|1st Infantry Regiment|
Coat of arms of the 1st Infantry Regiment
|Branch||United States Army|
|Garrison/HQ||1st Bn – West Point, NY|
2nd Bn – Joint Base Lewis–McChord, WA
|Motto(s)||Semper Primus ("Always First")|
|Engagements||Northwest Indian War|
War of 1812
World War II
War in Afghanistan
|1st Bn – LTC Thomas M. Bischof|
2nd Bn – LTC Charles A. Ford
Arthur St. Clair
|Distinctive unit insignia|
U.S. Infantry Regiments
|None||2nd Infantry Regiment|
The 1st Infantry Regiment is a regiment of the United States Army that draws its lineage from a line of post American Revolutionary War units and is credited with thirty-nine campaign streamers. The 1st Battalion, 1st Infantry is assigned as support to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York and to furnish the enlisted garrison for the academy and the Stewart Army Subpost. 2nd Battalion, 1st Infantry Regiment is an infantry component serving with the 2nd Stryker Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division at Joint Base Lewis–McChord, Washington.
On March 3, 1791, Congress added to the Army "The Second Regiment of Infantry" from which today's First Infantry draws its heritage. In September of that year, elements of it and the original 1st Infantry Regiment (today’s 3rd United States Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard)), with sizable militia complements, all under command of General Arthur St. Clair, were sent against the Miami Indians. St. Clair served as a major general in the Continental Army and was now appointed "General in Chief," superseding the first commander of the regiment, Josiah Harmar. Fighting against the Miamis, St. Clair's soldiers were untrained, ill-equipped, underfed, and sickly. This resulted in a disastrous defeat, at the Battle of the Wabash, in which the entire U.S. Army suffered a loss in killed and wounded of nearly 900 out of a total strength of 900.
In 1792, Congress created the Legion of the United States, which was a combined arms force of infantry, cavalry, and artillery under the command of Major General Anthony Wayne. MG Wayne had become a hero of the Revolutionary War when he led a small force against a larger British force to regain control of Stony Point, a crucial point on the Hudson River just south of West Point, New York. This Legion in which the Second Infantry became the "Infantry of the Second Sub-Legion," finally decisively defeated the Northwest Indian confederacy and its British support at Fallen Timbers in the Old Northwest (Ohio) on 20 August 1794.
The 2nd Infantry was consolidated May–October 1815 with the 3rd and 7th Infantry (both constituted 12 April 1808), and 44th Infantry (constituted 29 January 1813) to form the 1st Infantry Regiment. In the ensuing years the regiment was primarily concerned with Indian conflicts and the 1st was involved in the Black Hawk War of 1832 and the Second Seminole War from 1839 to 1842. During this time the regiment was commanded by many, now famous commanders including, Colonel Zachary Taylor, who would later become the 12th President of the United States and Second Lieutenant Jefferson Davis, who would become the President of the Confederate States in the American Civil War.
When War broke out with Mexico in 1846, the 1st Infantry Regiment was sent across the border with General Zachary Taylor's Army and participated in the storming of Monterrey where the regiment fought house to house in savage hand-to-hand combat. From Monterrey, the regiment was transferred to General Winfield Scott's command and participated in the first modern amphibious landing in American history at Vera Cruz in 1847.
After escaping from rebel forces in Texas the regiment returned to the Mid-west and fought in the Mississippi area of operations. The regiment fought in one of the first battles of the Civil War at Wilson's Creek, Missouri, in August 1861. The 1st Infantry then campaigned with General Grant against Vicksburg in 1863. The end of the war found the regiment occupying New Orleans, Louisiana.
After the Civil War the regiment was sent West to fight the Indians once again. The 1st Infantry was consolidated in April 1869 with the 43d Infantry Regiment, Veteran Reserve Corps (constituted 21 September 1865) and consolidated unit designated as the 1st Infantry Regiment. 1st Infantry Regiment campaigned against the Sioux in the 1870s and 1890s and against the Apache, led by Geronimo, from 1882 to 1886.
War was declared with Spain in 1898 following the sinking of the USS Maine. The First was quickly sent to Florida where it embarked on ships and was sent to Cuba. While in Cuba the regiment took part in the storming of the San Juan Heights and the capture of Santiago.
In 1900, following occupation duty in Cuba, the regiment was preparing for shipment to China to participate in the Boxer Rebellion. Instead, the regiment was detoured to deal with the rebellion on the Philippine Islands which had also been captured by the United States in the Spanish–American War. The regiment would fight in this guerrilla war in the Philippines from 1900–1902 and again from 1906–1908.
1st Infantry Regiment was assigned on 11 September 1918 to the 13th Division at Fort Lewis. 13th ID never left Fort Lewis, and demobilized there on 8 March 1919. 1st IR was relieved on 8 March 1919 from assignment to the 13th Division and resumed separate regiment status. The regiment was again assigned 27 July 1921, this time to the 2nd Division, which was headquartered at Fort Sam Houston, and assigned to the U.S. VIII Corps.
The regiment was stationed at Camp Jackson, South Carolina, where it was relieved 16 October 1939 from assignment to the 2nd Division and assigned to the 6th Division. The 6th Division arrived at Fort Jackson on 1939-11-09, and the 1st IR traveled with the division from that point forward. The 1st IR moved to Fort Benning, Georgia on 1940-04-09 to prepare for a series of maneuvers. The 1st IR participated in the Sabine, Louisiana – Texas Maneuver on 1940-05-09. They then moved to Fort Francis E. Warren, Wyoming on 1940-06-03, and then to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas on 1941-04-02, followed by Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri on 1941-05-20. They then moved to Tennessee to participate in maneuvers there. This was followed by a training cycle at the Desert Training Center, while billeted at the Camp Young billeting area from 1942-12-10. The regiment then staged at Camp San Luis Obispo, California on 1943-03-23.
1st IR departed Milne Bay on 1944-06-01, and arrived at Toem on 1944-06-14.
1st IR assaulted Sansapor on 1944-07-30, and left New Guinea on 1944-12-26 with the end of the New Guinea Campaign taking place on 1944-12-31.
1st IR moved to Sixth Army Reserve status from 1945-02-10 to 1945-02-23, when they returned to the Luzon Campaign.
The Luzon Campaign concluded on 1945-07-04.
On 10 January 1949, 1st IR was inactivated in Korea, and then was reactivated on 4 October 1950 at Fort Ord, California as a training regiment for units being sent to the fight in Korea. On 3 April 1956, the regiment was relieved from assignment to the 6th Infantry Division, and then was assigned on 15 May 1956 to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. On 15 May 1958 the regiment was reorganized under the Combat Arms Regimental System as HHC, 1st Battle Group, 1st Infantry Regiment.
In 1960, the 1st Battle Group, 1st Infantry was reorganized under a concept that provided sufficient tactics instructors in the permanent party for continuity, but called for outside augmentation for the summer training program. This left the battle group with a Headquarters, Headquarters and Training Company, Service Company, Airborne Detachment, the 2nd Aviation Detachment, the USMA Band, Detachment 1 and 2 United States Army Hospital, and saw the attachment of the 50th Engineer Battalion (Construction) and the 57th Military Police Company. The old Military Police Detachment personnel formed the nucleus of the newly attached 57th Military Police Company.
On 16 May 1961, the mission of providing tactical instruction for the Corps of Cadets along with the personnel involved, was transferred to a newly created Office of Military Instruction in the Department of Tactics. All enlisted personnel remained assigned to the battle group. On 1 February 1962, Service Company was eliminated and its personnel absorbed into Headquarters Company.
On 1 January 1965, the 1st Battle Group, 1st Infantry was redesigned as the 1st Battalion, 1st Infantry. With the exception of transferring tactical instruction to the Office of Military Instruction (now DMI) in 1961, its mission was essentially unchanged. The 2nd Battalion was then assigned to Fort Benning, Georgia.
In 1966, the 2nd Battalion was deployed to Vietnam with the 196th Light Infantry Brigade. The following year, the 3rd Battalion was activated at Schofield Barracks, Hawaii as part of the 11th Infantry Brigade. After the 11th Brigade arrived in Vietnam, both battalions became components of the Americal Division. These two battalions earned fourteen campaign streamers for the regiment during the war in Vietnam. Also in 1967, the 4th, 5th, and 6th Battalions were activated on 24 November and assigned to the 6th Infantry Division at Fort Campbell, Kentucky. The battalions at Fort Campbell were relieved from assignment to the 6th Infantry Division on 24 July 1968, and inactivated on 21 July 1969.
Following its tour of duty in Vietnam the 2nd Battalion was sent to Fort Lewis, Washington, where it became part of the 9th Infantry Division. In January 1991 the battalion became part of the 199th Infantry Brigade at Fort Polk, Louisiana, where it remained until inactivation in 1994.
1st Infantry soldiers awarded the Medal of Honor for service in Vietnam:
On 16 December 1994 the 2nd Battalion was reactivated at Fort Wainwright as part of the 6th Infantry Division (Light), which was reduced in size and reflagged as the 172nd Infantry Brigade (Separate) in April 1998.
In August 2005 2nd Battalion was deployed, along with the 172nd Stryker Brigade, to Mosul Iraq in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. The battalion conducted counter insurgency operations aimed at securing the city of Mosul from an insurgency headed by the terrorist organization Al Qaida in Iraq. After 12 months in Mosul 2nd Battalion was preparing to return to home station at Fort Wainwright Alaska when their deployment was unexpectedly extended by Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld. The 2nd Battalion, along with the entire 172d Infantry Brigade, was subsequently sent to Baghdad, Iraq to quell rising sectarian violence. The 2nd Battalion returned home in December 2006 after 16 months in Iraq.
On 17 February 2009, President Obama ordered 4,000 soldiers of 5th Stryker Brigade Combat Team to Afghanistan, along with 8,000 Marines. Soldiers are being sent there because of the worsening situation in the Afghan war. These soldiers will be deployed in the southeast, on the Afghan border. July 2010, the brigade is scheduled to return to Joint Base Lewis–McChord.
The 144th Field Artillery Battalion is a field artillery battalion of the Army National Guard. It was formed from the 1st Battalion of the 157th Field Artillery Regiment in 1955.Franklin J. Phillips
Franklin J. Phillips (October 20, 1874 – July 16, 1900) also known as Harry Fisher, was a soldier and Marine, and after serving in the United States Marine Corps as a private, he posthumously received the Medal of Honor for actions during the Boxer Rebellion. Private Phillips was the first Marine whose Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously. Phillips is interred in Versailles Cemetery, McKeesport.List of Presidents of the United States
The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States, indirectly elected to a four-year term by the people through the Electoral College. The officeholder leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.
Since the office was established in 1789, 44 men have served as president. The first, George Washington, won a unanimous vote of the Electoral College. Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms in office and is therefore counted as the 22nd and 24th President of the United States; the 45th and current president is Donald Trump (since January 20, 2017). There are currently four living former presidents. The most recent former president to die was George H. W. Bush on November 30, 2018.
The presidency of William Henry Harrison, who died 31 days after taking office in 1841, was the shortest in American history. Franklin D. Roosevelt served the longest, over twelve years, before dying early in his fourth term in 1945. He is the only U.S. president to have served more than two terms. Since the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1951, no person may be elected president more than twice and no one who has served more than two years of a term to which someone else was elected may be elected more than once.Of those who have served as the nation's president, four died in office of natural causes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor, Warren G. Harding, and Franklin D. Roosevelt), four were assassinated (Abraham Lincoln, James A. Garfield, William McKinley and John F. Kennedy), and one resigned (Richard Nixon facing impeachment). John Tyler was the first vice president to assume the presidency during a presidential term, and set the precedent that a vice president who does so becomes the fully functioning president with his own presidency, as opposed to a caretaker president. The Twenty-fifth Amendment to the Constitution put Tyler's precedent into law in 1967. It also established a mechanism by which an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency could be filled. Richard Nixon was the first president to fill a vacancy under this provision when he selected Gerald Ford for the office following Spiro Agnew's resignation in 1973. The following year, Ford became the second to do so when he chose Nelson Rockefeller to succeed him after he acceded to the presidency. As no mechanism existed for filling an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency prior to 1967, the office was left vacant until filled through the next ensuing presidential election.
Throughout most of its history, American politics has been dominated by political parties. The Constitution is silent on the issue of political parties, and at the time it came into force in 1789, there were no parties. Soon after the 1st Congress convened, factions began rallying around dominant Washington Administration officials, such as Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Greatly concerned about the capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. He was, and remains, the only U.S. president never affiliated with a political party. Since Washington, every president has been affiliated with a political party at the time they assumed office.
6th Infantry Division (1942–1945)