19th century

The 19th (nineteenth) century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900. It is often used interchangeably with the 1800s, though the start and end dates differ by a year.

The 19th century saw large amounts of social change; slavery was abolished, and the Second Industrial Revolution led to massive urbanization and much higher levels of productivity, profit and prosperity. European imperialism brought much of Asia and almost all of Africa under colonial rule.

It was marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Napoleonic, Holy Roman and Mughal empires. This paved the way for the growing influence of the British Empire, the Russian Empire, the United States, the German Empire (essentially replacing the Holy Roman Empire), the French colonial empire and Meiji Japan, with the British boasting unchallenged dominance after 1815. After the defeat of the French Empire and its allies in the Napoleonic Wars, the British and Russian empires expanded greatly, becoming the world's leading powers. The Russian Empire expanded in central and far eastern Asia. The British Empire grew rapidly in the first half of the century, especially with the expansion of vast territories in Canada, Australia, South Africa and heavily populated India, and in the last two decades of the century in Africa. By the end of the century, the British Empire controlled a fifth of the world's land and one quarter of the world's population. During the post-Napoleonic era, it enforced what became known as the Pax Britannica, which had ushered in unprecedented globalization and economic integration on a massive scale.

Antoine-Jean Gros - Capitulation de Madrid, le 4 décembre 1808
Antoine-Jean Gros, Surrender of Madrid, 1808. Napoleon enters Spain's capital during the Peninsular War, 1810.
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Timelines:
State leaders:
Decades:
Categories: Births – Deaths
Establishments – Disestablishments

Overview

The first electronics appeared in the 19th century, with the introduction of the electric relay in 1835, the telegraph and its Morse code protocol in 1837, the first telephone call in 1876,[1] and the first functional light bulb in 1878.[2]

The 19th century was an era of rapidly accelerating scientific discovery and invention, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that laid the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century.[3] The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America and Japan.[4] The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty and gender roles.[5] Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing Dynasty, in the First Sino-Japanese War. Advances in medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 19th century, and were partly responsible for rapidly accelerating population growth in the western world. Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million.[6] The introduction of railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, and fuelling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London became the world's largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior Africa and Asia, were explored during this century, and with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic, accurate and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s. Liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe.[7]

Slaves ruvuma
Arab slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma river (in today's Tanzania and Mozambique), 19th century

Slavery was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UK's Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the global slave trade.[8] The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, who did so in 1834. America's 13th Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888 (see Abolitionism). Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia.

The 19th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new settlement foundations which were particularly prevalent across North America and Australia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century. Chicago in the United States and Melbourne in Australia were non-existent in the earliest decades but grew to become the 2nd largest cities in the United States and British Empire respectively by the end of the century. In the 19th century approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States.[9]

The 19th century also saw the rapid creation, development and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain and the United States. Association football, rugby union, baseball and many other sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as cricket to many different parts of the world. Also, ladywear was a very sensitive topic during this time, where women showing their ankles was viewed to be scandalous.

Europe 1815 map en
The boundaries set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815.

It also marks the fall of the Ottoman rule of the Balkans which led to the creation of Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Romania as a result of the second Russo-Turkish War, which in itself followed the great Crimean War.

Eras

World 1898 empires colonies territory
Map of the world from 1897. The British Empire (marked in pink) was the superpower of the 19th century.

Wars

Napoleonic Wars

Napoleons retreat from moscow
Napoleon's retreat from Russia in 1812. The war swings decisively against the French Empire

The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts from 1803 to 1815 pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict.

In the aftermath of the French Revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte gained power in France in 1799. In 1804, he crowned himself Emperor of the French.

In 1805, the French victory over an Austrian-Russian army at the Battle of Austerlitz ended the War of the Third Coalition. As a result of the Treaty of Pressburg, the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved.

Later efforts were less successful. In the Peninsular War, France unsuccessfully attempted to establish Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain. In 1812, the French invasion of Russia had massive French casualties, and was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars.

In 1814, after defeat in the War of the Sixth Coalition, Napoleon abdicated and was exiled to Elba. Later that year, he escaped exile and began the Hundred Days before finally being defeated at the Battle of Waterloo and exiled to Saint Helena, an island in the South Atlantic Ocean.

After Napoleon's defeat, the Congress of Vienna was held to determine new national borders. The Concert of Europe attempted to preserve this settlement was established to preserve these borders, with limited impact.

Latin American independence

JuraIndependencia
The Chilean Declaration of Independence on 18 February 1818

Most countries in Central America and South America obtained independence from colonial overlords during the 19th century. In 1804, Haiti gained independence from France. In Mexico, the Mexican War of Independence was a decade-long conflict that ended in Mexican independence in 1821.

Due to the Napoleonic Wars, the royal family of Portugal relocated to Brazil from 1808-1821, leading to Brazil having a separate monarchy from Portugal.

The Federal Republic of Central America gained independence from Spain in 1821 and from Mexico in 1823. After several rebellions, by 1841 the federation had dissolved into the independent countries of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.[10]

In 1830, the post-colonial nation of Gran Colombia dissolved and the nations of Colombia (including modern-day Panama), Ecuador, and Venezuela took its place.

Revolutions of 1848

Maerz1848 berlin
Liberal and nationalist pressure led to the European revolutions of 1848

The Revolutions of 1848 were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. The revolutions were essentially democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation states.

The first revolution began in January in Sicily. Revolutions then spread across Europe after a separate revolution began in France in February. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries.

According to Evans and von Strandmann (2000), some of the major contributing factors were widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership, demands for more participation in government and democracy, demands for freedom of the press, other demands made by the working class, the upsurge of nationalism, and the regrouping of established government forces.[11]

Abolition and the American Civil War

Wilberforce john rising
William Wilberforce (1759–1833), politician and philanthropist who was a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade.

The abolitionism movement achieved success in the 19th century. The Atlantic slave trade was abolished in 1808, and by the end of the century, almost every government had banned slavery. The Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 banned slavery throughout the British Empire, and the Lei Áurea abolished slavery in Brazil in 1888.

The American Civil War took place from 1861-1865. Eleven southern states seceded from the United States, largely over concerns related to slavery. In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln issued a preliminary [12] on September 22, 1862 warning that in all states still in rebellion (Confederacy) on January 1, 1863, he would declare their slaves "then, thenceforward, and forever free."[13] The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution,[14] ratified in 1865, officially abolished slavery in the entire country.

Five days after Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, Lincoln was assassinated by actor and Confederate sympathiser John Wilkes Booth.

Decline of the Ottoman Empire

In 1830, Greece became the first country to break away from the Ottoman Empire after the Greek War of Independence. In 1831, the Great Bosnian uprising against Ottoman rule occurred. In 1817, the Principality of Serbia became suzerain from the Ottoman Empire, and in 1867, it passed a Constitution which defined its independence from the Ottoman Empire. In 1876, Bulgarians instigate the April Uprising against Ottoman rule. Following the Russo-Turkish War, the Treaty of Berlin recognized the formal independence of the Principality of Serbia, Montenegro and Romania. Bulgaria becomes autonomous.

China: Taiping Rebellion

Regaining the Provincial Capital of Ruizhou
A scene of the Taiping Rebellion.

The Taiping Rebellion was the bloodiest conflict of the 19th century, leading to the deaths of 20 million people. Its leader, Hong Xiuquan, declared himself the younger brother of Jesus Christ and developed a new Chinese religion known as the God Worshipping Society. After proclaiming the establishment of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in 1851, the Taiping army conquered a large part of China, capturing Nanjing in 1853. In 1864, after the death of Hong Xiuquan, Qing forces recaptured Nanjing and ended the rebellion.[15]

Japan: Meiji Restoration

During the Edo period, Japan largely pursued an isolationist foreign policy. In 1853, United States Navy Commodore Matthew C. Perry threatened the Japanese capital Edo with gunships, demanding that they agree to open trade. This led to the opening of trade relations between Japan and foreign countries, with the policy of Sakoku formally ended in 1854.

By 1872, the Japanese government under Emperor Meiji had eliminated the daimyō system and established a strong central government. Further reforms included the abolishment of the samurai class, rapid industrialization and modernization of government, closely following European models.[16]

Colonialism

Arrival of Marshal Randon in Algier-Ernest-Francis Vacherot mg 5120
Arrival of Marshal Randon in Algiers, French Algeria in 1857

In 1862, French gained its first foothold in Southeast Asia, and in 1863 France annexes Cambodia.

Africa

In Africa, European exploration and technology led to the colonization of almost the entire continent by 1898. New medicines such as quinine and more advanced firearms allowed European nations to conquer native populations.[17]

Motivations for the Scramble for Africa included national pride, desire for raw materials, and Christian missionary activity. Britain seized control of Egypt to ensure control of the Suez Canal. France, Belgium, Portugal, and Germany also had substantial colonies. The Berlin Conference of 1884-1885 attempted to reach agreement on colonial borders in Africa, but disputes continued, both amongst European powers and in resistance by the native population.[17]

In 1867, diamonds were discovered in the Kimberley region of South Africa. In 1886, gold was discovered in Transvaal. This led to colonization in Southern Africa by the British and business interests, led by Cecil Rhodes.[17]

Other Wars

KingShaka
1816: Shaka rises to power over the Zulu Kingdom. Zulu expansion was a major factor of the Mfecane ("Crushing") that depopulated large areas of southern Africa
EwellsDeadSpotsylvania1864crop01
Dead Confederate soldiers. 30% of all Southern white males 18–40 years of age died in the American Civil War.[18]

Science and technology

Leslie - physicsFrancis Baily - astronomerPlayfair - UniformitarianismRutherford - NitrogenDollond - OpticsYoung - modulus etcBrown - Brownian motionGilbert - Royal Society presidentBanks - BotanistKater - measured gravity??Howard - Chemical EngineerDundonald - propellorsWilliam Allen - PharmacistHenry - Gas lawWollaston - Palladium and RhodiumHatchett - NiobiumDavy - ChemistMaudslay - modern latheBentham - machinery?Rumford - thermodynamicsMurdock - sun and planet gearRennie - Docks, canals & bridgesJessop - CanalsMylne - Blackfriars bridgeCongreve - rocketsDonkin - engineerHenry Fourdrinier - Paper making machineThomson - atomsWilliam Symington - first steam boatMiller - steam boatNasmyth - painter and scientistNasmyth2Bramah - HydraulicsTrevithickHerschel - UranusMaskelyne - Astronomer RoyalJenner - Smallpox vaccineCavendishDalton - atomsBrunel - Civil EngineerBoulton - SteamHuddart - Rope machineWatt - Steam engineTelfordCrompton - spinning machineTennant - Industrial ChemistCartwright - Power loomRonalds - Electric telegraphStanhope - InventorUse your cursor to explore (or Click icon to enlarge)
Distinguished Men of Science.[19] Use your cursor to see who is who.[20]

The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell,[21] which soon replaced the older term of (natural) philosopher. Among the most influential ideas of the 19th century were those of Charles Darwin (alongside the independent researches of Alfred Russel Wallace), who in 1859 published the book The Origin of Species, which introduced the idea of evolution by natural selection. Another important landmark in medicine and biology were the successful efforts to prove the germ theory of disease. Following this, Louis Pasteur made the first vaccine against rabies, and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals. In chemistry, Dmitri Mendeleev, following the atomic theory of John Dalton, created the first periodic table of elements. In physics, the experiments, theories and discoveries of Michael Faraday, André-Marie Ampère, James Clerk Maxwell, and their contemporaries led to the creation of electromagnetism as a new branch of science. Thermodynamics led to an understanding of heat and the notion of energy was defined. Other highlights include the discoveries unveiling the nature of atomic structure and matter, simultaneously with chemistry – and of new kinds of radiation. In astronomy, the planet Neptune was discovered. In mathematics, the notion of complex numbers finally matured and led to a subsequent analytical theory; they also began the use of hypercomplex numbers. Karl Weierstrass and others carried out the arithmetization of analysis for functions of real and complex variables. It also saw rise to new progress in geometry beyond those classical theories of Euclid, after a period of nearly two thousand years. The mathematical science of logic likewise had revolutionary breakthroughs after a similarly long period of stagnation. But the most important step in science at this time were the ideas formulated by the creators of electrical science. Their work changed the face of physics and made possible for new technology to come about: Thomas Alva Edison gave the world a practical everyday lightbulb. Nikola Tesla pioneered the induction motor, high frequency transmission of electricity, and remote control. Other new inventions were electrical telegraphy and the telephone.

Faraday-Millikan-Gale-1913
Michael Faraday (1791–1867)

Medicine

Robert Koch
Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacilli. The disease killed an estimated 25 percent of the adult population of Europe during the 19th century.[22]

Inventions

Edison in his NJ laboratory 1901
Thomas Edison was an American inventor, scientist, and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb.
Erste Benzin-Omnibus der Welt
First motor bus in history: the Benz Omnibus, built in 1895 for the Netphener bus company

Religion

Culture

Crystal Palace - interior
The Great Exhibition in London. Starting during the 18th century, the United Kingdom was the first country in the world to industrialise.
Ilya Efimovich Repin (1844-1930) - Portrait of Leo Tolstoy (1887)
Russian writer Leo Tolstoy, author of War and Peace and Anna Karenina

Literature

On the literary front the new century opens with romanticism, a movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century rationalism, and it develops more or less along the lines of the Industrial Revolution, with a design to react against the dramatic changes wrought on nature by the steam engine and the railway. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge are considered the initiators of the new school in England, while in the continent the German Sturm und Drang spreads its influence as far as Italy and Spain. French arts had been hampered by the Napoleonic Wars but subsequently developed rapidly. Modernism began.[23]

The Goncourts and Émile Zola in France and Giovanni Verga in Italy produce some of the finest naturalist novels. Italian naturalist novels are especially important in that they give a social map of the new unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware of its ethnic and cultural diversity. There was a huge literary output during the 19th century. Some of the most famous writers included the Russians Alexander Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov and Fyodor Dostoyevsky; the English Charles Dickens, John Keats, Alfred, Lord Tennyson and Jane Austen; the Scottish Sir Walter Scott; the Irish Oscar Wilde; the Americans Edgar Allan Poe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Mark Twain; and the French Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, Jules Verne, Alexandre Dumas and Charles Baudelaire.[24]

Photography

View from the Window at Le Gras, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce
One of the first photographs, produced in 1826 by Nicéphore Niépce
Felix nadar c1860
Nadar, Self-portrait, c. 1860

Visual artists, painters, sculptors

Vincent van Gogh - National Gallery of Art
Vincent van Gogh, self-portrait, 1889

The Realism and Romanticism of the early 19th century gave way to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the later half of the century, with Paris being the dominant art capital of the world. In the United States the Hudson River School was prominent. 19th-century painters included:

Music

Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. Much of the music from the 19th century was referred to as being in the Romantic style. Many great composers lived through this era such as Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Richard Wagner. The list includes:

Sports

Events

1801–1850

StamfordRaffles.jpeg
1819: 29 January, Stamford Raffles arrives in Singapore with William Farquhar to establish a trading post for the British East India Company. 8 February, The treaty is signed between Sultan Hussein of Johor, Temenggong Abdul Rahman and Stamford Raffles. Farquhar is installed as the first Resident of the settlement.
Emigrants Leave Ireland by Henry Doyle 1868
Emigrants leaving Ireland. From 1830 to 1914, almost 5 million Irish people went to the United States alone.

1851–1900

SuezCanalKantara
The first vessels sail through the Suez Canal
Barricade18March1871
A barricade in the Paris Commune, 18 March 1871. Around 30,000 Parisians were killed, and thousands more were later executed.
Schwarzer Freitag Wien 1873
Black Friday, 9 May 1873, Vienna Stock Exchange. The Panic of 1873 and Long Depression followed.
Filipino Ilustrados Jose Rizal Marcelo del Pilar Mariano Ponce
Studio portrait of Ilustrados in Europe, c. 1890

Significant people

Abraham Lincoln head on shoulders photo portrait
Abraham Lincoln in 1863, 16th President of the United States, presided during the American Civil War, assassinated in April 1865
Alexander II 1870 by Sergei Lvovich Levitsky
Tsar Alexander II, also known as Alexander the Liberator, was the Emperor of the Russian Empire from 3 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881
Bismarck1894
Otto von Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor

Show business and theatre

Phineas Taylor Barnum portrait
P. T. Barnum, c. 1860

Business

JPMorgan-Young
J. P. Morgan in his earlier years

Anthropology, archaeology, scholars

Шлиман в 38 лет
Heinrich Schliemann, Archaeologist
FranzBoas
Franz Boas one of the pioneers of modern anthropology

Journalists, missionaries, explorers

Philosophy and religion

The 19th century was host to a variety of religious and philosophical thinkers, including:

Politics and the Military

Tokugawa Yoshinobu with rifle
The last shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu, c. 1867
The allies
The allies: Sultan of the Ottoman Empire; Abdulmecid I, Queen of United Kingdom, Victoria and President of France, Napoleon III.

Composers

Supplementary portrait gallery

Mariecurie

Marie Curie, c. 1898

Leo Tolstoy 1897, black and white, 37767u

Leo Tolstoy c. 1897

Carjat Arthur Rimbaud 1872 n2

Arthur Rimbaud c. 1872

Twain in Tesla's Lab

Mark Twain, 1894

Benjamin D. Maxham - Henry David Thoreau - Restored - greyscale - straightened

Henry David Thoreau, August 1861.

Emile Zola 2

Émile Zola, c. 1900

John L Sullivan

John L Sullivan in his prime, c. 1882

David Livingstone

David Livingstone 1864, left Britain for Africa in 1840

Jesse and Frank James

Jesse and Frank James, 1872

William Notman studios - Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill (1895) edit

Sitting Bull and Buffalo Bill Cody, Montreal, Quebec, 1885

Goyaale

Geronimo, 1887, prominent leader of the Chiricahua Apache

Billy the Kid corrected

William Bonney aka Henry McCarty aka Billy the Kid, c. late 1870s

Wyatt Earp und Bat Masterson 1876

Deputies Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp in Dodge City, 1876

Mathew Brady 1875 cropped

Mathew Brady, Self-portrait, c. 1875

Thomas Nast - Brady-Handy

Thomas Nast, c. 1860–1875, photo by Mathew Brady or Levin Handy

Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant

Claude Monet's Impression, Sunrise, 1872, gave the name to Impressionism

See also

References

  1. ^ "The First Telephone Call".
  2. ^ "Dec. 18, 1878: Let There Be Light — Electric Light". WIRED. 18 December 2009.
  3. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  4. ^ "The United States and the Industrial Revolution in the 19th Century". Americanhistory.about.com. 2012-09-18. Archived from the original on 2012-07-23. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
  5. ^ Laura Del Col, West Virginia University, The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England
  6. ^ "Modernization – Population Change". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on April 6, 2009.
  7. ^ Liberalism in the 19th century. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  8. ^ Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore. BBC.
  9. ^ The Atlantic: Can the US afford immigration?. Migration News. December 1996.
  10. ^ Perez-Brignoli, Hector (1989). A Brief History of Central America. University of California Press. ISBN 0520909763.
  11. ^ R.J.W. Evans and Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann, eds., The Revolutions in Europe 1848–1849 (2000) pp. v, 4
  12. ^ proclamation
  13. ^ McPherson, J. M. (2014). Emancipation Proclamation and Thirteenth Amendment. In E. Foner, & J. A. Garraty (Eds.), The Reader's companion to American history. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Retrieved from http://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/rcah/emancipation_proclamation_and_thirteenth_amendment/0
  14. ^ 13th Amendment
  15. ^ Reilly, Thomas H. (2004). The Taiping heavenly kingdom rebellion and the blasphemy of empire (1 ed.). Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 0295801921.
  16. ^ W. G. Beasley, The Meiji Restoration (1972),
  17. ^ a b c Kerr, Gordon (2012). A short history of Africa : from the origins of the human race to the Arab spring. Harpenden, Herts [UK]: Pocket Essentials. pp. 85–101. ISBN 9781842434420.
  18. ^ "Killing ground: photographs of the Civil War and the changing American landscape". John Huddleston (2002). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6773-8
  19. ^ Engraving after 'Men of Science Living in 1807-8', John Gilbert engraved by George Zobel and William Walker, ref. NPG 1075a, National Portrait Gallery, London, accessed February 2010
  20. ^ Smith, HM (May 1941). "Eminent men of science living in 1807-8". J. Chem. Educ. 18 (5): 203. doi:10.1021/ed018p203.
  21. ^ "William Whewell". Stanford University. Retrieved 2008-03-03.
  22. ^ "Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on April 21, 2009.
  23. ^ David Damrosch and David L. Pike, eds. The Longman Anthology of World Literature, Volume E: The Nineteenth Century (2nd ed. 2008)
  24. ^ M. H. Abrams et al., eds., The Norton Anthology of English Literature (9th ed. 2012)
  25. ^ Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography. 27 (2): 230–259. doi:10.1191/0309133303pp379ra.
  26. ^ a b c Vickers (2005), page xii
  27. ^ Wahyu Ernawati: "Chapter 8: The Lombok Treasure", in Colonial collections Revisited: Pieter ter Keurs (editor) Vol. 152, CNWS publications. Issue 36 of Mededelingen van het Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden. CNWS Publications, 2007. ISBN 978-90-5789-152-6. 296 pages. pp. 186–203

Further reading

  • New Cambridge Modern History (13 vol 1957-79), old but thorough coverage, mostly of Europe; strong on diplomacy
    • Bury, J. P. T. ed. The New Cambridge Modern History: Vol. 10: the Zenith of European Power, 1830-70 (1964) online
    • Crawley, C. W., ed. The New Cambridge Modern History Volume IX War and Peace In An Age of Upheaval 1793-1830 (1965) online
    • Darby, H. C. and H. Fullard The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 14: Atlas (1972)
    • Hinsley, F.H., ed. The New Cambridge Modern History, vol. 11, Material Progress and World-Wide Problems 1870-1898 (1979) online
  • Langer, William. An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed. 1973); highly detailed outline of events online free

Diplomacy and international relations

  • Aldrich, Robert. Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion (1996)
  • Bartlett, C. J. Peace, War and the European Powers, 1814-1914 (1996) brief overview 216pp
  • Bridge, F. R. & Roger Bullen. The Great Powers and the European States System 1814-1914, 2nd Ed. (2005)
  • Gooch, G.P. History of Modern Europe: 1878-1919 (1923) online
  • Herring, George C. Years of Peril and Ambition: U.S. Foreign Relations, 1776-1921 (2017)
  • Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers Economic Change and Military Conflict From 1500-2000 (1987), stress on economic and military factors
  • Langer, William. European Alliances and Alignments 1870-1890 (1950); advanced history online
  • Langer, William. The Diplomacy of Imperialism 1890-1902 (1950); advanced history online
  • Mowat, R.B. A history of European diplomacy, 1815-1914 (1922) online free
  • Osterhammel, Jürgen. The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century (2015)
  • Porter, Andrew, ed. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Volume III: The Nineteenth Century (2001)
  • Sontag, Raymond. European Diplomatic History: 1871-1932 (1933), basic summary; 425pp online
  • Taylor, A.J.P. The Struggle for Mastery in Europe 1848–1918 (1954) 638pp; advanced history and analysis of major diplomacy; online free
  • Taylor, A.J.P. "International Relations" in F.H. Hinsley, ed., The New Cambridge Modern History: XI: Material Progress and World-Wide Problems, 1870-98 (1962): 542-66. online
  • Wesseling, H.L. The European Colonial Empires: 1815-1919 (2015).

Europe

  • Anderson, M. S. The Ascendancy of Europe: 1815–1914 (3rd ed. 2003)
  • Blanning, T. C. W. ed. The Nineteenth Century: Europe 1789–1914 (Short Oxford History of Europe) (2000) 320pp
  • Bruun, Geoffrey. Europe and the French Imperium, 1799–1814 (1938) online.
  • Cameron, Rondo. France and the Economic Development of Europe, 1800–1914: Conquests of Peace and Seeds of War (1961), awide-ranging economic and business history.
  • Evans, Richard J. The Pursuit of Power: Europe 1815–1914 (2016), 934pp
  • Gildea, Robert. Barricades and Borders: Europe 1800–1914 (3rd ed. 2003) 544 pp, online 2nd ed, 1996
  • Grab, Alexander. Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe (2003)
  • Mason, David S. A Concise History of Modern Europe: Liberty, Equality, Solidarity (2011), since 1700
  • Merriman, John, and J. M. Winter, eds. Europe 1789 to 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire (5 vol. 2006)
  • Steinberg, Jonathan. Bismarck: A Life (2011)
  • Salmi, Hannu. 19th Century Europe: A Cultural History (2008).

Asia, Africa

  • Ajayi, J. F. Ade, ed. UNESCO General History of Africa, Vol. VI, Abridged Edition: Africa in the Nineteenth Century until the 1880s (1998)
  • Akyeampong. Emmanuel and Robert H. Bates, eds. Africa's Development in Historical Perspective (2014)
  • Chamberlain. M.E. The Scramble for Africa (3rd ed. 2010)
  • Collins, Robert O. and James M, Burns, eds. A History of Sub-Saharan Africa. )2--7)
  • Davidson, Basil Africa In History, Themes and Outlines. (2nd ed. 1991).
  • Holcombe, Charles. A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century (2nd ed. 2017)
  • Ludden, David. India and South Asia: A Short History (2013).
  • McEvedy, Colin. The Penguin Atlas of African History (2nd ed. 1996). excerpt
  • Mansfield, Peter, and Nicolas Pelham, A History of the Middle East (4th ed, 2013).
  • Murphey, Rhoads. A History of Asia (7th ed, 2016) excerpt
  • Pakenham, Thomas. The Scramble for Africa: 1876 to 1912 (1992)

North and South America

  • Bakewell, Peter, A History of Latin America (Blackwell, 1997)
  • Beezley, William, and Michael Meyer, eds. The Oxford History of Mexico (2010)
  • Bethell, Leslie (ed.), The Cambridge History of Latin America, Cambridge UP, , 12 vol, 1984–2008
  • Black, Conrad. Rise to Greatness: The History of Canada From the Vikings to the Present (2014)
  • Burns, E. Bradford, Latin America: A Concise Interpretive History, paperback, PrenticeHall 2001, 7th edition
  • Howe, Daniel Walker. What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848 (2009), Pulitzer Prize
  • Kirkland, Edward C. A History Of American Economic Life (3rd ed. 1960) online
  • Lynch, John, ed. Latin American revolutions, 1808-1826: old and new world origins (University of Oklahoma Press, 1994)
  • McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom The CIvil War Era (1988) Pulitzer Prize for US history
  • Parry, J.H. A Short History of the West Indies (1987)
  • Paxson, Frederic Logan. History of the American frontier, 1763–1893 (1924) online, Pulitzer Prize
  • White, Richard. The Republic for Which It Stands: The United States during Reconstruction and the Gilded Age, 1865-1896 (2017)

Primary sources

  • de Bary, Wm. Theodore, ed. Sources of East Asian Tradition, Vol. 2: The Modern Period (2008), 1192pp
  • Kertesz, G.A. ed Documents in the Political History of the European Continent 1815–1939 (1968), 507pp; several hundred short documents

External links

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