1Q84 (いちきゅうはちよん Ichi-Kyū-Hachi-Yon) is a dystopian novel written by Japanese writer Haruki Murakami, first published in three volumes in Japan in 2009–10. It covers a fictionalized year of 1984 in parallel with a "real" one. Its first printing sold out on the day it was released and sales reached a million within a month. The English-language edition of all three volumes, with the first two volumes translated by Jay Rubin and the third by Philip Gabriel, was released in North America and the United Kingdom on October 25, 2011. An excerpt from the novel, "Town of Cats", appeared in the September 5, 2011 issue of The New Yorker magazine. The first chapter of 1Q84 had also been read as an excerpt in the Selected Shorts series at Symphony Space in New York.
Cover of Book 1
|Genre||Alternate history, parallel worlds|
|May 29, 2009 (Books 1 and 2)|
April 16, 2010 (Book 3)
Published in English
|October 25, 2011|
|Media type||Print (hardcover)|
The novel was originally published in Japan in three hardcover volumes by Shinchosha. Book 1 and Book 2 were both published on May 29, 2009; Book 3 was published on April 16, 2010.
In English translation, Knopf published the novel in the United States in a single volume on October 25, 2011, and released a three volume box-set on May 15, 2015. The cover for the box-set, featuring a transparent dust jacket, was created by Chip Kidd and Maggie Hinders. In the United Kingdom the novel was published by Harvill Secker in two volumes. The first volume, containing Books 1 and 2, was published on October 18, 2011, followed by the second volume, containing Book 3, published on October 25, 2011.
Murakami spent four years writing the novel after coming up with the opening sequence and title. The title is a play on the Japanese pronunciation of the year 1984 and a reference to George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. The letter Q and the Japanese number 9 (typically romanized as "kyū", but as "kew" on the book's Japanese cover) are homophones, which are often used in Japanese wordplay.
Before the publication of 1Q84, Murakami stated that he would not reveal anything about the book, following criticism that leaks had diminished the novelty of his previous books. 1Q84 was noted for heavy advance orders despite this secrecy.
As in many of his previous works, Murakami makes frequent reference to composers and musicians, ranging from Bach to Vivaldi and Leoš Janáček, whose Sinfonietta pops up many times at crucial points in the novel. A verse from the 1933 song "It's Only a Paper Moon" by Harold Arlen, E.Y. Harburg and Billy Rose, also appears in the book and is the basis for a recurring theme throughout the work. In addition, Murakami refers to more contemporary artists such as Billie Holiday, Charles Mingus and The Rolling Stones.
The structure of the novel refers to Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier (alternate "major key" Aomame and "minor key" Tengo story lines forming 48 chapters of Books 1 and 2) and Goldberg Variations (Book 3).
In accordance with many of Murakami's novels, 1Q84 is dominated by religious and sacred concepts. 1Q84's plot is built around a mystical cult and two long-lost lovers who are drawn into a distorted version of reality. 1Q84 assigns further meaning to his previous novels. 1Q84 draws a connection between the supernatural and the disturbing. Readers are often cited as experiencing a religious unease that is similar to postmodern sensibilities. This unease is accomplished through Murakami's creation of characters whose religious prescriptions are presented as oppressive, as exemplified in the character of Leader, who is the founder of the Sakigake cult.
Religious othering is a major theme in 1Q84, as Murakami places sacred ideas as existing separately from everyday reality. This separation is often cited as emphasizing Murakami’s view of religion as a negative force, which lies in opposition to normal, everyday life; however, Murakami is quite silent about his personal religious beliefs.
The events of 1Q84 take place in Tokyo during a fictionalized year of 1984, with the first volume set between April and June, the second between July and September, and the third between October and December.
The book opens with a female character named Aomame as she catches a taxi in Tokyo on her way to a work assignment. When the taxi gets stuck in a traffic jam, the driver suggests that she get out of the car and climb down an emergency escape in order to make it to her important meeting, though he warns her that doing so might change the very nature of reality. Aomame makes her way to a hotel in Shibuya, where she poses as a hotel attendant in order to kill a hotel guest. She performs the murder with a needle-like tool that leaves almost no trace on its victim, leading investigators to conclude that he died a natural death from a heart failure.
Aomame starts to have bizarre experiences, noticing new details about the world that are subtly different. For instance, she notices Tokyo police officers carrying automatic handguns, when they had previously carried revolvers. Aomame checks her memories against the archives of major newspapers and finds that there were several recent major news stories of which she has no recollection. One of these stories concerned a group of extremists who were engaged in a standoff with police in the mountains of Yamanashi Prefecture. Upon reading these articles, she concludes that she must be living in an alternative reality, which she calls "1Q84," and suspects that she entered it about the time she heard the Janáček Sinfonietta on the taxi radio.
Other characters are also introduced by then. Tengo is a writer and math teacher in a local school in Japan. Komatsu, his editor and mentor, asks Tengo to rewrite an awkwardly written but otherwise promising manuscript, Air Chrysalis (空気さなぎ). Komatsu wants to submit the novel for a prestigious literary prize and promote its author as a new literary prodigy. Tengo has reservations about rewriting another author's work, and especially that of a high-school student. He agrees to do so only if he can meet with the original writer, who goes by the strange pen name "Fuka-Eri", and ask for her permission. Fuka-Eri, however, tells Tengo to do as he likes with the manuscript.
Soon it becomes clear that Fuka-Eri, who is dyslexic, neither wrote the manuscript on her own, nor submitted it to the contest herself. Tengo's discomfort with the project deepens upon finding out that other people must be involved. To address his concerns of her past, Fuka-Eri takes Tengo to meet her current guardian, a man called Professor Ebisuno-sensei (戎野先生), or simply "Sensei" to Fuka-Eri. Tengo learns that Fuka-Eri's parents were members of a commune called "Takashima" (タカシマ). Her father, Tamotsu Fukada (深田保) was Ebisuno's friend and colleague, but they did not see eye-to-eye on their subject. Fukada thought of Takashima as a utopia; Ebisuno described the commune as a place where people were turned into unthinking robots. Fuka-Eri, whom Ebisuno-sensei nicknames "Eri" (エリ), was only a small child at the time.
In 1974, Fukada and 30 members founded a new commune called "Sakigake" (さきがけ). The young members of the commune worked hard under Fukada's leadership, but eventually disagreements split the commune into two factions, and the more radical side formed a new commune called "Akebono" (あけぼの), which eventually has a gunfight with police near Lake Motosu (本栖湖) in Yamanashi Prefecture. One day, Fuka-Eri appears on Ebisuno-sensei's doorstep. She does not speak and will not explain what happened to her. When Ebisuno attempts to contact Fukada at Sakigake, he is told that he is unavailable. Ebisuno thereby becomes Fuka-Eri's guardian, and by the time of 1Q84's present, they have not heard from her parents for seven years, leading Ebisuno to fear the worst.
It is while living with Ebisuno that Fuka-Eri composes her story, Air Chrysalis. Unable to write it herself, she tells it to Azami (アザミ), Ebisuno's blood daughter. Fuka-Eri's story is about a girl's life in a commune, where she met a group of mystical beings, whom Fuka-Eri refers to as "Little People" (リトル・ピープル). Over time, Tengo begins to suspect that the mystical events described in Fuka-Eri's novel actually happened.
Meanwhile, Aomame recovers psychologically from her recent assignment to kill the hotel guest. It is revealed that she has a personal and professional relationship with an older wealthy woman referred to as "the Dowager" (女主人). The Dowager occasionally pays Aomame to kill men who have been viciously abusive to women, and it becomes clear that both Aomame and the Dowager have personal pasts that fuel their actions. They see their organized murders as one way of fighting back against severe forms of domestic abuse.
Aomame is sexually promiscuous, and sometimes releases stress by going to singles bars and picking up older men. During one of these outings, she meets Ayumi, a policewoman who also has sex to relieve stress. They start to combine their efforts, which works well for them both. Aomame's close friendship with Ayumi makes her recall an earlier friend of hers who was the victim of domestic abuse and committed suicide because of it. Aomame and Ayumi remain friends until one day when Aomame reads in the newspaper that Ayumi had been strangled to death in a hotel.
The Dowager introduces Aomame to a 10-year-old girl named Tsubasa. Tsubasa and her parents have been involved with Sakigake. Tsubasa has been forcefully abused by the cult leader named only as "The Leader". As Tsubasa sleeps in the safe house owned by the Dowager, the "Little People", mentioned in Fuka-Eri's novel, Air Chrysalis, appear from Tsubasa's mouth and create an air chrysalis, a type of cocoon made from strands pulled straight out of the air. The Dowager had lost her own daughter to domestic abuse and now wants to adopt Tsubasa. However, Tsubasa mysteriously disappears from the safehouse, never to return.
The Dowager researches Sakigake and finds that there is widespread evidence of abuse. In addition to Tsubasa, other prepubescent girls had been sexually abused there. The Dowager asks Aomame to murder the religious head of Sakigake, the Leader, who is reported to have been the abuser. Aomame meets up with the Leader, who turns out to be a physically enormous person with muscle problems that cause him chronic, severe pain. He reveals that he is the father of Fuka-Eri and has special powers like telekinesis. He is also the one in Sakigake who can hear the religious voices speaking to him. The Leader, knowing that Aomame was sent to him to kill him, finally strikes a deal with her: she will kill him and he will protect Tengo from harm. After a long conversation with the Leader, Aomame finally kills him and goes into hiding at a prearranged location set up by the Dowager and Tamaru, her bodyguard.
Aomame and Tengo's parallel worlds begin to draw closer to each other. Tengo is pursued by a private investigator, Ushikawa, who was hired by Sakigake. He follows Tengo in order to gather information on Air Chrysalis. Following the Leader's murder, Ushikawa is also ordered by Sakigake to determine the whereabouts of Aomame. The novel now begins to follow Ushikawa, who was once a lawyer who made a good living representing professional criminals. He got into legal trouble and had to abandon his career. His wife and two daughters left him, and ever since he has been working as a private detective. An ugly man who repels everyone he meets, Ushikawa is also quite intelligent and capable of gathering facts and using logic and deductive reasoning.
Ushikawa focuses on Tengo, Aomame, and the Dowager as suspects in his investigation. Since the Dowager's house is guarded well and since Aomame has disappeared without a trace, Ushikawa decides to stake out Tengo's apartment to see if he can find any information related to Aomame. He rents out a room in Tengo's apartment building and sets up a camera to take pictures of the residents. He witnesses Fuka-Eri, who has been hiding out at Tengo's apartment, coming and going from the building. Fuka-Eri seems to realize Ushikawa's presence, as she leaves a note for Tengo and takes off. Ushikawa later sees Tengo return home after a visit to see his dying father. Finally, Ushikawa spots Aomame leaving the building after she herself followed Ushikawa there in order to find Tengo.
After Ushikawa spots Aomame, but before he can report this to Sakigake, Tamaru sneaks into Ushikawa's room while he's asleep and interrogates the detective on his knowledge of Tengo and Aomame. Tamaru finds out that Ushikawa knows too much and is a liability to the safety of Aomame, the Dowager, and himself, and he ends up killing Ushikawa without leaving any marks or indications of how it was done. Tamaru then phones Ushikawa's contact at Sakigake and has them remove the detective's body from the apartment building.
Aomame and Tengo eventually find each other via Ushikawa's investigation and with Tamaru's help. They were once childhood classmates, though they had no relationship outside of a single classroom moment where Aomame tightly grasped Tengo's hand when no other children were around. That moment signified a turning point in both Aomame's and Tengo's lives, and they retained a fundamental love for each other despite all the time that had passed. After 20 years, Aomame and Tengo meet again, both pursued by Ushikawa and Sakigake. They manage to make it out of the strange world of "1Q84", which has two visible moons, into a new reality that they assume is their original world, though there are small indications that it is not. The novel ends with them standing in a hotel room, holding hands, looking at the one bright moon in the sky.
Tengo Kawana (川奈 天吾)
The Dowager (老婦人)
Professor Ebisuno (戎野隆之先生)
The book scored 54% rating from the review aggregator iDreamBooks based on 44 critics' reviews. The Guardian's Douglas Haddow has called it "a global event in itself, [which] passionately defends the power of the novel". One review described 1Q84 as a "complex and surreal narrative" which "shifts back and forth between tales of two characters, a man and a woman, who are searching for each other." It tackles themes of murder, history, cult religion, violence, family ties and love. In another review for The Japan Times, it was said that the novel "may become a mandatory read for anyone trying to get to grips with contemporary Japanese culture", calling 1Q84 Haruki Murakami's "magnum opus". Similarly, Kevin Hartnett of The Christian Science Monitor considers it Murakami's most intricate work as well as his most ambitious and Charles Baxter of New York Review of Books praised the ambition of the novel down to the typography and attention to detail. Malcolm Jones of Newsweek considers this novel emblematic of Murakami's mastery of the novel, comparing him to Charles Dickens.
Among the negative reviews, Time's Bryan Walsh found 1Q84 to be the weakest of Murakami's novels in part because it excises his typical first-person narrative. A negative review from The A.V. Club had Christian Williams calling the book "stylistically clumsy" with "layers of tone-deaf dialogue, turgid description, and unyielding plot"; he awarded a D rating. Also criticizing the book was Sanjay Sipahimalani, who felt the writing was too often lazy and cliched, the Little People were risible rather than menacing, and that the book had too much repetition. Janet Maslin called the novel's "1000 uneventful pages" "stupefying" in her review for The New York Times. She had previously picked Murakami's earlier work, Kafka on the Shore, as one of the best 10 novels in 2005.
Awards and honors
1984 is a year. It may also refer to:
Nineteen Eighty-Four, a 1949 novel by George Orwell
1984 (U.S. TV program), a 1953 television adaptation
Nineteen Eighty-Four (UK TV programme), a 1954 BBC television adaptation
1984 (1956 film), a 1956 film adaptation
Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984 film), a 1984 film adaptation
1984 (opera), a 2005 opera adaptation composed by Lorin Maazel
1984 (play), a 2013 play adaptation by Robert Icke and Duncan MacMillan2009 in literature
This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 2009.Claimed moons of Earth
Claims of the existence of other moons of Earth—that is, of one or more natural satellites other than the Moon that orbit Earth—have existed for some time. Several candidates have been proposed, but none has been confirmed. Since the 19th century, scientists have made genuine searches for more moons, but the possibility has also been the subject of a number of dubious non-scientific speculations as well as a number of likely hoaxes.Although the Moon is Earth's only natural satellite, there are a number of near-Earth objects (NEOs) with orbits that are in resonance with Earth. These have been called, inaccurately, "second", "third" or "other" moons of Earth.2016 HO3, an asteroid discovered on 27 April 2016, is possibly the most stable quasi-satellite of Earth. As it orbits the Sun, 2016 HO3 appears to circle around Earth as well. It is too distant to be a true satellite of Earth, but is the best and most stable example of a quasi-satellite, a type of near-Earth object. They appear to orbit a point other than Earth itself, such as the orbital path of the NEO asteroid 3753 Cruithne. Earth trojans, such as 2010 TK7, are NEOs that orbit the Sun (not Earth) on the same orbital path as Earth, and appear to lead or follow Earth along the same orbital path.
Other small natural objects in orbit around the Sun may enter orbit around Earth for a short amount of time, becoming temporary natural satellites. To date, the only confirmed example has been 2006 RH120 in Earth orbit during 2006 and 2007, though further instances are already predicted.Eriko
Eriko (えりこ, エリコ) is a feminine Japanese given name.Haruki Murakami
Haruki Murakami (村上 春樹, Murakami Haruki, born January 12, 1949) is a Japanese writer. His books and stories have been bestsellers in Japan as well as internationally, with his work being translated into 50 languages and selling millions of copies outside his native country. His work has received numerous awards, including the World Fantasy Award, the Frank O'Connor International Short Story Award, the Franz Kafka Prize, and the Jerusalem Prize.
Murakami's most notable works include A Wild Sheep Chase (1982), Norwegian Wood (1987), The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle (1994–95), Kafka on the Shore (2002), and 1Q84 (2009–10). He has also translated into Japanese English works by writers including Raymond Carver and J. D. Salinger. His fiction, sometimes criticized by Japan's literary establishment as un-Japanese, was influenced by Western writers from Chandler to Vonnegut by way of Brautigan. It is frequently surrealistic and melancholic or fatalistic, marked by a Kafkaesque rendition of the "recurrent themes of alienation and loneliness" he weaves into his narratives. Steven Poole of The Guardian praised Murakami as "among the world's greatest living novelists" for his works and achievements.Hotel Okura Tokyo
Hotel Okura Tokyo (ホテルオークラ東京, Hoteru Ōkura Tōkyō) is a luxury hotel opened in 1962 in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It is operated by Okura Hotels and was a member of The Leading Hotels of the World. The historic main wing was demolished in 2015, with a modern replacement on the site set to open in September 2019, rebranded as The Okura Tokyo.Japan Booksellers' Award
Japan Booksellers' Award (本屋大賞, Hon'ya Taishō, lit. "Bookstore Award") is an annual Japanese literary award. It is awarded based on votes by bookstore clerks from all over Japan.Juridical person
A juridical person is a non-human legal entity, in other words any organization that is not a single natural person but is authorized by law with duties and rights and is recognized as a legal person and as having a distinct identity. This includes any incorporated organizations including corporations, government agencies, and NGOs. Also known as artificial person, juridical entity, juristic person, or legal person.The rights and responsibilities of a juridical person are distinct from those of the natural persons constituting it.Kōenji
Kōenji (高円寺) is a district of Tokyo in Suginami ward, west of Shinjuku. The district is named after some old temples in the area.
Kōenji is primarily a community with easy access to Shinjuku and Tokyo Stations. It was largely unaffected by the 1980s building boom and therefore many of the houses and shops in the area are small and reflect the character of pre-boom Japan. Due to its aging retail district and location on a major commuter route, the station area has become a center for small restaurants and "Live Houses" which offer live music. It is also known for having a young population and as a center for suburban underground culture including multiple used record and clothing shops. In 2006, when the Japanese PSE law went into effect restricting the sale of electronic goods built before 2001, Kōenji was chosen as the site for a protest due to its active "retro" culture and used equipment shops.List of classical music in literature
List of classical music pieces which inspired or are mentioned explicitly in literature.Philip Gabriel
J. Philip Gabriel is a full professor and former department chair of the University of Arizona's Department of East Asian Studies and is one of the major translators into English of the works of the Japanese novelist Haruki Murakami.J. Philip Gabriel is also the translator of works by Nobel Prize-winner Kenzaburō Ōe, such as Somersault, and Senji Kuroi, such as Life in the Cul-De-Sac. Dr. Gabriel is also the author of Mad Wives and Island Dreams: Shimao Toshio and the Margins of Japanese Literature. He is currently a professor of modern Japanese literature and Department head of East Asian Studies at the University of Arizona in Tucson, Arizona, and his translations have appeared in The New Yorker, Harper's, and other publications. Dr. Gabriel is the recipient of the 2001 Sasakawa Prize for Japanese Literature, the 2001 Japan-U.S. Friendship Commission Prize for Translation of Japanese Literature, and the 2006 PEN/Book-of-the-Month Club Translation Prize for Kafka on the Shore.Premio Ignotus
Premios Ignotus are annual Spanish literary awards that were created in 1991 by the Asociación Española de Fantasía|Ciencia Ficción y Terror (AEFCFT). The awards, which are in the genres of science fiction and fantasy, are voted on by members of Hispacon, the national science fiction convention of Spain. The method appears to be very similar to the Hugo Awards.Route 3 (Shuto Expressway)
Route 3 (also known as the Shibuya Route) is one of the radial routes of the Shuto Expressway system in the Tokyo area. Route 3 runs southwest from Tanimachi Junction (with the Inner Circular Route) in Minato-ku and runs for 12 kilometres through Shibuya-ku, Meguro-ku, and Setagaya-ku. The Route 3 designation ends at the Yoga Rampway (Tokyo Interchange) and the expressway continues as the intercity Tomei Expressway to Nagoya.Shinchosha
Shinchosha Publishing Co, Ltd. (株式会社新潮社, Kabushiki Kaisha Shinchōsha) is a publisher founded in 1896 in Japan and headquartered in Yaraichō, Shinjuku, Tokyo. Shinchosha is one of the sponsors of the Japan Fantasy Novel Award.Sinfonietta (Janáček)
The Sinfonietta (subtitled “Military Sinfonietta” or “Sokol Festival”) is a very expressive and festive, late work for large orchestra (of which 25 are brass players) by the Czech composer Leoš Janáček. It is dedicated “To the Czechoslovak Army” and Janáček said it was intended to express “contemporary free man, his spiritual beauty and joy, his strength, courage and determination to fight for victory.” It started by Janáček listening to a brass band, becoming inspired to write some fanfares of his own. When the organisers of the Sokol Gymnastic Festival approached him for a commission, he developed the material into the Sinfonietta. He later dropped the word military. The first performance was in Prague on 26 June 1926 under Václav Talich.
The typical performance duration is 20–25 minutes.Three-volume novel
The three-volume novel (sometimes three-Decker or triple Decker) was a standard form of publishing for British fiction during the nineteenth century. It was a significant stage in the development of the modern novel as a form of popular literature in Western culture.Tsudanuma
Tsudanuma (津田沼) is a district of Narashino City, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, consisting of 1-chōme to 7-chōme. The name “Tsudanuma” is also used to refer to the area around Tsudanuma Station ranging over Narashino and Funabashi cities.
Works by Haruki Murakami