1st Marine Division (United States)

The 1st Marine Division (1st MARDIV) is a Marine infantry division of the United States Marine Corps headquartered at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. It is the ground combat element of the I Marine Expeditionary Force (I MEF).

It is the oldest and largest active duty division in the United States Marine Corps, representing a combat-ready force of more than 19,000 men and women. It is one of three active duty divisions in the Marine Corps today and is a multi-role, expeditionary ground combat force. It is nicknamed "The Old Breed".

1st Marine Division
1st Marine Division insignia
1st Marine Division insignia
ActiveActive 1 February 1941 – present
Allegiance United States of America
Branch United States Marine Corps
TypeGround combat element
SizeMarine Division (Approximately 23,000)[1]
Part ofI Marine Expeditionary Force
Garrison/HQMarine Corps Base Camp Pendleton
Nickname(s)The Old Breed
Blue Diamond
Motto(s)No Better Friend, No Worse Enemy
March"Waltzing Matilda"
EngagementsBanana Wars

World War II

Chinese Civil War

Korean War

Cold War

Vietnam War

Gulf War

Somali Civil War

Iraq War

War in Afghanistan (2001–14)

Commanders
Current
commander
MajGen Robert F. Castellvi
Notable
commanders
Holland Smith
Alexander Vandegrift
William H. Rupertus
Oliver P. Smith
James M. Masters, Sr.
Edwin A. Pollock
Herman Nickerson Jr.
James Mattis
Pedro Del Valle
Robert O. Bare
Edward W. Snedeker
Frank Libutti
Lawrence D. Nicholson

Mission

The division is employed as the ground combat element (GCE) of the I Marine Expeditionary Force or may provide task-organized forces for assault operations and such operations as may be directed. The 1st Marine Division must be able to provide the ground amphibious forcible entry capability to the naval expeditionary force (NEF) and to conduct subsequent land operations in any operational environment.[2]

Organization

The 1st Marine Division is currently organized around four regiments and several Battalions which includes the following:

1st US Marine Division
Structure of 1st Marine Division

History

Pre-World War II

The lineal forebear of the 1st Marine Division is the 1st Advance Base Brigade, which was activated on 23 December 1913 at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. (Subsequently, the brigade was redesignated on 1 April 1914, as the 1st Brigade, and on 16 September 1935, as the 1st Marine Brigade).[3] The brigade consisted of the Fixed Defense Regiment and the Mobile Defense Regiment, later designated as the 1st and 2nd Regiments, 1st Brigade, respectively. In 1916, while deployed in Haiti, the two regiments were again redesignated, exchanging numerals, to then become the 2nd and 1st Regiments, 1st Brigade. Between April 1914 and August 1934, elements of the 1st Brigade participated in operations in Mexico, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Cuba, receiving campaign credit for service in each nation. While the 1st Brigade did not serve ashore in the European theater during the First World War, the brigade was awarded the World War I Victory Medal Streamer, with one bronze star, in recognition of the brigade's service during that conflict.[4] On 16 September 1935, the brigade was redesignated as the 1st Marine Brigade and deployed to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba in October 1940.

World War II

1st Marine Division Guadalcanal WW2
A Marine of the 1st Marine Regiment on Guadalcanal.
Ww2 158
Marines of 1st Marine Division fighting on Okinawa, 1945.

The 1st Marine Division was activated aboard the USS Texas on 1 February 1941.[5] In May 1941, the 1st MARDIV relocated to Quantico, Virginia and Parris Island, South Carolina and in April 1942, the division began deploying to Samoa and Wellington, New Zealand. The division's units were scattered over the Pacific with the support elements and the 1st Marine Regiment transported en route to New Zealand on three ships, the USATs Ericsson, Barnett and Elliott from Naval Reserve Air Base Oakland to New Zealand,[6] and later were landed on the island of Guadalcanal, part of the Solomon Islands, on 7 August 1942.

Initially only the 7th Marine Regiment was in garrison on British Samoa,[7] with the 5th Marine Regiment having just encamped at Wellington, New Zealand after disembarking from USAT Wakefield, and the 1st Marine Regiment not scheduled to arrive in New Zealand until 11 July.[8] The 1st Raider Battalion was on New Caledonia, and the 3rd Defense Battalion was in Pearl Harbor. All of the division's units, with the 11th Marines (artillery) and 75mm howitzer armed 10th Marines battalion would rendezvous at Fiji.[8]

Due to the change in orders and shortage of attack and combat cargo vessels, all of the division's 2.5 ton trucks, M1918 155-mm howitzers[9] and the sound and flash-ranging equipment needed for counter-battery fire had to be left in Wellington. Also, because the Wellington dock workers were on strike at the time, the Marines had to do all the load reconfiguration from administrative to combat configuration.[10]

After 11 days of logistical challenges, the division, with 16,000 Marines, departed Wellington in eighty-nine ships embarked for the Solomon Islands with a 60-day combat load which did not include tents, spare clothing or bed rolls, office equipment, unit muster rolls or pay clerks. Other things not yet available to this first wave of Marine deployments were insect repellent and mosquito netting.[11] Attached to the division was the 1st Parachute Battalion, which along with the rest of the division, conducted landing rehearsals from 28 to 30 July on Koro Island, which Major General Alexander Vandegrift described as a "disaster".[12]

On 31 July the entire Marine task force was placed under the command of Vice Admiral Frank J. Fletcher's Task Force 61. The division as a whole would fight in the Guadalcanal Campaign until relieved at 1400 on 9 December 1942 by Alexander Patch's Americal Division.[13][14] This operation won the Division its first of three World War II Presidential Unit Citations (PUC). The battle would cost the division 650 killed in action, 1,278 wounded in action with a further 8,580 contracting malaria and 31 missing in action.[13] Others were awarded for the battles of Peleliu and Okinawa.[2]

Following the Guadalcanal Campaign, the division's Marines were sent to Melbourne, Australia for rest and refit.[15] It was during this time that the division took the traditional Australian folk song "Waltzing Matilda" as its battle hymn. To this day, 1st Division Marines still ship out to this song being played.[16]

The division would next see action during Operation Cartwheel which was the codename for the campaigns in Eastern New Guinea and New Britain. They came ashore at the Battle of Cape Gloucester on 26 December 1943[17] and fought on New Britain until March 1944 at such places as Suicide Creek and Ajar Ridge. During the course of the battle the division had 310 killed and 1,083 wounded. Following the battle they were sent to Pavuvu in the Russell Islands for rest and refitting.[18]

The next battle for the 1st Marine Division would be the bloodiest yet at the Battle of Peleliu. They landed on 15 September 1944 as part of the III Amphibious Corps assault on the island. The division's commanding general, Major General William H. Rupertus had predicted the fighting would be, "...tough but short. It'll be over in three or four days – a fight like Tarawa. Rough but fast. Then we can go back to a rest area."[19] Making a mockery of the prediction, the first week of the battle alone cost the division 3,946 casualties, during which time they secured the key airfield sites.[20] The division fought on Peleliu for one month before being relieved.[21] Some of the heaviest fighting of the entire war took place in places such as Bloody Nose Ridge and the central ridges of the island that made up the Umurbrogol Pocket.[22] The month of fighting against the 14th Division (Imperial Japanese Army) on Peleliu cost the 1st Marine Division 1,252 dead and 5,274 wounded.[23]

The final campaign the division would take part in during World War II would be the Battle of Okinawa. The strategic importance of Okinawa was that it provided a fleet anchorage, troop staging areas, and airfields in close proximity to Japan. The division landed on 1 April 1945 as part of the III Amphibious Corps. Its initial mission was, fighting alongside the 6th Marine Division, to clear the northern half of the island – that they were able to do expeditiously. The Army's XXIV Corps met much stiffer resistance in the south, and on 1 May 1945 the Marine division was moved south where it relieved the Army's 27th Infantry Division. The division was in heavy fighting on Okinawa until 22 June 1945, when the island was declared secure. The 1st Marine Division slugged it out with the Japanese 32nd Army at such places as Dakeshi Ridge, Wana Ridge, "Sugarloaf Hill" and Shuri Castle. Fighting on Okinawa cost the division 1,655 killed in action.

During the war the division had five Seabee Battalions posted to it. the 6th NCB was attached to the 1st Marine Division on Guadalcanal. They were followed by the 19th Naval Construction Battalion (NCB) which was assigned to the 17th Marines as the third battalion of the regiment. They landed at Cape Gloucester with the division. The 17th Marines were inactivated with the 19th NCB being reassigned. After them the 33rd NCB was posted to the 1st for the assault on Peleliu and they were replaced by the 145th NCB for the invasion of Okinawa. (see:Seabees) On Peleliu the 17th Special NCB(segregated) was assigned to the 1st Pioneers as shore party. Together with the 16th Marines Field Depot(segregated) they helped evacuate wounded and bury the dead for the 7th Marines. On the first night of the assault nearly all of the 17th Seabees volunteered to hump ammo to the frontlines. They also reinforced the Marines in sections where directed, were used to crew a 37mm and were utilized for several days. For their efforts they received an official "well done".[24][25][26][27] The 33rd NCB also had 202 Men assigned to the shore party.[28]

Following the surrender of Japan, the division was sent to Northern China as the lead combat element of the III Amphibious Corps with the primary mission of repatriating more than 650,000 Japanese soldiers and civilians still resident in that part of China. They landed at Taku on 30 September 1945 and would be based in Hopeh Province in the cities of Tientsin and Peiping, and also on the Shandong Peninsula,[29] with the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang and Chinese Communist Party raging around them. Most Marines in the division would be charged with guarding supply trains, bridges and depots to keep food and coal moving into the cities. During this time they increasingly fought skirmishes with soldiers from the People's Liberation Army who saw the railways and other infrastructure as attractive targets to ambush, raid, and harass.[30][31]

By the summer of 1946 the division was suffering the effects of demobilization and its combat efficiency had dropped below wartime standards; however, its commitments in China remained. As it became increasingly apparent that a complete collapse of truce negotiations among the Chinese factions was apparent, plans were laid for the withdrawal of all Marine units from Hopeh. The last elements of the division finally left China on 1 September 1947.[30]

Korean War

Chosin
Marines of 1st Marine Division at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir.

Following the end of World War II and the postwar draw down of forces, by 1950 the division only possessed the strength of a reinforced regimental combat team.[32] The division would be assembled on the battle field and would participate in the amphibious assault at Inchon under the orders of General MacArthur.[33] "The Old Breed" was the unit chosen to lead the Inchon landing on 15 September 1950. At Inchon, the division faced one of its most daunting challenges, deploying so hurriedly it still lacked its third infantry regiment and ordered to execute an amphibious assault in a city the size of Omaha, Nebraska under the worst tidal conditions they had ever faced. After the landing they moved north and after heavy fighting in Seoul they liberated the city.

After the liberation of Seoul, the division was put back on ships and taken to the eastern side of the Korean peninsula and put ashore at Wonsan. As part of X Corps commanded by Army Major General Edward Almond the division was ordered to push north towards the Yalu River as fast as possible.[34] The then commanding officer of the division, Major General O.P. Smith, did not agree with his superiors and had become convinced that they were stretched thin and that the Chinese Forces had entered the war. He purposely slowed his advance and consolidated along the way at every opportunity.[35] The 1st Marine Division was attacked by ten Chinese infantry divisions on 27 November 1950. They fought their way out of the Chosin Reservoir against seven Communist Chinese divisions suffering over 900 killed and missing, over 3,500 wounded and more than 6,500 non-battle casualties mostly from frostbite during the battle. The greater part of the Chinese 9th Army was rendered ineffective as they suffered an estimated 37,500 casualties trying to stop the Marines' march out of the "Frozen Chosin".[36][37]

Beginning in early 1951 the division participated in several UN (UN) offensives in east-central Korea. This was followed by defending against the Chinese spring offensive composed of over 500,000 troops. By June 1951 the 1st Marine Division had pushed northward and secured the terrain around the Punchbowl and then settled into a defensive line 11 miles long.[38]

In mid-March 1952 the 8th Army, to whom the Marines were attached, instituted Operation Bootdrop. The operation was a massive redeployment of UN forces designed to put more South Korean Army units on the Main Line of Resistance (MLR).[39] The 1st Marine Division was reassigned to the far western end of the United Nations line defending a 35-mile line that encompassed the Pyongyang to Seoul corridor. For much of the next year, in what would be termed the "Outpost War", action along this line consisted of small, localized actions because much of the fighting revolved around the holding and retaking of various combat outposts along key pieces of terrain. This changed in March 1953 when the Chinese launched a massive offensive across the U.N. line. The heavy fighting continued until the Armistice took effect on 27 July 1953.[38] During the Korean War the division suffered combat casualties of 4,004 dead and 25,864 wounded.

Vietnam War

In 1965, the 7th Marine Regiment participated in Operations Starlite and Piranha, the first major engagements for American ground troops in South Vietnam.[40] March 1966 saw 1st Marine Division Headquarters established at Chu Lai.[41] By June, the entire Division was in South Vietnam, its zone of operation—the southern two provinces of I CorpsQuang Tin and Quang Ngai. Between March and October 1966 to May 1967, the division conducted 44 named operations. During the 1968 Tet Offensive, the division was involved in fierce fighting with both Vietcong and North Vietnamese Army elements. It was successful in beating back enemy assaults in its operation areas, most particularly in the City of Huế. The division received its 7th Presidential Unit Citation for service from 29 March 1966 to 15 September 1967.[42] and an 8th one for the period 16 September 1967 to 31 October 1968.[43]

After six hard years of combat, and after suffering 7,012 men killed in action, the 1st Marine Division returned home to Camp Pendleton in 1971.[44]

In 1975, the division supported the resettlement of South Vietnamese refugees by providing food and temporary shelter at Camp Pendleton for Vietnamese refugees as they arrived in the United States.[45]

Desert Shield and Desert Storm

In 1990, the 1st Marine Division formed the nucleus of the massive force sent to the Middle East in response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. During Operation Desert Shield, the division supported I Marine Expeditionary Force (I MEF) in the defense of Saudi Arabia from the Iraqi threat. In 1991, the division went on the offensive with the rest of Coalition Forces in Operation Desert Storm. The 1st Marine Division destroyed around 60 Iraqi tanks near the Burgan oil field without suffering any losses.[46] 1st Marine Division Task Force Ripper (RCT-7) M60A1 RISE Passive Patton tanks destroyed about 100 Iraqi tanks and armored personnel carriers, including about 50 top-of-the-line Soviet T-72 tanks.[47] These efforts were instrumental in the liberation of Kuwait from Iraqi forces.

1992 Los Angeles riots

On May 2, 1992, the 1st Marine Division took part of Operation Garden Plot to help local and state law enforcement as well as the California Army National Guard in quelling the Rodney King riots in Los Angeles County, California. It was part of the 3,500 federal military force sent to Los Angeles. The Marine Corps contingent included the 1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, commanded by Marine Corps General John F. Kelly. As part of the Joint Special Purpose Marine Air Ground Task Force Los Angeles, Marines took up positions in Compton and Long Beach to prevent further rioting and disorder. No rioters or civilians were killed or injured by the Marines, nor did the Marines themselves suffer any casualties. On May 10, six days after the riots ended, Marines formally withdrew from the city and returned to Camp Pendleton.[48]

1990s humanitarian relief

Genmattisltr
Letter by Gen Mattis distributed throughout division before the 2003 invasion of Iraq

Immediately following the Persian Gulf War, the Division sent units to assist in relief efforts following a typhoon in Bangladesh (Operation Sea Angel) and the eruption of volcano Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines (Operation Fiery Vigil).[2] In December 1992, Operation Restore Hope, bringing relief to famine-stricken Somalia, kicked off with the early morning amphibious landing of Marines from the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit, which was supported by 2nd Battalion, 9th Marines. More than 15,000 metric tons of food was successfully distributed from 398 different food sites in the city during the operation. The final phase of the operation involved the transition from a U.S. peacemaking force to a United Nations peacekeeping force. U.S. Marine involvement in Operation Restore Hope officially ended on 27 April 1993, when the humanitarian relief sector of Mogadishu was handed over to Pakistani Armed Forces.[2]

Iraq War

The 1st Marine Division, then under the command of Major General James Mattis, was one of the two major U.S. land forces that participated in the 2003 invasion of Iraq as the land component of the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force. In December 2002, MajGen Mattis was quoted as saying, "The President, the National Command Authority and the American people need speed. The sooner we get it over with the better. Our overriding principle will be speed, speed, speed."[49] Initially, the division fought through the Rumaila oil fields, feinted an attack towards Basrah[50] then moved north on Iraq Highway 1 to An Nasariyah – a moderate-sized, Shi'ite dominated city with important strategic significance as a major road junction and proximity to nearby Talil Airfield. The division then fought its way to Baghdad and pushed further to secure Tikrit by forming Task Force Tripoli after the fall of Baghdad. The division covered 808 kilometers in 17 days of sustained combat,[51] the deepest penetrating ground operation in Marine Corps history. After the invasion the division settled in to conduct security and stabilization operations in Baghdad, Tikrit, and then in south-central Iraq from May to October 2003. For actions during the war as part of I MEF the division was awarded its 9th Presidential Unit Citation.[2]

The division returned to Iraq in February 2004 and took control of the Al Anbar province in western Iraq; it was the lead unit in Operation Vigilant Resolve and Operation Phantom Fury in 2004. During February and March 2005, the division was relieved by the 2nd Marine Division concluding the largest relief in place in the history of the Marine Corps.[2] In 2006, the division again deployed to Iraq as the ground combat element for I MEF in the Al Anbar province. It returned to MCB Camp Pendleton in early 2007.

Afghanistan War

Battalions from the 1st Marine Division have been regularly deployed to Afghanistan since 2008. The division headquarters and staff were sent forward in March 2010 to take command of all Marine forces in the Helmand Province operating in support of Operation Enduring Freedom.[52] This will be a year-long deployment for the division.

Insignia

Originally termed a battle blaze, the shoulder sleeve insignia of the 1st Marine Division was designed by Lt. Col Merrill Twining, Division D-3 in February 1943 while the division was stationed in Victoria, Australia.[53] The blue diamond with the Southern Cross is similar to the Flag of Victoria. The red numeral one in the middle denotes the division's first action on Guadalcanal. A commercial firm in Melbourne first produced the shoulder patch with every Marine issued two of them[54] that was sewn on his battle jacket.

The 2nd Marine Division originally had a similar battle blaze of the same design with a red snake in the shape of a "2" also reading GUADALCANAL.

Marine Corps shoulder sleeve insignia were officially authorized on 15 March 1943.[55] Some in the division who served on Guadalcanal wore their "battle blaze" on the right shoulder to distinguish themselves from replacements who had not been on "The Canal".

Unit awards

A unit citation or commendation is an award bestowed upon an organization for the action cited. Members of the unit who participated in said actions are allowed to wear on their uniforms the awarded unit citation. The 1st Marine Division has been presented with the following awards:[56]

Streamer Award Year(s) Additional Info
U.S. Navy Presidential Unit Citation streamer Presidential Unit Citation Streamer with one Silver and three Bronze Stars 1942, 1944, 1945, 1950, 1950, 1951, 1966–1967, 1967–1968, 2003 Guadalcanal, Peleliu-Ngesebus, Okinawa, Korea, Vietnam, Iraq
Streamer JMUA Joint Meritorious Unit Award Streamer 1992–1993 Somalia
Navy Unit Commendation streamer (USMC) Navy Unit Commendation Streamer with one Bronze Star 1952–1953, 1990–1991 Korea, Southwest Asia
Streamer MS Mexican Service Streamer April–November 1914 Vera Cruz
Streamer DC Dominican Campaign Streamer June–December 1916
Streamer HC Haitian Campaign Streamer with one Bronze Star August 1915 – August 1934
Streamer MCE Marine Corps Expeditionary Streamer

Streamer WWI V World War I Victory Streamer with one Bronze Star

ADS 1B American Defense Service Streamer with one Bronze Star 1941 World War II
Streamer APC Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Streamer with one Silver and one Bronze Star
Guadalcanal, Eastern New Guinea, New Britain, Peleliu, Okinawa
Streamer WWII V World War II Victory Streamer 1941–1945 Pacific War
WWIIV ASIA Navy Occupation Service Streamer with "ASIA"

Streamer CS China Service Streamer with one Bronze Star September 1946 – June 1947 North China
NDS 3B National Defense Service Streamer with three Bronze Stars 1950–1954, 1961–1974, 1990–1995, 2001–present Korean War, Vietnam War, Gulf War, War on Terrorism
Korean Service Medal - Streamer Korean Service Streamer with two Silver Stars 1950-1953 Inchon-Seoul, Chosin Reservoir, East-Central Front, Western Front
Streamer AFE Armed Forces Expeditionary Streamer 1992–1993 Somalia
SASM 2S 3B Vietnam Service Streamer with two Silver and three Bronze Stars July 1965 – April 1971, April–December 1975 Chu Lai, Da Nang, Dong Ha, Qui Nhon, Huế, Phu Bai, Quang Tri, Operation New Arrival
SWASM 2B Southwest Asia Service Streamer with two Bronze Stars September 1990 – February 1991 Desert Shield, Desert Storm
Iraq Campaign streamer (USMC) Iraq Campaign Streamer
March 2004 – March 2005, March 2006 – February 2007
Streamer gwotE Global War on Terrorism Expeditionary Streamer
March–May 2003
Global War on Terrorism Service Medal streamer Global War on Terrorism Service Streamer 2001–present
Streamer KPUC Korea Presidential Unit Citation Streamer

VMUA PALM Vietnam Gallantry Cross with Palm Streamer

Streamer RVMUCCA Vietnam Meritorious Unit Citation Civil Actions Streamer

See also

19th NCB
19th Naval Construction Battalion Plaque as the third Battalion 17th Marines with the 1st Marine Division Seabee Museum Archives

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps.
Specific
  1. ^ Sanborn, James K. (12 September 2015). "Former Cyber Commander Takes Over 1st Marine Division." MarineCorpsTimes.com. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e f "History of the 1st Marine Division". United States Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 15 September 2007. Retrieved 21 November 2007.. Accessed 9 June 2009. Archived 10 June 2009.
  3. ^ 1st Marine Division: Lineage http://www.1stmardiv.marines.mil/About/Lineage/ Retrieved May 6, 2017.
  4. ^ 1st Marine Division: Honors http://www.1stmardiv.marines.mil/About/Honors/ Retrieved May 6, 2017.
  5. ^ Lowery, M. Trent (28 January 2008). "1st Marine Division welcomes veterans for 67th anniversary". Marine Corps News. United States Marine Corps.
  6. ^ Lane (2004), p. 44
  7. ^ It would be replaced by the 2nd Marine Regiment from San Diego sailing with the USS Wasp
  8. ^ a b Lane (2004), p. 51
  9. ^ Rottman (2002), p. 27
  10. ^ Lane (2004), p. 57
  11. ^ Lane (2004), p. 60
  12. ^ Lane (2004), p. 63
  13. ^ a b Frank (1990), p. 522
  14. ^ Cronin (1951), p. 47
  15. ^ Leckie Helmet for my Pillow, p. 147-208
  16. ^ Roger Clarke. "Roger Clarke's Waltzing Matilda Home-Page". Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd. Archived from the original on 11 December 2006. Retrieved 3 December 2006.
  17. ^ Shaw, Henry I.; Kane, Douglas T. (1963). "History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II". Volume II: Isolation of Rabaul. Headquarters Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2008.
  18. ^ Turner (1997), p. 25-6
  19. ^ Sloane (2005), p. 65
  20. ^ Hastings (2007), p. 116
  21. ^ Sledge (1990), p. 151
  22. ^ Sledge (1990), p. 96, 127–158
  23. ^ Sledge (1990), p. 155
  24. ^ Seabee Museum Archives, Port Hueneme, CA. 93043. 17th Special; NCB p. 29[1]
  25. ^ World War II DatabaseWorld War II Database
  26. ^ 16th Field Depot[2]
  27. ^ 17th Special ,Seabee Museum[3]
  28. ^ Peleliu Shore Party Group[4]
  29. ^ Jessup, John E. (1989). A Chronology of Conflict and Resolution, 1945-1985. New York: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-24308-5.
  30. ^ a b Frank, Benis; Henry I. Saw Jr. (1968). "Volume V: Victory and Occupation". History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II. Historical Branch, G-3 Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 12 September 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
  31. ^ Sledge (2002), pp. xx–xxi.
  32. ^ Chapin (2000), p. 5
  33. ^ Simmons (2003), p.200.
  34. ^ Halberstam (2008), p.432-33.
  35. ^ Fehrenbach (1963), p.233.
  36. ^ Russ (1999), p. 433-34
  37. ^ [USMC 1st Division Casualties from 8 Oct to 24 Dec 1950 were 604 KIA/114 WIA/192 MIA/3,485 WIA/7,338 Non Battle casualties "US Marine Operations on Korea" Vol. 3 .pp.381–382.]
  38. ^ a b "Brief History of the Marine Corps in the Korean War". United States of America – Korean War Commemoration. Marine Corps History and Museums Division. Archived from the original on 16 July 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2009.
  39. ^ Ballenger (2000), p.5.
  40. ^ Simmons US Marines History, p. 225
  41. ^ Simmons US Marines History, p. 229
  42. ^ "Presidential Unit Citation Awarded the 1st Marine Division (Reinforced), Fleet Marine Force, Pacific". Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  43. ^ "Remarks on Presenting the Presidential Unit Citation to the First Marines (Reinforced)". Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  44. ^ CDR Kenneth Davis, US Navy (ret), and associates of the Coffelt Database of Vietnam casualties.
  45. ^ [5] (2008). "AFTER ACTION REPORT~ 17 April ~ 7 May 1975". Retrieved 14 March 2008.
  46. ^ Blitzkrieg in the Gulf by Yves Debay
  47. ^ Moore p.A01
  48. ^ Stephen Braun and Jim Newton (May 10, 1992). "U.S. Army, Marine Troops Withdraw From Los Angeles: Disorder: Police officers reportedly demoralized by public bickering over their readiness and performance. National Guard units to remain for a while". Los Angeles Times.
  49. ^ Warren American Spartans, p. 426
  50. ^ Warren American Spartans, p. 425
  51. ^ Reynolds Basrah, Baghdad and Beyond, p. 170.
  52. ^ Jolly, Vik. "Pendleton Marines set to roll into Afghanistan". 19 March 2010. Orange County Register. Archived from the original on 22 March 2010. Retrieved 29 April 2010.
  53. ^ p.20 Rottman, Gordon L. US Marine Corps Pacific Theatre of Operations 2004 Osprey Publishing
  54. ^ p.Rill, James C. A Narrative History of the 11th Marines 2003 Merriam Press
  55. ^ Rottman, Gordon L. & Chappell, Mike. US Marine Corps 1941–1945. Osprey Publishing. p. 54.
  56. ^ "Lineage and Honors of the 1st Marine Division". Retrieved 23 November 2018.
Bibliography
  • Ballenger, Lee (2000). The Outpost War: U.S. Marines in Korea, Vol. 1: 1952. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books. ISBN 1-57488-373-9.
  • Chapin, John C. (2000). Fire Brigade: U.S. Marines in the Pusan Perimeter. Washington, D.C.: Marine Corps Historical Center.
  • Cronin, Francis D. (Capt) (1951). Under the Southern Cross: The Saga of the Americal Division. Washington, D.C.: Combat Forces Press.
  • Fehrenbach, T.R. (1963). This Kind of War. Dulles, Virginia: Brassey's Inc. ISBN 1-57488-334-8.
  • Frank, Richard (1990). Guadalcanal: The Definitive Account of the Landmark Battle. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-58875-4.
  • Halberstam, David (2007). The Coldest Winter: America and the Korean War. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 978-1-4013-0052-4.
  • Hastings, Max (2007). Retribution: The Battle for Japan, 1944–45. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 978-0-307-26351-3.
  • Lane, Kerry (2004). Guadalcanal Marine. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1-57806-664-6.
  • Leckie, Robert (2001). Helmet for my Pillow. Simon & Schuster Inc. ISBN 0-7434-1307-5.
  • Reynolds, Nicholas E. (2005). Basrah, Baghdad and Beyond: The U.S. Marine Corps in the Second Iraq War. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-717-4
  • Rottman, Gordon L., US Marine Corps Pacific Theater of Operations 1941–43, Osprey Publishing, 2004
  • Russ, Martin (1999). Breakout: The Chosin Reservoir Campaign, Korea 1950. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-029259-4.
  • Simmons, Edwin H. (2003). The United States Marines: A History (Fourth ed.). Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-790-5.
  • Sloan, Bill (2005). Brotherhood of Heroes: The Marines at Peleliu, 1944: The Bloodiest Battle of the Pacific War. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-6009-0.
  • Turner, David (1997). First Marine Division. Paducah, Kentucky: Turner Publishing Company. ISBN 1-56311-244-2.
  • Warren, James A. (2005). American Spartans: The U.S. Marines: A Combat History from Iwo Jima to Iraq. New York: Pocket Books.
Web

External links

11th Marine Regiment (United States)

The 11th Marine Regiment is an artillery regiment of the United States Marine Corps based at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. Known as the "Cannon Cockers", the regiment falls under the command of the 1st Marine Division and the I Marine Expeditionary Force.

1st Battalion, 11th Marines

1st Battalion 11th Marines (1/11) is an artillery battalion comprising four firing batteries and a Headquarters battery. The battalion is stationed at the Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton in California. Its primary weapon system is the M777 lightweight howitzer. The battalion is under the command of the 11th Marine Regiment, part of the 1st Marine Division.

1st Battalion, 4th Marines

1st Battalion, 4th Marines (1/4) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California consisting of approximately 800 Marines and sailors. They fall under the command of the 1st Marine Regiment and the 1st Marine Division.

1st Battalion, 5th Marines

1st Battalion, 5th Marines (1/5) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California consisting of approximately 800 Marines and sailors. Nicknamed Geronimo, it falls under the command of the 5th Marine Regiment and the 1st Marine Division. The battalion was formed in 1914 and has served in every major conflict that the United States has been involved in since then.

1st Battalion, 7th Marines

The 1st Battalion, 7th Marines (1/7) is an infantry battalion of the United States Marine Corps. It is based at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms, consists of approximately 1,000 Marines, and is part of the 1st Marine Division.

Famous Marines who have served in 1/7 include General Raymond G. Davis, General James Mattis, Lieutenant General Lewis "Chesty" Puller, and Gunnery Sergeant John Basilone.

1st Combat Engineer Battalion

1st Combat Engineer Battalion is a combat engineer battalion of the United States Marine Corps. The unit, nicknamed "The Super Breed", is based at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California and falls under the command of the 1st Marine Division and the I Marine Expeditionary Force.

1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion

1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion is a fast and mobilized armored terrestrial reconnaissance battalion of the United States Marine Corps. Nicknamed the "Highlanders," their primary weapon system is the LAV-25 Light Armored Vehicle armed with the M242 25mm Bushmaster chain gun. They fall under the command of the 1st Marine Division and the I Marine Expeditionary Force. The unit is based out of the Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California.

1st Marine Regiment (United States)

The 1st Marine Regiment is an infantry regiment of the United States Marine Corps based at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. The regiment, sometimes known as "Inchon" or Regimental Combat Team 1, falls under the command of the 1st Marine Division and the I Marine Expeditionary Force.

1st Tank Battalion

The 1st Tank Battalion is an armor battalion of the United States Marine Corps which is based out of the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms, California. It falls under the command of the 1st Marine Division and I Marine Expeditionary Force.

2nd Battalion, 11th Marines

2nd Battalion 11th Marines ("Patriot") is an artillery battalion comprising three firing batteries (Echo, Fox, Golf) and a Headquarters Battery. The battalion is stationed at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California and its primary weapon system is the M777 lightweight howitzer. The battalion was the second in the Marine Corps to fully transition from the M198 Howitzer. They fall under the command of the 11th Marine Regiment and the 1st Marine Division.

2nd Battalion, 1st Marines

2nd Battalion, 1st Marines (2/1) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Camp Horno on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. Nicknamed "The Professionals," the battalion consists of approximately 1,200 Marines and Sailors. Normally they fall under the command of 1st Marine Regiment and the 1st Marine Division.

2nd Battalion, 5th Marines

2nd Battalion 5th Marines (2/5) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps consisting of approximately 800 Marines and Sailors. They are based out of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California and fall under the command of the 5th Marine Regiment and the 1st Marine Division. The battalion has seen combat in World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War and the Gulf War and has deployed many times in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and the current War on Terror.

2/5 is the most highly decorated battalion in the Marine Corps and their motto, "Retreat, Hell!", comes from the French trenches of World War I, when a Marine officer named Lloyd W. Williams was advised by a French officer to retreat and replied, "Retreat? Hell, we just got here!"

3rd Battalion, 11th Marines

3rd Battalion 11th Marines (3/11) is an artillery battalion comprising three firing batteries and a headquarters battery. The battalion is based at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms, California and its primary weapon system is the M777 lightweight howitzer with a maximum effective range of 30 km. They fall under the 11th Marine Regiment and the 1st Marine Division.

3rd Battalion, 1st Marines

3rd Battalion 1st Marines (3/1) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Camp Horno on Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. Nicknamed the "Thundering Third", the battalion consists of approximately 1220 Marines and Sailors and falls under the command of the 1st Marine Regiment and the 1st Marine Division.

3rd Battalion, 4th Marines

3rd Battalion, 4th Marines (3/4) is an infantry battalion of the United States Marine Corps. Nicknamed "Thundering Third". The most recent leader Lt. Col. Birchfield III, J. W. radio callsign is "Darkside". They are based at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California, and consist of approximately 1,000 Marines. The unit currently falls under the command of the 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division, but — along with its two sister battalions — is hosted by the 3rd Marine Division, at Camp Schwab in Okinawa, Japan, when training in jungle warfare. The 3rd falls under the 4th Marine Regiment at such times.

3rd Battalion, 5th Marines

3rd Battalion, 5th Marines (3/5, nicknamed Dark Horse) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps. The battalion is based at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California and consists of approximately 1,000 Marines and Fleet Marine Force Navy personnel. The 3rd Battalion falls under the command of the 5th Marine Regiment which falls under the command of the 1st Marine Division.

5th Battalion, 11th Marines

5th Battalion 11th Marines (5/11) is a High Mobility Artillery Rocket System HIMARS battalion of four Firing Batteries and a Headquarters Battery. The battalion is stationed at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. It is the first active duty HIMARS Unit in the Marine Corps. They fall under the command of the 11th Marine Regiment and the 1st Marine Division. This is the only battalion in the 11th Marine Regiment not using the M777A2 lightweight howitzer.

5th Marine Regiment (United States)

The 5th Marine Regiment (also referred to as "5th Marines") is an infantry regiment of the United States Marine Corps based at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. It is the most highly decorated regiment in the Marine Corps and falls under the command of the 1st Marine Division and the I Marine Expeditionary Force (I MEF).

7th Marine Regiment (United States)

The 7th Marine Regiment is an infantry regiment of the United States Marine Corps based at Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms, California. Nicknamed the "Magnificent Seventh", they fall under the command of the 1st Marine Division and the I Marine Expeditionary Force.

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