1999 Odisha cyclone

The 1999 Odisha cyclone (IMD designation BOB 06,[1] JTWC designation 05B[3]) was the strongest recorded tropical cyclone in the North Indian Ocean and among the most destructive in the region.[note 1] The 1999 Odisha cyclone organized into a tropical depression in the Andaman Sea on 25 October, though its origins could be traced back to an area of convection in the Sulu Sea four days prior. The disturbance gradually strengthened as it took a west-northwesterly path, reaching cyclonic storm strength the next day. Taking advantage of highly favorable conditions, the storm rapidly intensified, attaining super cyclonic storm intensity on 28 October, before peaking on the next day with winds of 260 km/h (160 mph) and a record-low pressure of 912 mbar (hPa; 26.93 inHg). The storm maintained this intensity as it made landfall on Odisha on 29 October. The cyclone steadily weakened due to persistent land interaction and dry air, remaining quasi-stationary for two days before slowly drifting offshore as a much weaker system; the storm dissipated on 4 November over the Bay of Bengal.

Although its primary effects were felt in a localized area of India, the outer fringes of the super cyclone impacted Myanmar and Bangladesh. Ten people were killed in the former, while two were killed in the latter by the storm's rainbands. The storm was the most severe to strike Odisha in the 20th century, raking the state and adjacent areas with high storm surge, powerful winds, and torrential rainfall. The storm's impacts exacerbated the damage caused by a very severe cyclone that struck the same region less than two weeks earlier. The 5–6 m (16–20 ft) surge brought water up to 35 km (20 mi) inland, carrying along with it coastal debris and inundating towns and villages. The surge combined with heavy rains to produce widespread flooding, damaging around 1.6 million homes and causing rivers to breach 20,005 flood embankments. The storm's effects destroyed numerous crops, including sugar cane, rice, and other winter-time harvests. Although estimates of the death toll varied significantly—at times suggesting 30,000 fatalities—the Government of India enumerated 9,887 fatalities in the country, of which a majority were caused by storm surge; over 8,000 deaths occurred in Jagatsinghpur. The total damage cost of the destruction wrought by the super cyclone amounted to US$4.44 billion.[note 2]

Recovery efforts were extensive following the storm's passage. The Government of India allocated 3 billion (US$69.3 million) to the Odisha state government, supplementing earlier contributions made towards relief from the earlier cyclone. Various branches of the Indian Armed Forces were dispatched to aid the recovery efforts. Contributions from foreign governments amounted to nearly US$13 million, with more than half[5] allocated by the United States. Alongside foreign and domestic government contributions, between 12–14 international aid agencies concurrently participated in relief efforts in the storm's aftermath.

1999 Odisha cyclone
Super cyclonic storm (IMD scale)
Category 5 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Cyclone 05B
The cyclone on 29 October at its record peak intensity, as it made landfall on Odisha
Formed25 October 1999
Dissipated4 November 1999
(Remnant low after 31 October 1999)
Highest winds3-minute sustained: 260 km/h (160 mph)
1-minute sustained: 260 km/h (160 mph)
Lowest pressure912 hPa (mbar); 26.93 inHg
(Record low in North Indian Ocean)
Fatalities10,405
(Using IMD figure.[1] Some estimates range up to 30,000[2])
Damage$4.44 billion (1999 USD)
Areas affectedThailand, Myanmar, Bangladesh, India (particularly Odisha)
Part of the 1999 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

Meteorological history

1999 Indian cyclone 05B track
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

Although the storm organized into a tropical cyclone in the Andaman Sea, the origins of the 1999 Odisha cyclone can be traced back to an area of convection that began developing in the Sulu Sea on October 21.[note 3] Despite some signs of development, wind shear suppressed outflow and prevented any significant organization. Tracking westward, the disturbance encountered a more favorable environment in the South China Sea; as a result, thunderstorm activity began to increase. Prompted by these changes, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA) at 02:00 UTC on 23 October. However, the system failed to develop any further before wind shear reemerged in the Gulf of Thailand, causing convection to diminish and resulting in the cancellation of the TCFA. On 24 October, the storm crossed the Malay Peninsula and moved into the Andaman Sea by 03:00 UTC on the following day. Although the environment remained moderately unfavorable for tropical cyclogenesis, the disturbance organized, developing fair outflow, a strong rainband, and additional convection.[2] At 06:00 UTC on 25 October,[1] the system became a tropical depression while centered 550 km (340 mi) east of Port Blair.[6] As such, the India Meteorological Department (IMD) designated the system as BOB 06.[1][note 4] With the storm now steadily organizing, the JTWC once again issued a TCFA at 19:30 UTC on 25 October;[3] early the following day, the IMD assessed that the nascent depression had strengthened into a cyclonic storm.[1] At the time, the storm was located 325 km (200 mi) south-southeast of Rangoon, Myanmar.[2]

Under the steering influence of an upper-level ridge to its northeast, BOB 06 began to take a more northwesterly course. The ridge also provided a highly conducive environment for intensification and eventually became positioned atop the strengthening cyclonic storm, slowing the cyclone and allowing it to generate good outflow.[1] With these conditions in place, BOB 06 entered a phase of rapid intensification,[2] strengthening faster than climatological rates.[3] BOB 06 strengthened into a severe cyclonic storm at 03:00 UTC on 27 October and attained very severe cyclonic storm intensity just nine hours later with the storm centered 650 km (405 mi) south of Chittagong, Bangladesh.[1][2] An eye emerged on visible satellite imagery early on 28 October, and at 15:00 UTC that day, the IMD classified BOB 06 as a super cyclonic storm,[1] the highest rating on the IMD's cyclone scale.[9] Using the Dvorak technique, the IMD estimated that BOB 06 reached its peak intensity three hours later with maximum sustained winds of 260 km/h (160 mph) and a minimum barometric pressure of 912 mbar (hPa; 26.93 inHg);[1] this made BOB 06 the strongest tropical cyclone ever recorded in the North Indian Ocean by pressure with sustained winds at the time matched by only two other known cyclones in the Bay of Bengal.[2][6][10] At the time, the 1977 Andhra Pradesh cyclone was the only storm in the region of comparable intensity.[1] Although the storm's organization and appearance deteriorated as it neared land, BOB 06's intensity held steady up until it made landfall on the Odisha coast between Puri and Kendrapara at 06:00 UTC on 29 October.[1][2]

Rather than moving inland as forecast, the tropical cyclone became quasi-stationary over the coastal Jajpur area as it laid within a weak steering region between two upper-level anticyclones.[6] Remaining situated over land, the storm steadily weakened as it began to advect dry air into its circulation,[2] deteriorating into a cyclonic storm on 30 October.[1] The entraining of dry air limited thunderstorm activity to a single rainband to the system's northeast.[2] Soon, the weakening storm became caught in a mid-tropospheric wind flow, inducing a southward drift that brought BOB 06 back over the Bay of Bengal. The cyclone continued to weaken over water, and the IMD stopped monitoring the storm on 31 October;[1] the JTWC followed suit a day later. The remnant low-pressure system continued to meander around the area for a few more days before eventually dissipating.[2]

Preparations

Cyclone 05B 1999 India Bay of Bengal satellite image NOAA cropped
The Odisha cyclone as it was rapidly intensifying on 28 October. At the time, it was classified as a very severe cyclonic storm.

The Indian Meteorological Department periodically issued cyclone warning bulletins during the storm's lifetime, with the first being directed to the Chief Secretary of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands on 26 October; the first bulletin noted potential impacts and advised fishermen not to venture out to sea. Six warnings were issued for the islands, with the last being issued on 27 October once the storm passed to the north and west. Due to initial uncertainty in the storm's forecast track, the first warnings for the coast of mainland India on 27 October concerned northern Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, and West Bengal. Hourly dissemination of cyclone bulletins were carried out by Doordarshan and All India Radio beginning on 28 October. These warnings eventually narrowed in scope to the eventually affected areas, with the last warning being issued for Odisha on 31 October.[6]

The Indian Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC) served as the primary administrative body for coordinating preparatory and relief work during the 1999 Odisha cyclone. Upon the storm's formation, the DAC requested the chief secretaries and relief commissioners of Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, and West Bengal to begin storm preparations and initiate evacuations if necessary. Evacuations in Odisha involved nearly 150,000 people living within 10 km (6 mi) of the coastline in five districts. Six districts maintained 23 permanent cyclone shelters operated by the Indian Red Cross Society, eventually serving to house 30,000 evacuees. At Paradip Port, twelve docked ships were evacuated out to sea to avoid the cyclone.[6] In neighboring West Bengal, 200,000 people were evacuated from the state's vulnerable low-lying islands.[11] The Indian Army was placed on stand-by, and food supplies were stocked up in prone regions. Train service was cancelled for the areas expected to be impacted by the cyclone.[12]

Impact

Myanmar and Bangladesh

In Myanmar, 10 people were killed and 20,000 families were displaced.[13]

Passing south of Bangladesh, the 1999 Odisha super cyclone's northern fringes swept across the country, killing two people and initially causing 200 fishermen to go missing. Substantial damage to housing was reported.[12]

India

The state of Odisha sustained the most catastrophic damage associated with Cyclone BOB 06, which was considered the state's severest cyclone of the 20th century.[6] The damage was compounded by the earlier impact of a very severe cyclonic storm that struck nearby areas just 11 days earlier.[6] Twelve districts of Odisha suffered severe damage, reporting complete breakdown of essential services: Balasore, Bhadrak, Cuttack, Dhenkanal, Jagatsinghpur, Jajpur, Keonjhar, Kendrapara, Khurda, Puri, Mayurbhanj, and Nayagarh. Among these, the blocks of Erasma and Kujang in Jagatsinghpur were the worst affected. In total, 12.9 million people were affected by the storm; estimates for the storm's death toll vary significantly, though the India Meteorological Department indicated that around 9,887 were killed, with an additional 40 persons missing and 2,507 others injured. The majority of these deaths occurred in Jagatsinghpur. where 8,119 were killed.[1] The Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters's EM-DAT disaster database indicates that 10,915 people were killed.[15] However, other estimates suggested that the death toll may have been as high as 30,000.[2] The storm's effects damaged 1.6 million homes across 14,643 villages and 97 blocks.[1] In turn, 2.5 million people were marooned.[6] A total of 18,420 km2 (7,110mi2) of crop land was impacted, and 444,000 livestock casualties were also reported.[1] The sugar cane crop was destroyed alongside other kharif and rabi crops.[16] About 2 million tonnes (2.2 million tons) of the winter rice crop was destroyed.[17] Total damage caused by the destructive cyclone amounted to US$4.4444 billion.[18]

Along the Odisha coast, the cyclone generated a 5–6 m (16–20 ft) storm surge that brought water up to 35 km (20 mi) inland, inundating a large swath of coastal areas.[1] The Indian Ministry of Urban Development estimated a peak storm surge height of 6.7 m (22 ft).[6] One visually estimated storm surge of 9 m (30 ft) was reported; however, this estimate was determined to have been too high.[1] Regardless, no in-situ measurement of the peak storm surge exists as all potential instruments were destroyed by the storm. Storm surge was responsible for a majority of the fatalities linked to the 1999 Odisha cyclone, accounting for around 7,000 deaths.[6] The intense wave action sank 9,085 fishing boats and caused the loss of 22,143 fishing nets. Some fishing trawlers were carried and deposited 1.5–2.0 km (0.9–1.2 mi) inland. A 4 km (2.5 mi) stretch of road leading out of Paradip was covered by sand dunes measuring 1 m (3.3 ft) in height and 0.5 km (0.3 mi) in width.[1] Paradip Port sustained severe damage to several components including various warehouses and its power transmission system, though its core infrastructure remained intact.[6] Damage at the port was estimated at around ₹300 million (US$6.9 million).[19][note 5] The storm surge destroyed nearly every house in Paradip near the point of landfall.[2] In Gopalpur, 27 villages were submerged by the surge.[20] To the south in southern Andhra Pradesh, 48 trawlers sank.[21]To the north in West Bengal, Substantial damage to housing was reported, causing injuries to 30 people in Midnapore.[12]

Stations in Paradip and Bhubaneswar each recorded sustained winds of 150 km/h (90 mph) before their instruments failed. Winds of 175 km/h (110 mph) were measured in Puri as the cyclone passed to the north.[1] The strong winds damaged electric lines and uprooted trees over 50 years old in Puri and Kendrapada. Downed power lines across the state cut off communications between Odisha and the rest of the world for over 24 hours and caused widespread power outages.[6] According to the Southern Electricity Supply Corporation, damage to the power grid caused by the cyclone totaled ₹330 million (US$4.4 million).[22] Stalling over land, the Odisha cyclone dropped torrential rainfall, with 24-hour rainfall rates at times exceeding 20 cm (7.9 in); Paradip documented 53 cm (20.9 in) over one 24-hour period. Over the course of the storm's passage, total rainfall amounts over 60 cm (23.6 in) occurred over a large swath of Odisha.[1] The highest recorded rainfall total was documented in Oupada, which measured 95.5 cm (37.60 in) of rain over a three-day period. Flooding caused by the storm was estimated to have killed approximately 2,000 people.[6] The heavy rains flattened thatched huts and damaged roads and other infrastructure.[1] Within the seven worst affected districts, over 70% of homes were destroyed; most of these were thatched homes, though 10–15% of non-thatch roofed homes were also destroyed.[22] Approximately 11,000 schools were either significantly damaged or destroyed.[22] All major district roads in the area were either washed out or blocked by felled trees.[16] In Bhubaneswar, 60% of trees were flattened by the winds and rain;[1] aerial surveys revealed that the entire city was submerged by floodwaters.[23] Adjacent areas were nearly stripped of all tree cover.[16] Until 8 November, the city remained without power. The inundation induced by the far-reaching storm surge and heavy rain kept Konark submerged in knee-deep water for six days after landfall.[1] Over the course of four days, the excessive rainfall caused the flooding of the Baitarani, Brahmani, Budhabalanga, Kharasua, and Salandi rivers, resulting in 20,005 flood embankment breaches and the damaging of 6 headworks.[6] Thousands of people suffered chemical burns after the flooding mixed industrial chemicals into bathing ponds.[2] Oswal Chemicals and Fertilisers, which maintained the world's largest diammonium phosphate plant, reported severe damage to the facility.[21] In the five districts most affected, all electric water pumps were disabled, though hand pumps remained operable.[22]

Aftermath

Foreign government contributions
Country Contribution
(USD)[note 6]
Source(s)
Australia $191,700 [24]
Canada $203,964 [25]
Denmark $64,361 [26][note 7]
European Union $2,102,000 [27]
Finland $176,955 [26][note 7]
Germany $234,447 [26][note 7]
Netherlands $238,554 [26][note 7]
New Zealand $99,823 [26][note 7]
Sweden $121,959 [26][note 7]
Switzerland $845,236 [26][28]
United Kingdom $1,300,000 [29]
United States $7,482,000 [22]
Total $13,060,999

The Government of India declared a national disaster in the aftermath of the cyclone, though international appeals were initially unanticipated.[30] The destruction wrought by the cyclone was expected to cause a six-month-long total loss of normal livelihood.[16] Damage sustained to various sanitation infrastructure led to a heightened risk of communicable disease outbreaks; indeed, diarrhea and cholera saw increased incidences following the storm's impact. Within a month of the cyclone's landfall, the Odisha state government reported 22,296 cases of diarrheal disorders. The area's vulnerability to disease was also compounded by a lack of pre-storm vaccinations, raising fears of a potential measles outbreak.[22] The outbreak of diseases caused by the storm's effects stabilized by February 2000.[31] For most locations, the initial loss of telecommunication and rail operation was restored within a few days.[32]

Prime Minister of India Atal Bihari Vajpayee announced the allocation of 3 billion (US$69.3 million) to the Odisha state government, supplementing an earlier allocation of US$59.5 million made towards relief from the cyclone that struck the region earlier that October.[30][33] However, the Odisha state government demanded a larger commitment of ₹5 billion (US$73.3 million) for relief alongside ₹25 billion (US$366.7 million) for rehabilitation.[34] The federal government also considered the establishment of a Department for Natural Disaster Management to handle the devastation caused by the cyclone.[30] Ultimately, a "High Powered Task Force" was formed under the command of the Ministry of Defence to provide rehabilitation support.[35] The Indian Army sent infantry, engineers, and signal detachments to assist with disaster relief, including a field medical unit containing 30 ambulances and 340 doctors.[33] Indian Air Force helicopters dropped food packets in affected regions beginning on 30 October, while other government ground personnel distributed various relief supplies including vaccines and plastic sheeting.[13] Due to severe damage to air traffic control infrastructure, the Biju Patnaik International Airport was closed until 2 November, curtailing relief operations.[6] Schools that survived the cyclone were repurposed as temporary shelters for those displaced.[22] Due to the high amount of animal carcasses, the Government of India offered US$3 for every carcass burned–higher than minimum wage. However, backlash led the government to fly in 200 Dalits from New Delhi and 500 from Odisha to carry out the carcass removal.[36]

On 2 November, the Canadian International Development Agency contributed C$150,000 (US$203,964) to the International Federation of the Red Cross to aid the recovery effort;[37] Canada eventually doubled their contributions through the Canadian Lutheran World Relief and CARE.[25] The European Commission channeled 2 million (US$2.1 million) through the European Community Humanitarian Office for use by various relief organizations.[27] Contributions to aid agencies were also made by the British Department for International Development (DFID), with initial contributions made to Christian Aid and CARE totaling £330,000 (US$540,837).[29] DFID's initial emergency assistance was later increased to £3 million (US$4.9 million) and supplemented by a £25 million ($40.9 million) contribution over the course of six months.[38] The Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit allocated CHF 800,000 (US$779,666) to five Swiss relief organizations operating in India.[28] Food aid worth A$300,000 (US$191,700) was sent by the Australian Government and delivered to approximately 1 million people through the World Food Program.[24] Other countries sent aid through their respective International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies branch.[26] Following an initial disaster declaration by United States Ambassador to India Dick Celeste, the United States Agency for International Development contributed US$7,482,000 through Food for Peace and the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance to complement recovery efforts.[22] The United Nations Children's Fund allocated more than US$100,000 to help supply basic health and shelter needs,[30] while the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs made a similar allocation through an emergency grant and with reserves from an earlier grant from Norway.[33]

Between 12–14 international aid agencies were concurrently active in Odisha in the storm's aftermath.[20] The Odisha Government made appeals to various non-governmental organizations as the government's relief supplies only covered 40% of affected areas.[22] In response to the storm's devastation, Oxfam prepared an initial aid package,[39] including emergency water equipment worth £250,000 (US$306,665) and 50,000 instant meals.[40] Several members of the Action by Churches Together Alliance made contributions to the post-cyclone relief efforts.[41] Lutheran World Relief made initial grants of US$15,000 each to the Church's Auxiliary for Social Action (CASA) and Lutheran World Federation for emergency programs in northeastern India.[42] The United Evangelical Lutheran Churches in India sent US$700,000 worth of various relief supplies in concert with CASA.[41] The Indian Red Cross Society distributed relief supplies from their zonal warehouse in Calcutta, with initial supplies valued at CHF 20,000 (US$19,491). In addition to the Indian society of the Red Cross, a joint Indian and International Federation assessment team was assembled to survey the damage.[13] CARE carried over its preexisting relief operations from the early October cyclone, routing food supplies by train to hard-hit locations in Odisha.[43] The Odisha state branch of the Red Cross extended the emergency relief phase to a three-month relief operation and a six-month rehabilitation program with the help of the Federation. The overall humanitarian response spanned well into late 2000.[26] Bochasanwasi Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha dispatched aid to 91 villages greatly affected by the storm in the Jagatsinghpur and Kendrapada districts; medical camps were established in 32 villages. Three villages were "adopted" by BAPS Charities in January 2000 to rebuild in Jagatsinghpur: Chakulia, Banipat, and Potak. A total of 200 concrete homes were constructed, as well as two concrete schools and two village tube-wells. The project was finally completed in May 2002, two and a half years after the cyclone hit.[44] Similarly, Oxfam facilitated various restoration projects in the Ganjam district, including in the communities of Denotified Tribes.[31][45]

Runoff caused by the cyclone enhanced available nutrients in the Bay of Bengal, supplementing the already present equatorward ocean current and resulting in an increase in chlorophyll a and particulate organic carbon in the region.[46]

See also

  • Cyclone Gonu – The most powerful tropical cyclone recorded in the Arabian Sea
  • Cyclone Phailin – a powerful Category 5 tropical cyclone that made landfall near the same location as the 1999 Odisha cyclone
  • Cyclone Hudhud – costly and powerful Category 4 tropical cyclone with impacts extending from Visakhapatnam into Nepal
  • 1977 Andhra Pradesh cyclone – considered India's first super cyclonic storm
  • 1970 Bhola cyclone – The deadliest tropical cyclone recorded worldwide
  • Kathantara – an Odia disaster film based on the 1999 Odisha cyclone.

Notes

  1. ^ In 1999, Odisha was known as Orissa; its name was changed in 2011 following the passage of the Orissa Bill and adoption of the 113th Amendment to the Constitution of India through Parliament.[4]
  2. ^ Monetary figures are in their originally reported currency. Conversions to United States dollar were made through Oanda using 29 October 1999 exchange rates unless otherwise noted.
  3. ^ All dates are based on Coordinated Universal Time unless otherwise noted.
  4. ^ This identification convention is established by the World Meteorological Organization. The designation BOB 06 indicates that the storm was the sixth to form in the Bay of Bengal that year.[7] This was the primary system used by the IMD to identify cyclones until 2004, when names were introduced.[8]
  5. ^ This conversion from rupees to United States dollars was included in original reporting.[19]
  6. ^ Values converted to United States dollar via Oanda using 29 October 1999 exchange rates
  7. ^ a b c d e f Contribution through respective country's branch of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Report on Cyclonic Disturbances Over North Indian Ocean During 1999 (PDF). India Meteorological Department (Report). RSMC-Tropical Cyclones New Delhi. February 2000. pp. 50–64. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Padgett, Gary (4 January 2007). "Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary October 1999". Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary. Australiansevereweather.com. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  3. ^ a b c McPherson, Terry; Stapler, Wendell (2000). 1999 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report (PDF). Naval Oceanography Operations Command (Report). Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, United States: Joint Typhoon Warning Center. pp. 154–159. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  4. ^ "Orissa's new name is Odisha". The Times of India. New Delhi, Delhi, India: The Times of India. Press Trust of India. 24 March 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  5. ^ https://reliefweb.int/report/india/india-cyclone-fact-sheet-1-fiscal-year-fy-2000
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Kalsi, S. R. (January 2006). "Orissa super cyclone – A Synopsis" (PDF). Quarterly Journal of Meteorology, Hydrology & Geophysics. New Delhi, Delhi, India: India Meteorological Department. 57 (1): 1–20. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  7. ^ "Terminologies used in the region of the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea". Severe Weather Information Centre. World Meteorological Organization. 2010. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  8. ^ "How are cyclones named?". India Today. India Today. 12 October 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  9. ^ IMD Cyclone Warning Division. Best track data of tropical cyclonic disturbances over the north Indian Ocean (PDF) (Report). New Delhi, Delhi, India: India Meteorological Department. p. 5. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  10. ^ "Best Tracks Data (1990–2015)" (XLS). New Delhi, Delhi, India: India Meteorological Department. 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  11. ^ "Indian Army Evacuates People Ahead Of Cyclone". New Delhi, Delhi, India: ReliefWeb. Reuters. 29 October 1999. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  12. ^ a b c United Nations Office for the Coordination of Human Affairs (29 October 1999). Bangladesh/India – Cyclone OCHA Situation Report No. 2 (Situation Report). Geneva, Switzerland: ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  13. ^ a b c International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies (30 October 1999). Orissa, India: Cyclone Information Bulletin No. 1 (Report). ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  14. ^ UN Disaster Management Team (2 December 1999). "Orissa Super Cyclone Situation Report 9". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
  15. ^ Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (17 November 1999). "EM-DAT". Brussels, Belgium: Université catholique de Louvain. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  16. ^ a b c d Oxfam (5 November 1999). "Black Friday: An Oxfam programme officer's report from Orissa". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  17. ^ Mohanty, Sambit (3 November 1999). "India relief teams battle cyclone calamity". Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India: ReliefWeb. Reuters. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  18. ^ Francis, Simon; Gunturi, Prassad V. S. K.; Arora, Munish (2001). "Performance of Built Environment in the Oct 1999 Orissa Super Cyclone" (PDF). Pilani, Rajasthan, India: Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  19. ^ a b "India Minister Mobbed As Storm Victims Demand Food". Paradip, Odisha, India: ReliefWeb. Reuters. 2 November 1999.
  20. ^ a b Save the Children (1 November 1999). SCF: Statement India Cyclone (Report). London, United Kingdom: ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  21. ^ a b Watts, Himangshu (1 November 1999). "Relief reaches India's battered east coast". Paradip, Odisha, India: ReliefWeb. Reuters. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i United States Agency for International Development (16 November 1999). "India Cyclone Factsheet #1, FY 2000". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  23. ^ World Vision (1 November 1999). "Aid rush to victims of India's 'Supercyclone'". Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: ReliefWeb. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  24. ^ a b Government of Australia (12 November 1999). "Australia to assist Indian cyclone victims". Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia: ReliefWeb. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  25. ^ a b Canadian International Development Agency (12 November 1999). "Maria Minna Increases CIDA's Contribution for Victims of the Cyclone in India to $300,000". Ottawa, Quebec, Canada: ReliefWeb. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies (13 November 2002). "India: Orissa Cyclone Appeal No. 28/1999 Final Report" (PDF). ReliefWeb. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  27. ^ a b European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (4 November 1999). Cyclone in Orissa : humanitarian aid worth euro 2 million (Report). ReliefWeb. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  28. ^ a b Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (25 November 1999). La Confédération soutient les victimes du cyclone en Inde (Report) (in French). ReliefWeb. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  29. ^ a b Department for International Development (5 November 1999). "From the Department for International Development: Assistance for Orissa, India". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  30. ^ a b c d United Nations Children's Fund (31 October 1999). Cyclone in Orissa: UNICEF Situation Report 3 (Report). New York City, New York, United States: ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  31. ^ a b Oxfam (1 February 2000). "Orissa cyclone emergency update 01 Feb 2000". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  32. ^ "Indian Cyclone chaos hampers rescue efforts". Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India: ReliefWeb. Reuters. 2 November 1999. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  33. ^ a b c "India – Cyclone OCHA Situation Report No. 3". Geneva, Switzerland: ReliefWeb. 1 November 1999. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  34. ^ "Cyclone-hit areas suffering from medicine, milk shortage". New Delhi, Delhi, India: ReliefWeb. Reuters. 8 November 1999. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  35. ^ Government of India (10 November 1999). "Constitution of a High Powered Task Force on 10.11.99 for rehabilitation and Reconstruction in the cyclone affected areas of Orissa". New Delhi, Delhi, India: ReliefWeb. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  36. ^ "India villages refuse to clear dead". The Blade. Toledo, Ohio, United States. Associated Press. 12 November 1999. p. 21. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  37. ^ Canadian International Development Agency (2 November 1999). Maria Minna Announces $150,000 CIDA Contribution to Help Victims of Cyclone in India (Report). Ottawa, Quebec, Canada: ReliefWeb. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  38. ^ Department for International Development (7 January 2000). Britain helps to "get Orissa back on its feet" minister announces new aid package in wake of cyclone (Report). ReliefWeb. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  39. ^ Oxfam (29 October 1999). Orissa cyclone emergency update 29 Oct 99 (Report). ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  40. ^ Oxfam (5 November 1999). "Oxfam Orissa cyclone appeal". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  41. ^ a b Action by Churches Together International (1 November 1999). "ACT Alert: India – No 2/99 – A second, "super" Cyclone hits Orissa". Geneva, Switzerland: ReliefWeb. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  42. ^ Lutheran World Relief (30 October 1999). India Cyclone (Report). ReliefWeb. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
  43. ^ CARE (1 November 1999). CARE Provides Food and Shelter for Cyclone Victims in India (Report). Atlanta, Georgia, United States: ReliefWeb. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  44. ^ "1999 Cyclone Orissa, India". BAPS Swaminarayan Sanstha. Bochasanwasi Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha. Retrieved 3 January 2017.
  45. ^ Iveson, Gary (7 July 2000). "Orissa cyclone: Reconstruction in Ganjam". Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  46. ^ Madhu, N. V.; Maheswaran, P. A.; Jyothibabu, R.; Sunil, V.; Revichandran, C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Gopalakrishnan, T. C.; Nair, K. K. C. (25 June 2002). "Enhanced biological production off Chennai triggered by October 1999 super cyclone (Orissa)" (PDF). Current Science. National Institute of Oceanography. 82 (12): 1472–1479. Retrieved 3 January 2017.

External links

1970 Bhola cyclone

The 1970 Bhola cyclone was a devastating tropical cyclone that struck East Pakistan and India's West Bengal on November 12, 1970. It remains the deadliest tropical cyclone ever recorded and one of the deadliest natural disasters. At least 500,000 people lost their lives in the storm, primarily as a result of the storm surge that flooded much of the low-lying islands of the Ganges Delta. This cyclone was the sixth cyclonic storm of the 1970 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, and also the season's strongest.The cyclone formed over the central Bay of Bengal on November 8, and traveled northward, intensifying as it did so. It reached its peak with winds of 185 km/h (115 mph) on November 11, and made landfall on the coast of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) the following afternoon. The storm surge devastated many of the offshore islands, wiping out villages and destroying crops throughout the region. In the most severely affected Upazila, Tazumuddin, over 45% of the population of 167,000 was killed by the storm.

The Pakistani government, led by junta leader General Yahya Khan, was criticized for its delayed handling of the relief operations following the storm, both by local political leaders in East Pakistan and in the international media. During the election that took place a month later, the opposition Awami League gained a landslide victory in the province, and continuing unrest between East Pakistan and the central government triggered the Bangladesh Liberation War, which led to widespread atrocities and eventually concluded with the creation of the country of Bangladesh. This storm as well as the Bangladesh Liberation War and 1971 Bangladesh genocide and the subsequent refugees led ex-Beatle George Harrison and Bengali musician Ravi Shankar to organize The Concert for Bangladesh in 1971 in Madison Square Garden, New York City.

2000 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2000 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was fairly quiet compared to its predecessor, with all of the activity originating in the Bay of Bengal. The basin comprises the Indian Ocean north of the equator, with warnings issued by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) in New Delhi. There were six depressions throughout the year, of which five intensified into cyclonic storms – tropical cyclones with winds of 65 mph (40 km/h) sustained over 3 minutes. Two of the storms strengthened into a very severe cyclonic storm, which has winds of at least 120 km/h (75 mph), equivalent to a minimal hurricane. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) also tracked storms in the basin on an unofficial basis, estimating winds sustained over 1 minute.

The first storm of the season originated toward the end of March in the Bay of Bengal, one of only five March storms at the time in that body of water. Strong wind shear, which plagued several storms during the season, caused the storm to rapidly dissipate over open waters. In August, a weak depression struck the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, producing additional flooding after a deluge affected the area in July. There were 131 deaths in Andhra Pradesh, mostly by drownings or collapsed walls, while damage was estimated at ₹7.76 billion rupees (US$170 million ). There were two short-lived storms in October – one dissipated offshore India in the middle of the month, and the other struck Bangladesh toward the end of the month. The latter storm destroyed many homes and boats, killing 77 in Bangladesh including 52 fishermen, and damage in the Indian state of Meghalaya was estimated at ₹600 million rupees (US$13 million). The strongest storm of the season struck Tamil Nadu in November, causing damages of ₹700 million rupees (US$15 million) and 12 deaths. The final storm of the season hit eastern Sri Lanka, leaving 500,000 homeless and killing nine.

BAPS Charities

BAPS Charities (formerly BAPS Care International) is an international non-religious, charitable organization that originated from the Bochasanwasi Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha (BAPS) with a focus on serving society. Their history of service activities can be traced back to Swaminarayan (1781-1830), who opened alms houses, built shelters, worked against addiction, and abolished the practice of sati and female infanticide with the goals of removing suffering and effecting positive social change. This focus on service to society is stated in the organization's vision, that "every individual deserves the right to a peaceful, dignified, and healthy way of life. And by improving the quality of life of the individual, we are bettering families, communities, our world, and our future." BAPS Charities carries out this vision through a range of programs addressing health, education, the environment, and natural disaster recovery. The organization's worldwide activities are funded through donations and are led by a community of over 55,000 volunteers who are mostly members of BAPS. The volunteers work with local communities and other charities and the organization's activities are mainly based out of their mandirs.

Bhubaneswar

Bhubaneswar (listen) is the capital of the Indian state of Odisha. It is the largest city in Odisha and is a centre of economic and cultural importance in Eastern India.

Along with the old town, the region historically was often depicted as Ekamra Khetra (Temple City). With the diverse ranges of heritage resources, it showcases significant sacred cultural landscape components which have evolved with the support of available natural resource base and cultural trigger.Although the modern city of Bhubaneswar was formally established in 1948, the history of the areas in and around the present-day city can be traced to the 3rd century BCE and earlier. It is a confluence of Hindu, Buddhist and Jain heritage boasting of some of the finest Kalingan temples. With many 6th-13th century CE Hindu temples, which span the entire spectrum of Kalinga architecture, Bhubaneswar is often referred to as a "Temple City of India". With Puri and Konark it forms the Swarna Tribhuja ("Golden Triangle"), one of eastern India's most visited destinations.Bhubaneswar replaced Cuttack as the capital on 19 August 1949, 2 years after India gained its independence from Britain. The modern city was designed by the German architect Otto Königsberger in 1946. Along with Jamshedpur and Chandigarh, it was one of modern India's first planned cities. Bhubaneswar and Cuttack are often referred to as the 'twin cities of Odisha'. The metropolitan area formed by the two cities had a population of 1.7 million in 2011. Bhubaneswar is categorised as a Tier-2 city. An emerging information technology (IT) and education hub, Bhubaneswar is one of the country's fastest-developing cities.

Cuttack

Cuttack ( (listen)) is the former capital and the second largest city in the eastern Indian state of Odisha. It is also the headquarters of the Cuttack district. The name of the city is an anglicised form of Kataka which literally means The Fort, a reference to the ancient Barabati Fort around which the city initially developed. Cuttack is also known as the Millennium City as well as the Silver City due to its history of 1000 years and famous silver filigree works. It is also considered as the judicial capital of Odisha as the Odisha High Court is located here. It is also the commercial capital of Odisha which hosts a large number of trading and business houses in and around the city. Cuttack is also famous for its Durga puja which is the most important festival of Odisha and West Bengal. Cuttack is also the birth place of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.

The old and the most important part of the city is centred on a strip of land between the Kathajodi River and the Mahanadi River, bounded on the southeast by Old Jagannath Road. The city, being a part of the Cuttack Municipal Corporation consisting of 59 wards. Cuttack stretches from Phulnakhara across the Kathajodi in the south to Choudwar in north across the Birupa River, while in the east it begins at Kandarpur and runs west as far as Naraj. Four rivers including Mahanadi and its distributaries Kathajodi, Kuakhai, Birupa run through the city. Further Kathajodi is distributed into Devi and Biluakhai which often makes the geographical area look like fibrous roots.

Cuttack and Bhubaneswar are often referred to as the Twin-Cities of Odisha. The metropolitan area formed by the two cities has a population of 1.82 million in 2018. Cuttack is categorised as a Tier-II city as per the ranking system used by Government of India.Cuttack an unplanned city, is characterized by a maze of streets, lanes and by-lanes which has given it the nickname of a city with Baban Bazaar, Tepan Galee and i.e. 52 markets and 53 streets. The close interpersonal relationship, community living and the old world values make Cuttack a big village rather than a city. Cuttack is best known as a City of Brotherhood or Bhai-Chara where people of all religious communities have been residing for centuries in harmony and co-operation.

Cyclone Gonu

Super Cyclonic Storm Gonu (also simply known as Cyclone Gonu) is the strongest tropical cyclone on record in the Arabian Sea, and is also the strongest named cyclone in the northern Indian Ocean. The second named tropical cyclone of the 2007 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, Gonu developed from a persistent area of convection in the eastern Arabian Sea on June 1, 2007. With a favorable upper-level environment and warm sea surface temperatures, it rapidly intensified to attain peak winds of 235 km/h (145 mph) on June 4, according to the India Meteorological Department. Gonu weakened after encountering dry air and cooler waters, and early on June 6, it made landfall on the easternmost tip of Oman, becoming the strongest tropical cyclone to hit the Arabian Peninsula. It then turned northward into the Gulf of Oman, and dissipated on June 7, after making landfall in southern Iran, the first landfall in the country since 1898.

Intense tropical cyclones like Gonu are extremely rare in the Arabian Sea, and most storms in this area tend to be small and dissipate quickly. The cyclone caused 50 deaths and about $4.2 billion in damage (2007 USD) in Oman, where the cyclone was considered the nation's worst natural disaster. Gonu dropped heavy rainfall near the eastern coastline, reaching up to 610 mm (24 inches), which caused flooding and heavy damage. In Iran, the cyclone caused 28 deaths and $216 million in damage (2007 USD).

Cyclone Hudhud

Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm Hudhud was a strong tropical cyclone that caused extensive damage and loss of life in eastern India and Nepal during October 2014.

Hudhud originated from a low pressure system that formed under the influence of an upper-air cyclonic circulation in the Andaman Sea on October 6. Hudhud intensified into a cyclonic storm on October 8 and as a Severe Cyclonic Storm on October 9. Hudhud underwent rapid deepening in the following days and was classified as a Very Severe Cyclonic Storm by the IMD. Shortly before landfall near Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, on October 12, Hudhud reached its peak strength with three-minute wind speeds of 185 km/h (115 mph) and a minimum central pressure of 960 mbar (28.35 inHg). The system then drifted northwards towards Uttar Pradesh and Nepal, causing widespread rains in both areas and heavy snowfall in the latter.

Hudhud caused extensive damage to the city of Visakhapatnam and the neighbouring districts of Vizianagaram and Srikakulam of Andhra Pradesh. Damages were estimated to be ₹21,908 crore (US$3.4 billion) by the Andhra state government. At least 124 deaths have been confirmed, a majority of them from Andhra Pradesh and Nepal, with the latter experiencing an avalanche due to the cyclone.

Cyclone Phailin

Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm Phailin (Thai: ไพลิน meaning "sapphire") was the most intense tropical cyclone to make landfall in India since the 1999 Odisha cyclone. The system was first noted as a tropical depression on October 4, 2013 within the Gulf of Thailand, to the west of Phnom Penh in Cambodia. Over the next few days, it moved westwards within an area of low to moderate vertical wind shear, before as it passed over the Malay Peninsula, it moved out of the Western Pacific Basin on October 6. It emerged into the Andaman Sea during the next day and moved west-northwest into an improving environment for further development before the system was named Phailin on October 9, after it had developed into a cyclonic storm and passed over the Andaman and Nicobar Islands into the Bay of Bengal.

During the next day Phailin intensified rapidly and became a very severe cyclonic storm on October 10, equivalent to a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS). On October 11, the system became equivalent to a Category 5 hurricane on the SSHWS before it started to weaken during the next day as it approached the Indian state of Odisha. It made landfall later that day, near Gopalpur in Odisha coast, at around 2130 IST (1600 UTC). Phailin subsequently weakened over land (becoming a Category 1 tropical cyclone) as a result of frictional forces, before it was last noted on October 14, as it degenerated into a well-marked area of low pressure.

Officials from Odisha's state government said that around 12 million people may be affected. The cyclone prompted India's biggest evacuation in 23 years with more than 550,000 people moved up from the coastline in Odisha and Andhra Pradesh to safer places. Total losses were estimated at Rs 42.4 billion from the storm.

History of Odisha

The name Odisha refers to the current state in India. In different eras the region and parts of the region were known by different names. The boundaries of the region also have varied over the ages.

Human history in Odisha begins in the Lower Paleolithic era, as Acheulian tools dating to the period have been discovered in various places in the region. The early history of Odisha can be traced back to the mentions found in ancient texts like the Mahabharata, Maha Govinda Sutta and some Puranas. In 261 BCE, Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty conquered the region in the bloody Kalinga War which was fought at the banks of River Daya near present-day Bhubaneswar. The resulting bloodshed and suffering of the war deeply affected Ashoka. He turned into a pacifist and converted to Buddhism. He sent peace emissaries to various neighbouring nations. Thus as an indirect consequence, the event caused the spread of Buddhism in Asia.

The region was also known to other kingdoms in region of East Indies due to maritime trade relations.

The year 1568 CE is considered a pivotal point in the region's history. In 1568 CE, the region was conquered by the armies of the Sultanate of Bengal led by the iconoclast general Kalapahad. The region lost its political identity. The following rulers of the region were more tributary lords than actual kings. After 1751, the Marathas gained control of the region for almost half a decade. In 1803, the region was passed onto the British empire. The British divided the region into parts of other provinces. In 1936, the province of Odisha was formed on the basis of populations of Odia-speaking people.

International Swaminarayan Satsang Organisation

Acharya Shree Tejendraprasadji Maharaj (who was then Acharya of the Swaminarayan Sampraday (Ahmedabad Gadi)) founded International Swaminarayan Satsang Organization (I.S.S.O.) (Devanagari: अंतरराष्ट्रीय स्वामींनारायण सत्संग संस्थान) in the United States on the occasion of Vijaya Dashami in the year 1978.The prime objective of I.S.S.O. is "To advance the Sanatana Dharma, in accordance with the principles and teachings of the Swaminarayan Sampraday, founded and ordained by Sahajanand Swami", enabling Lord Swaminarayan's devotees from both the NarNarayan Dev Gadi (Ahmedabad) & LaxmiNarayan Dev Gadi (Vadtal) to practice their religious duties in harmony.This achieved, the efforts of all the followers of the Swaminarayan Sampraday can be polarised, allowing for joint activities to be undertaken. In turn, this will enable the followers to meet the challenges they are faced with today in giving their youth a religious experience that they can understand and practice themselves.

Kathantara

Kathantara (Odia: କଥାନ୍ତର, English Another Story) is a 2007 Indian Oriya language disaster film directed by Himansu Khatua, a story of tribulations of the 1999 Odisha cyclone. Much before the Tsunami became a household name all over the world, the coastal belts of Orissa were hit by what has come to be known as the "Super Cyclone" that killed more than 10,000 people and rendered still more homeless.

List of the most intense tropical cyclones

Tropical cyclone intensity is a complex topic. Winds are often used to measure intensity as they commonly cause notable impacts over large areas, and most popular tropical cyclone scales are organized around sustained wind speeds. However, variations in the averaging period of winds in different basins make inter-comparison difficult. In addition, other impacts like rainfall, storm surge, area of wind damages, and tornadoes can vary significantly in storms with similar wind speeds. Pressure is often used to compare tropical cyclones because the measurements are easier to measure and are consistent. Tropical cyclones can attain some of the lowest pressures over large areas on Earth. However, although there is a strong connection between lowered pressures and higher wind speeds, storms with the lowest pressures may not have the highest wind speeds, as each storm's relationship between wind and pressure is slightly different.In the most recent and reliable records, most tropical cyclones which attained a pressure of 900 hPa (mbar) (26.56 inHg) or less occurred in the Western North Pacific Ocean. The strongest tropical cyclone recorded worldwide, as measured by minimum central pressure, was Typhoon Tip, which reached a pressure of 870 hPa (25.69 inHg) on October 12, 1979. The following list is subdivided by basins. Data listed are provided by the official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre, unless otherwise noted. On October 23, 2015, Hurricane Patricia attained the strongest 1-minute sustained winds on record at 215 mph (345 km/h).

Natural disasters in India

Natural disasters in India, many of them related to the climate of India, cause massive losses of life and property. Droughts, flash floods, cyclones, avalanches, landslides brought by torrential rains, and snowstorms pose the greatest threats. A natural disaster might be caused by earthquakes, flooding, volcanic eruption, landslides, hurricanes etc. In order to be classified as a disaster it will have profound environmental effect and/or human loss and frequently incurs financial loss. Other dangers include frequent summer dust storms, which usually track from north to south; they cause extensive property damage in North India and deposit large amounts of dust from arid regions. Hail is also common in parts of India, causing severe damage to standing crops such as rice and wheat and many more crops.

Nayagarh

Nayagarh is a town and a notified area council (NAC) in Nayagarh district in the Indian state of Odisha. It is the headquarters of Nayagarh district.

North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone

In the Indian Ocean north of the equator, tropical cyclones can form throughout the year on either side of India. On the east side is the Bay of Bengal, and on the west side is the Arabian Sea.

Palak Muchhal

Palak Muchhal (born 30 March 1992) is an Indian playback singer. She and her younger brother Palash Muchhal perform stage shows across India and abroad to raise funds for the poor children who need financial assistance for the medical treatment of heart diseases. As of 8 December 2016, she has raised funds through her charity shows which has helped to save lives of 1333 children suffering from heart ailments. Muchhal has made her entry in both Guinness Book of World Records and Limca Book of World Records for great achievements in social work. Her work is also recognised by the Government of India and other public institutions through various awards and honours. Muchhal also performs as a playback singer for Bollywood films. She has rendered her voice in Hindi films such as Ek Tha Tiger (2012), Aashiqui 2 (2013), Kick (2014) and Action Jackson (2014) Prem Ratan Dhan Payo (2015) M.S. Dhoni: The Untold Story (2016) and Kaabil (2017).

Pattamundai

Pattamundai is a town and a municipality in Kendrapara district in the Indian state of Odisha, located on the centre of SH-9A from Cuttack to Chandbali along the south end of Brahmani River. It is also the headquarter of Pattamundai Block.

Sunil Babu Pant

Sunil Babu Pant (Nepali: सुनीलबाबु पन्त) is a Nepalese activist and former politician. He was the first openly gay national-level legislator in Asia.

Super cyclone

The term Super cyclone may refer to:

1999 Odisha cyclone, a tropical storm

St-Just Super-Cyclone, a Canadian homebuilt aircraft design

Any large tropical cyclone

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.