorial Foundation that started action, but also Fort Benning, TRADOC, and the Department of the Army.

The memorial is composed of a large Fairbairn-Sykes fighting knife sitting between two large marble pillars as the centerpiece. This knife was issued to British Commandos and subsequently to the men of the newly formed 1st Ranger Battalion while they were training with them in Achnacarry, Scotland. This knife later became a staple of the inventory of airborne troops as well as other special operations units during WWII.

Another unique part of this monument is the walkway to the centerpiece. It is composed of “purchased” stones by former and current Rangers with their unit information. No rank is indicated on the stones of the soldiers, only the word “Ranger” as the first line.

The criteria for stone purchase are very strict and not every person can be on the “Ranger Walk”. Anyone can buy a stone on the monument, but the stone has to be for a qualified Ranger.

Robert Rogers' 28 "Rules of Ranging"

The 28 "Rules of Ranging" are a series of rules and guidelines created by Major Robert Rogers in 1757, during the French and Indian War (1754–63).

The rules were originally written at Rogers Island in the Hudson River near Fort Edward. They were intended to serve as a manual on guerrilla warfare for Rogers' Ranger company, a 600 strong contingent whose members were personally selected by Rogers.

The rules were the result of Rogers' blend of Native American tactics and his own innovative combat techniques, ideas that were considered revolutionary by military standards of the time. Combined with intensive training and live fire exercises, these rules created a mobile, well trained force that was capable of living off the land around it in order to sustain itself for long periods of time.

Ranger commander Lt. Colonel William Darby read the rules to the 1st Ranger Battalion prior to action during World War II, and a modified version of the rules is followed by the 75th Ranger Regiment to this day, and they are considered as the model and "standing orders" for all Ranger activities.

Ryan Cleckner

Ryan Cleckner is a former Army Ranger sniper and instructor with the 1st Ranger Battalion of the US Army. He is currently an attorney, competitive shooter, and author of the Long Range Shooting Handbook.

Cleckner served two tours in Afghanistan. After returning to his hometown of Arizona, Cleckner studied at the Arizona State University obtaining a degree in political science. He then enrolled at Quinnipiac University School of Law.While studying, Cleckner joined another student, Brian Gregorio, and founded Veteran's Advocacy Group, a student organization dedicated to educating students about civilian-military relations, military careers and veterans' issues. In 2010, Cleckner also founded New Battlefront Foundation, a non-profit organization that aid veterans in their transition from military to civilian life.

In 2011, Cleckner appeared as a trainer in the second season of History Channel's marksmen competition show, Top Shot. In a 2012 video filmed at Colby Donaldson's ranch, Cleckner shot a Barrett M82 while standing up and hit a target 1,000 yards away on his first shot.

Tellermine 43

The Tellermine 43 was a German circular steel cased anti-tank blast mine used during the Second World War. It was a simplified version of the Tellermine 42, which enabled simpler production techniques. Between March 1943 and the end of World War II, over 3.6 million Tellermine 43s were produced by Germany. Copies of the mine were produced by several countries including Denmark (M/47), France (Model 1948) and Yugoslavia (TMM-1).

United States Army Rangers

The United States Army Rangers are designated U.S. Army Ranger units, past or present, or are graduates of the U.S. Army Ranger School. The term ranger has been in use unofficially in a military context since the early 17th century. The first military company officially commissioned as rangers were English soldiers fighting in King Philip's War (1676) and from there the term came into common official use in the French and Indian Wars. There have been American military companies officially called Rangers since the American Revolution.

The 75th Ranger Regiment is an elite airborne light infantry combat formation within the United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC). The six battalions of the modern Rangers have been deployed in wars in Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan, and Iraq, and saw action in several conflicts, such as those in Panama and Grenada. The Ranger Regiment traces its lineage to three of six battalions raised in World War II, and to the 5307th Composite Unit (Provisional)—known as "Merrill's Marauders", and then reflagged as the 475th Infantry, then later as the 75th Infantry.

The Ranger Training Brigade (RTB)—headquartered at Fort Benning—is an organization under the U.S. Army's Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) and is separate from the 75th Ranger Regiment. It has been in service in various forms since World War II. The Ranger Training Brigade administrates Ranger School, the satisfactory completion of which is required to become Ranger qualified and to wear the Ranger Tab.

William Orlando Darby

William O. Darby (8 February 1911 – 30 April 1945) was a career United States Army officer who fought in World War II, where he was killed in action in Italy. He was posthumously promoted to brigadier general. Darby led the famous Darby's Rangers, which evolved into the U.S. Army Rangers.

British American Rangers
United States Army Rangers

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