19th-Century Music is a U.S. triannual music journal published by University of California Press, in Berkeley, California, and established in 1977. Dealing with musical life in Europe and the Americas during the era of the "long century" (ca. 1780-1920), the journal embraces a wide variety of issues encompassing aesthetics, hermeneutics, theory, analysis, performance practice, gender, sexuality, reception, and historiography.
|Edited by||Lawrence Kramer|
University of California Press (United States)
Armenian chant (Armenian: շարական, sharakan) is the melismatic monophonic chant used in the liturgy of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Armenian chant, like Byzantine chant, consists mainly of hymns. The chants are grouped in an oktoechos. The oldest hymns were in prose, but later versified hymns, such as those by Nerses Shnorhali, became more prominent. The official book of hymns, the sharakan, contains 1,166 hymns.
The earliest surviving manuscripts with music notation date from the 14th century, and use a system of neumes known as Armenian neumes or khaz These seem to use a developed system but have not been deciphered. In the 19th century a new notation, still in use, was introduced by Hamparsum Limonciyan.
Armenian chant is now sung to a precise rhythm, including specific rhythmic patterns which are atypical of plainsong. This is considered by some scholars (such as P. Aubry) to be a result of Turkish influence, although others (such as R. P. Decevrens) consider it to be of great antiquity and use it as evidence in favor of a more rhythmic interpretation of Gregorian chant.
The chants used by communities in the Armenian Diaspora are usually harmonized and differ from the original forms. The source of the most traditional music is the liturgies at Echmiadzin, the religious center of Armenia.Bal-musette
Bal-musette is a style of French music and dance that first became popular in Paris in the 1880s.Ballade (classical music)
A ballade (from French ballade, French pronunciation: [baˈlad], and German Ballade, German pronunciation: [baˈlaːdə], both being words for "ballad"), in classical music since the late 18th century, refers to a setting of a literary ballad, a narrative poem, in the musical tradition of the Lied, or to a one-movement instrumental piece with lyrical and dramatic narrative qualities reminiscent of such a song setting, especially a piano ballad.Banda music
Banda is a term to designate a style of Mexican music and the musical ensemble in which wind instruments, mostly of brass and percussion, are performed.
Bandas play a wide variety of songs, including rancheras, corridos, cumbias, baladas, and boleros.
The history of banda music in Mexico dates from the middle of the 19th century with the arrival of piston metal instruments, when the communities tried to imitate the military bands. The first bands were formed in Southern and Central Mexico. In each village of the different territories there are certain types of wind bands, whether traditional, private or municipal.Barcarolle
A barcarolle (from French, also barcarole; originally, Italian barcarola or barcaruola, from barca 'boat') is a traditional folk song sung by Venetian gondoliers, or a piece of music composed in that style. In classical music, two of the most famous barcarolles are Jacques Offenbach's "Belle nuit, ô nuit d'amour", from his opera The Tales of Hoffmann; and Frédéric Chopin's Barcarolle in F-sharp major for solo piano.Bolero
Bolero refers to two distinct genres of slow-tempo Latin music and their associated dances. The oldest type of bolero originated in Spain during the late 18th century as a form of ballroom music, which influenced art music composers around the world, most famously Maurice Ravel's Boléro, as well as a flamenco style known as boleras. An unrelated genre of sung music originated in eastern Cuba in the late 19th century as part of the trova tradition. This genre gained widespread popularity around Latin America throughout the 20th century and continues to thrive.Bulerías
Bulería (Spanish pronunciation: [buleˈɾi.a(s)]; interchangeable with the plural, bulerías) is a fast flamenco rhythm in 12 beats with emphasis in two general forms as follows:
1 2  4 5  7  9  11 
1 2  4 5 6   9  11 
It may also be broken down into a measure of 68 followed by a measure of 34 (known as hemiola) counted as such:
1  1 2  4 5  7  9  - 1 2  4 5  7  9  11
An interesting counting method has been used by Pepe Romero, in his book Classical Guitar Style and Technique, which is 2 measures of 34 time followed by 3 measures of 24 time. This puts the emphasis on the last beat of each measure:
1 2  1 2  1  1  1 
When performed, the bulería usually starts on beat twelve of the compas, so the accented beat is heard first.
It is played at about 240 beats per minute, most commonly in an A-phrygian mode, with a sharpened third to make A major the root chord. A typical rasgueado (a strumming pattern that sets the rhythm) involves only the A and B♭ chords as follows:
A A [B♭] — — [B♭] A [A] A [A] — [A]
It originated in Jerez during the 19th century, originally as a fast, upbeat ending to soleares or alegrias (which share the same rhythm and are still often ended this way) . It is among the most popular and dramatic of the flamenco forms and often ends any flamenco gathering. The name bulerías comes from the Spanish word burlar, meaning "to mock" or bullería, "racket, shouting, din". It is the style which permits the greatest freedom for improvisation, the metre playing a crucial role in this. Speed and agility are required and total control of rhythm as well as strength in the feet which are used in intricate tapping with toe, heel and the ball of the foot. (See also tap dance.) It is the only flamenco dance style which permits leaping by the male dancer.Carol (music)
A carol is in Modern English a festive song, generally religious but not necessarily connected with church worship, and often with a dance-like or popular character. The verb caroling (or "to carol") also refers to the singing of carols.
Today the carol is represented almost exclusively by the Christmas carol, the Advent carol, and to a much lesser extent by the Easter carol; however, despite their present association with religion, this has not always been the case.Chaabi (Algeria)
Chaabi is a traditional music of Algiers (Algeria), formalized by El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka.
Originally from the Casbah, the music known as chaabi belongs to a tradition of recent origin. It emerged during the 1930s, and has lost none of its power of attraction up to the present time. Inspired by vocal traditions of Arab, Andalusian music using its modes and rhythms (Andalusia is also the home of Flamenco music). Chaabi means 'of the people', and it's very definitely the people's music, even in a country where Raï rules.A typical song features mournful, Arabic/Berber vocals, set against an orchestral backdrop of a dozen musicians, with violins and mandolins swelling and falling to a piano melody and the clap of percussion beats. While it shares many set themes with Flamenco - love, loss, exile, friendship and betrayal, Chaabi is part of a deeply conservative tradition and its lyrics often carrying a strong moral message.
At first Chaabi remained a scandalous genre, thriving behind closed doors or in specific locations called "Mahchachat" (cannabis dens), where the admirer of this music would go to drink coffee, tea or smoke. By the late 1950s, however, it had become the people's music, played at weddings and religious festivals. Its main exponents included Oran based singer Lili Labassi, El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka, the father of Chaabi, and Dahmane El Harrachi, composer of the classic tale of emigration Ya Rayah.In 2011, Safinez Bousbia directed a documentary on chaabi music. It took over seven years to make, facilitate and track the reunion of the Jewish and Muslim members of a chaabi group from colonial Algiers known as El Gusto.Chacarera
The Chacarera is a dance and music that originated in Santiago del Estero, Argentina. It is a genre of folk music that, for many Argentines, serves as a rural counterpart to the cosmopolitan imagery of the Tango. A dance form played by contemporary musicians as soloists or in small ensembles of voice, guitar, violin and bombo drum, the Chacarera is often legitimized by its “origin” in the remote province of Santiago del Estero. It is also the product of a romanticized construction of national identity projected by urban cultural institutions and disseminated through the mass media. A recent and very well known singer, Soledad Pastorutti, made an important popularization across all Argentine provinces, during the 1990s, 2000s and 2010s.Changüí
Changüí is a style of Cuban music which originated in the early 19th century in the eastern region of Guantánamo Province, specifically Baracoa. It arose in the sugar cane refineries and in the rural communities populated by slaves.
Changüí combines the structure and elements of Spain's canción and the Spanish guitar with African rhythms and percussion instruments of Bantu origin. Changüí is considered a predecessor of son montuno (the ancestor of modern salsa), which has enjoyed tremendous popularity in Cuba throughout the 20th century.
Changüí is related to the other regional genres of nengón and kiribá and is descended from nengón. Technically, the changüi ensemble consists of: marímbula, bongos, tres, güiro (or guayo) and one or more singers. Changüi does not use the Cuban key pattern (or guide pattern) known as clave. The tres typically plays offbeat guajeos (ostinatos), while the guayo plays on the beat.Chanson
A chanson (French pronunciation: [ʃɑ̃sɔ̃], "song", from Latin cantio, gen. cantionis) is in general any lyric-driven French song, usually polyphonic and secular. A singer specializing in chansons is known as a "chanteur" (male) or "chanteuse" (female); a collection of chansons, especially from the late Middle Ages and Renaissance, is also known as a chansonnier.Church music
Church music is music written for performance in church, or any musical setting of ecclesiastical liturgy, or music set to words expressing propositions of a sacred nature, such as a hymn.Corrido
The corrido (Spanish pronunciation: [koˈriðo]) is a popular narrative song and poetry that form a ballad. The songs are often about oppression, history, daily life for peasants, and other socially relevant topics. It is still a popular form today in Mexico and was widely popular during the Mexican Revolutions of the 20th century. The corrido derives largely from the romance, and in its most known form consists of a salutation from the singer and prologue to the story, the story itself, and a moral and farewell from the singer.Milonga (music)
Milonga is a musical genre that originated in the Río de la Plata areas of Argentina and Uruguay. It was very popular in the 1870s. It was derived from an earlier style of singing known as the payada de contrapunto. The song was set to a lively 24 tempo, as are most milongas.
"Milonga is an excited habanera." The original habanera divided into four pulses, in a standard two-four where every note was stressed. In becoming milonga, though, all four notes turned strong, as tempo was doubled. The strength of the first beat weakened the fourth giving an almost waltz-like feel to milonga: one-two-three(four), one-two-three(four).
Habanera is a slower, more explicit sounding one, two, three-four. At least one modern tango pianist believes the polka influenced the speeding up of the milonga.Milonga has a syncopated beat, consisting of 8 beats with accents on the 1st (sometimes also 2nd), 4th, 5th, and 7th beats.
Regular 24 2 3 4  6 7 8
Milonga 2 3   6  8, sometimes also   3   6  8
332 2 3  5 6  8
Over time, dance steps and other musical influences were added, eventually giving rise to the tango.
By the 1890s musicians were writing in a structured form that was something more than thinly disguised milongas or tangos andaluces, and would later become the fully developed tango.Méringue
Méringue (French pronunciation: [me.ʁɛ̃ɡ]; Haitian Creole: mereng), also called méringue lente or méringue de salon (slow or salon méringue), is a dance music and national symbol in Haiti. It is a string-based style played on the lute, guitar, and other string instruments unlike the primarily accordion-based merengue, and is generally sung in Haitian Creole and French, as well as in English and Spanish.Ragtime
Ragtime – also spelled rag-time or rag time – is a musical style that enjoyed its peak popularity between 1895 and 1918. Its cardinal trait is its syncopated or "ragged" rhythm.Romantic music
Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century. It is related to Romanticism, the Western artistic and literary movement that arose in the second half of the 18th century, and Romantic music in particular dominated the Romantic movement in Germany.
In the Romantic period, music became more explicitly expressive and programmatic, dealing with the literary, artistic, and philosophical themes of the time. Famous early Romantic composers include Beethoven (whose works span both this period and the preceding Classical period), Schubert, Schumann, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Bellini, and Berlioz. The late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the orchestra and in the dynamic range and diversity of instruments used in this ensemble. Also, public concerts became a key part of urban middle class society, in contrast to earlier periods, when concerts were mainly paid for by and performed for aristocrats. Famous composers from the second half of the century include Bruckner, Johann Strauss II, Brahms, Liszt, Tchaikovsky, Dvořák, Verdi, and Wagner. Between 1890 and 1910, a third wave of composers including Mahler, Richard Strauss, Puccini, and Sibelius built on the work of middle Romantic composers to create even more complex – and often much longer – musical works. A prominent mark of late-19th-century music is its nationalistic fervor, as exemplified by such figures as Dvořák, Sibelius, and Grieg. Other prominent late-century figures include Saint-Saëns, Fauré, Rachmaninoff and Franck.Tango music
Tango is a style of music in 24 or 44 time that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay (collectively, the "Rioplatenses"). It is traditionally played on a solo guitar, guitar duo, or an ensemble, known as the orquesta típica, which includes at least two violins, flute, piano, double bass, and at least two bandoneóns. Sometimes guitars and a clarinet join the ensemble. Tango may be purely instrumental or may include a vocalist. Tango music and dance have become popular throughout the world.