1999 Düzce earthquake

The 1999 Düzce earthquake occurred on 12 November at 18:57:22 local time with a moment magnitude of 7.2 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), causing damage and at least 845 fatalities in Düzce, Turkey. The epicenter was approximately 100 km (62 mi) to the east of the extremely destructive 1999 İzmit earthquake that happened a few months earlier. Both strike-slip earthquakes occurred on the North Anatolian Fault.

1999 Düzce earthquake
Duzce 1999 earthquake damage Bilham 892
Building damage in Düzce (NOAA/Bilham)
1999 Düzce earthquake is located in Turkey
Istanbul
Istanbul
Ankara
Ankara
1999 Düzce earthquake
UTC time1999-11-12 16:57:22
ISC event1650092
USGS-ANSSComCat
Local date12 November 1999
Local time18:57:22[1]
Magnitude7.2 Mw [1]
Depth13.7 km (9 mi) [1]
Epicenter40°49′N 31°12′E / 40.82°N 31.2°ECoordinates: 40°49′N 31°12′E / 40.82°N 31.2°E [1]
FaultNorth Anatolian Fault
TypeStrike-slip [2]
Areas affectedTurkey
Total damage$1 Billion [3]
Max. intensityIX (Violent) [3]
Casualties845–894 dead [2]
4,948 injured [2]
55,000 displaced [2]

Tectonic setting

The western and central parts of Turkey lie on the eastern part of the Anatolian Plate, which is currently being forced to the west by the continuing northward movement of the Arabian Plate. In northern Turkey, this westward motion is taken up by a major zone of dextral (right-lateral) strike-slip, the North Anatolian Fault. The 1999 Düzce event is the most recent in a sequence of large earthquakes that have affected the North Anatolian Fault, starting towards the eastern end with the 1939 Erzincan earthquake, then propagating towards the west with events in 1942, 1943, 1944, 1951, 1957, 1967 and finally the 1999 İzmit event. At its western end the North Anatolian Fault splits into two main segments, with the northern of these giving rise to the 1999 earthquakes.[4]

Earthquake

The earthquake had an estimated magnitude in the range 7.1–7.2 on the moment magnitude scale. The International Seismological Centre gives a magnitude of 7.16±0.1 for this event in their catalogue. The maximum measured intensity was IX at a seismometer about 4 km from the epicentre, with a peak ground acceleration of 147.80%g and a peak ground velocity of 113.02 cm/sec.[5]

Ground rupture

A surface rupture of 40 km was identified in the field along the Düzce Fault, part of the northern splay of the North Anatolian Fault. This was extended by an additional 15 km at the eastern end using SPOT imagery.[6] The maximum identified lateral displacement was 5 m, with an average displacement of 3 m. At the western end of the fault, there was a maximum 3.5 m of vertical displacement.[4]

Rupture propagation

Analysis of seismometer records suggests that the rupture propagated towards the east faster than the S-wave velocity (supershear) and to the west slower than the S-wave velocity. Supershear rupture propagation is characteristic of strike-slip earthquakes, particularly on fault segments that are relatively simple and planar in geometry.[6]

Damage

Düzce and surrounding areas had already been quite badly affected by the İzmit earthquake a few months earlier, so that many buildings were already in a weakened state when the November earthquake struck.

The number of fatalities in Düzce is recorded as 478, with an additional 313 in the town of Kaynaşlı and 48 in the city of Bolu.[7] A significant number of deaths were attributed to the presence of traditional heaters causing fires and related smoke effects, particularly in Kaynaşlı.[8]

Relief efforts

Following criticism of their response to the İzmit earthquake, the Turkish government reacted quickly to the November earthquake, with rapid deployment of military personnel, police and medical teams to the area.[9] Field hospitals were provided by teams from Russia, Japan, Egypt and Israel.[10] Search and rescue teams were sent from many countries including Austria, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy, Poland, Ukraine, Romania, Israel, United Kingdom, United States, Greece, Germany, Russia, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Algeria, Sweden and Switzerland.[11][12] An estimated 2,000 rescuers were present, including 150 search dogs.[13]

Many of those made homeless by the earthquake were temporarily placed in encampments, but this was problematic as the weather was generally wet and temperatures at night were at or near freezing and many of the tents were not "winterized".[14] A year after the earthquake, about 7,500 people were still living in tents with about 30,000 accommodated in prefabricated houses.[15]

Gallery

After Earthquake-Düzce Çoban Restoran - panoramio

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d ISC (2016), ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900–2012), Version 3.0, International Seismological Centre
  2. ^ a b c d USGS (September 4, 2009), PAGER-CAT Earthquake Catalog, Version 2008_06.1, United States Geological Survey
  3. ^ a b National Geophysical Data Center / World Data Service (NGDC/WDS), Significant Earthquake Database, National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA, doi:10.7289/V5TD9V7K
  4. ^ a b Akyüz H.S.; Hartleb R.; Barka A.; Altunel E.; Sunal G.; Meyer B.; Armijo R. "Surface Rupture and Slip Distribution of the 12 November 1999 Düzce Earthquake ( M 7.1), North Anatolian Fault, Bolu, Turkey" (PDF). Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 92 (1): 61–66. doi:10.1785/0120000840.
  5. ^ United States Geological Survey. "M 7.2 – western Turkey". Retrieved 2018-02-13.
  6. ^ a b Konca A.O.; Leprince S.; Avouac J-P.; Helmberger D.V. (2010). "Rupture Process of the 1999 M w 7.1 Duzce Earthquake from Joint Analysis of SPOT, GPS, InSAR, Strong-Motion, and Teleseismic Data: A Supershear Rupture with Variable Rupture Velocity" (PDF). Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 100 (1): 267–288. doi:10.1785/0120090072.
  7. ^ Rathje E.M.; Stewart J.P.; Baturay M.B.; Bray J.D.; Bardet J.P. (2006). "Strong ground motions and damage patterns from the 1999 Duzce earthquake in Turkey" (PDF). Journal of Earthquake Engineering. 10 (5). doi:10.1142/S136324690600289X.
  8. ^ Celik S.; Corbacioglu S. (2013). "16". In Kapucu N.; Hawkins C.V.; Rivera F.I. Interorganizational Coordination; Analysis of 2011 Van Earthquake. Disaster Resiliency: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Routledge. p. 320. ISBN 9781136239953.
  9. ^ Kinzer S. (14 November 1999). "Death Toll Nearing 400 in Friday's Quake in Turkey". New York Times.
  10. ^ UN Development Programme (19 November 1999). "Situation Report 8: Duzce Earthquake, Turkey".
  11. ^ Senkul O. (16 November 1999). "Mission Ends for Foreign Teams in Turk Quake Zone".
  12. ^ Senkul O. (14 November 1999). "Turks bury dead, search for quake survivors".
  13. ^ Rescue And Preparedness In Disasters (14 November 1999). "Turkey earthquake deployment".
  14. ^ UN Development Programme (18 November 1999). "Situation Report 7: Duzce Earthquake, Turkey".
  15. ^ Deutsche Presse Agentur (10 November 2000). "Life still difficult a year after Turkish earthquake".

External links

Bolu Museum

Bolu Museum is a museum in Bolu, Turkey. Bolu was a leading city of the Bithynia kingdom of the antiquity.

Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency

The Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency of Turkey (Turkish: Afet ve Acil Durum Yönetimi Başkanlığı, AFAD) was established in 2009 to take necessary measures for effective emergency management and civil protection nationwide in Turkey. The presidency conducts pre-incident work, such as preparedness, mitigation and risk management, during-incident work such as response, and post-incident work such as recovery and reconstruction. AFAD reports to the Turkish Prime Ministry.

Amongst the Governmental, NGO and private institutions, the presidency provides coordination, formulates policies and implements policies.

In a disaster and emergency, the AFAD is the sole responsible organization.

Koray Aydın

Koray Aydın (born 5 December 1955) is a Turkish politician who has served as the Deputy Speaker of the Grand National Assembly since 9 July 2015. He previously served as the Minister of Public Works and Housing during the 57th government of Turkey led by Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit. As a politician from the Nationalist Movement Party, he served as the party's General Secretary. He served as a Member of Parliament for Trabzon from 1991 to 1995, as an MP for Ankara from 1999 to 2002 and again from Trabzon from 2011 to November 2015.

He lost his seat in the November 2015 general election.

List of 20th-century earthquakes

This list of 20th-century earthquakes is a global list of notable earthquakes that occurred in the 20th century. After 1900 most earthquakes have some degree of instrumental records and this means that the locations and magnitudes are more reliable than for earlier events. To prevent this list becoming unmanageable, only those of magnitude 6 and above are included unless they are notable for some other reason.

List of deadly earthquakes since 1900

The following list compiles known earthquakes that have caused one or more fatalities since 1900. The list incorporates high quality earthquake source (i.e., origin time, location and earthquake magnitude) and fatality information from several sources.

Earthquake locations are taken from the Centennial Catalog and the updated Engdahl, van der Hilst and Buland earthquake catalog, which is complete to December 2005. From January 2006, earthquake locations are from the United States Geological Survey’s Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) monthly listing. Preferred magnitudes are moment magnitudes taken from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor Database and its predecessor, the Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor Database. Where these magnitude estimates are unavailable, the preferred magnitude estimate is taken from the Centennial Catalog and the PDE.

Five columns of fatality estimates are provided. The first two columns are derived from the PDE monthly catalog and indicate deaths resulting from earthquake shaking only (i.e., from partial or total building collapse), and total fatalities resulting from earthquake shaking and secondary effects, such as tsunami, landslide, fire, liquefaction or other factors (e.g., heart failure). Where these secondary effects are reported, they are indicated by “T”, “L”, “F” or “Lq”, respectively. Fatality estimates in the PDE are generally obtained from official sources (e.g., local or national government officials, humanitarian agencies, emergency management agencies, etc.) or media reports within days to weeks after the earthquake. The PDE catalog is not updated if more detailed information becomes available after its final publication, usually four months after the earthquake.

The third fatality column is taken from the Utsu catalog of deadly earthquakes, and generally represents the total deaths resulting from an earthquake. The Utsu catalog is complete up until late 2003. The fourth column is derived from the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT). EM-DAT has been developed and maintained by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters at the Brussels campus of the University of Louvain, Belgium and is a global, multi-hazard (e.g., earthquake, cyclone, drought, flood, volcano, extreme temperatures, etc.) database of human impacts and economic losses. Earthquake source parameters in the EM-DAT are often absent, incomplete, or erroneous. Consequently, several events may be missed in the automated catalog associations. Furthermore, where the impact of an earthquake spans political boundaries, database entries are often subdivided by country. For significant events, the observed fatalities are aggregated and manually associated.

The final fatality column is for other sources of shaking deaths and indicates improved fatality estimates from official reports and detailed scholarly studies, where available.

The death tolls presented below vary widely in quality and in many cases are estimates only, particularly for the most catastrophic events that result in high fatalities. Note that in some cases, fatalities have been documented, but no numerical value of deaths is given. In these cases, fatality estimates are left blank. Many of the events listed with no numerical value are aftershocks where additional fatalities are aggregated with the main shock.

* Most fatalities attributed to tsunami

List of earthquakes in Turkey

This is a list of earthquakes in Turkey, including any notable historical earthquakes that have epicenters within the current boundaries of Turkey, or which caused significant effects in this area. This list is incomplete.

Lists of earthquakes

The following is a list of earthquake lists, and of top earthquakes by magnitude and fatalities.

Mount Bolu Tunnel

Mount Bolu Tunnel (Turkish: Bolu Dağı Tüneli) is a 3.1-kilometre-long (1.9 mi) highway tunnel constructed through the Bolu Mountain in Turkey between Kaynaşlı, Düzce and Yumrukaya, Bolu.

Supershear earthquake

A supershear earthquake is an earthquake in which the propagation of the rupture along the fault surface occurs at speeds in excess of the seismic shear wave (S-wave) velocity. This causes an effect analogous to a sonic boom.

Urban Search and Rescue Virginia Task Force 1

Urban Search and Rescue Virginia Task Force 1 or VA-TF1 is a FEMA Urban Search and Rescue Task Force based in Fairfax County, Virginia. VA-TF1 is sponsored by the Fairfax County Fire and Rescue Department.Established in 1986 as a domestic and international disaster response resource, sponsored by the Fairfax County Fire and Rescue Department, Virginia Task Force 1 is rostered by approximately 200 specially trained career and volunteer fire and rescue personnel, with expertise in the rescue of victims from collapsed structures, following a natural disaster or terrorist attack.The team is composed of emergency managers and planners, physicians and paramedics and includes specialists in the fields of structural engineering, heavy rigging, collapse rescue, logistics, hazardous materials, communications, canine and technical search.

Virginia Task Force 1 has partnerships with the Department of Homeland Security/Federal Emergency Management Agency for domestic response and the United States Agency for International Development’s Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance to provide international response to natural and man-made disasters. As a part of the Fairfax County Fire and Rescue Department, the task force maintains constant operational readiness as a local resource for residents of Fairfax County and surrounding jurisdictions.

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