1999

1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1999th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 999th year of the 2nd millennium, the 99th year of the 20th century, and the 10th and last year of the 1990s decade.

1999 was designated as the International Year of Older Persons.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1999 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1999
MCMXCIX
Ab urbe condita2752
Armenian calendar1448
ԹՎ ՌՆԽԸ
Assyrian calendar6749
Bahá'í calendar155–156
Balinese saka calendar1920–1921
Bengali calendar1406
Berber calendar2949
British Regnal year47 Eliz. 2 – 48 Eliz. 2
Buddhist calendar2543
Burmese calendar1361
Byzantine calendar7507–7508
Chinese calendar戊寅(Earth Tiger)
4695 or 4635
    — to —
己卯年 (Earth Rabbit)
4696 or 4636
Coptic calendar1715–1716
Discordian calendar3165
Ethiopian calendar1991–1992
Hebrew calendar5759–5760
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat2055–2056
 - Shaka Samvat1920–1921
 - Kali Yuga5099–5100
Holocene calendar11999
Igbo calendar999–1000
Iranian calendar1377–1378
Islamic calendar1419–1420
Japanese calendarHeisei 11
(平成11年)
Javanese calendar1931–1932
Juche calendar88
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4332
Minguo calendarROC 88
民國88年
Nanakshahi calendar531
Thai solar calendar2542
Tibetan calendar阳土虎年
(male Earth-Tiger)
2125 or 1744 or 972
    — to —
阴土兔年
(female Earth-Rabbit)
2126 or 1745 or 973
Unix time915148800 – 946684799

Events

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Canary.wharf.and.dome.london.arp
The Millennium Dome opened in London.

Births

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Deaths

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal

References

  1. ^ "The Diallo Verdict: The Overview; 4 Officers in Diallo Shooting Are Acquitted of All Charges" (February 26, 2000), The New York Times, New York: The New York Times
  2. ^ Cummings, Sally N. (2002). Power and change in Central Asia. p. 130.
  3. ^ "GAVIN RELLY DIES". mg.co.za. 12 January 1999.
Alexa Internet

Alexa Internet, Inc. is an American web traffic analysis company based in San Francisco. It is a subsidiary of Amazon.

Alexa was founded as an independent company in 1996 and acquired by Amazon in 1999. Its toolbar collects data on Internet browsing behavior and transmits them to the Alexa website, where they are stored and analyzed. This is the basis for the company's web traffic reporting, including its Alexa Rank. According to its website, Alexa provides web traffic data, global rankings, and other information on 30 million websites. As of 2018, its website is visited by over 3 million people every month.

American Beauty (1999 film)

American Beauty is a 1999 American drama film written by Alan Ball and directed by Sam Mendes in his feature film directorial debut. Kevin Spacey stars as Lester Burnham, a 42-year-old advertising executive who has a midlife crisis when he becomes infatuated with his teenage daughter's best friend (played by Mena Suvari). Annette Bening co-stars as Lester's materialistic wife, and Thora Birch plays their insecure daughter. Wes Bentley, Chris Cooper, and Allison Janney also feature as the son, father, and mother next door, respectively. Academics have described it as a satire of American middle-class notions of beauty and personal satisfaction; further analysis has focused on the film's explorations of romantic and paternal love, sexuality, materialism, self-liberation, and redemption.

Ball began writing American Beauty as a play in the early 1990s, partly inspired by the media circus around the Amy Fisher trial in 1992. He shelved it after realizing the story would not work on stage. After several years as a television screenwriter, he revived the idea in 1997 as he attempted to break into the film industry. The rewritten script had a cynical outlook influenced by Ball's frustrating tenures writing for several sitcoms. Producers Dan Jinks and Bruce Cohen took the script for American Beauty to the fledgling DreamWorks studio, which bought it for $250,000 by outbidding several other production bodies. DreamWorks financed the $15 million production and served as its North American distributor. It was the film debut for theater director Mendes; after his successful productions of the musicals Oliver! and Cabaret, Mendes was only given the job after 20 others were considered and several A-list directors turned down the opportunity.

Spacey was Mendes' first choice for the lead role, though DreamWorks urged him to consider better-known actors. In a similar manner, the studio also suggested several actresses for the role of the wife, until Mendes offered the part to Bening without the studio's knowledge. Principal photography took place between December 1998 and February 1999 on soundstages at the backlot for Warner Bros. in Burbank, California, and on location in Los Angeles. Mendes' dominant directorial style was deliberate and composed; he made extensive use of static shots, as well as slowly panning and zooming to generate tension. Cinematographer Conrad Hall complemented Mendes' style with peaceful shot compositions to contrast with the film's turbulent on-screen events. During editing, Mendes made several changes that gave the film a less cynical tone than the script might suggest.

Following its theatrical release in North America on September 17, American Beauty has been positively received by critics and has grossed over $356 million worldwide. Reviewers have praised most aspects of the production, with particular emphasis on director Mendes, male lead actor Spacey, and scriptwriter Ball; criticism has focused on the familiarity of the characters and setting. DreamWorks studio launched a major campaign to increase the film's chances of Academy Award success, which paid off: at the 72nd Academy Awards in the following year, it won Best Picture, Best Director, Best Actor (for Spacey), Best Original Screenplay, and Best Cinematography. It was nominated for, and even won, many other awards and honors, mainly for its direction, script, and actors.

Angela Lansbury

Dame Angela Brigid Lansbury (born October 16, 1925) is an English-Irish-American actress who has appeared in theatre, television, and film. Her career has spanned seven decades, much of it in the United States, and her work has attracted international acclaim.

Lansbury was born to Irish actress Moyna Macgill and English politician Edgar Lansbury, an upper-middle-class family in Regents Park, central London; her paternal grandfather was the British Labour Party leader George Lansbury. To escape the Blitz, in 1940 she moved to the United States with her mother and two brothers, and studied acting in New York City. Proceeding to Hollywood in 1942, she signed with Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and obtained her first film roles, in Gaslight (1944) and The Picture of Dorian Gray (1945), earning her two Oscar nominations and a Golden Globe Award. She appeared in eleven further films for MGM, mostly in supporting roles, and after her contract ended in 1952 she began supplementing her cinematic work with theatrical appearances. Although largely seen as a B-list star during this period, her appearance in the film The Manchurian Candidate (1962) received widespread acclaim and is cited as being one of her finest performances. Moving into musical theatre, Lansbury finally gained stardom for playing the leading role in the Broadway musical Mame (1966), which earned her a range of awards.

Amid difficulties in her personal life, Lansbury moved from California to County Cork, Ireland in 1970, and continued with a variety of theatrical and cinematic appearances throughout that decade. These included leading roles in the stage musicals Gypsy, Sweeney Todd, and The King and I, as well as in the hit Disney film Bedknobs and Broomsticks (1971). Moving into television, she achieved worldwide fame as fictional writer and sleuth Jessica Fletcher in the American whodunit series Murder, She Wrote, which ran for twelve seasons from 1984 until 1996, becoming one of the longest-running and most popular detective drama series in television history. Through Corymore Productions, a company that she co-owned with her husband Peter Shaw, Lansbury assumed ownership of the series and was its executive producer for the final four seasons. She also moved into voice work, thereby contributing to animated films such as Disney's Beauty and the Beast (1991) and 20th Century Fox's Anastasia. Since then, she has toured in a variety of international theatrical productions and continued to make occasional film appearances.

Lansbury has received an Honorary Oscar and has won five Tony Awards, six Golden Globes, and an Olivier Award. She has also been nominated for numerous other industry awards, including the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress on three occasions, and various Primetime Emmy Awards on eighteen occasions. In 2014, Lansbury was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II. She has been the subject of three biographies.

Box Office Mojo

Box Office Mojo is a website that tracks box office revenue in a systematic, algorithmic way. The site was founded in 1999, and was bought in 2008 by IMDb, which itself is owned by Amazon. The website is widely used within the film industry as a source of data.

From 2002–11, Box Office Mojo maintained popular forums on its website.

California Gold Rush

The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California. The news of gold brought approximately 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad. The sudden influx of gold into the money supply reinvigorated the American economy, and the sudden population increase allowed California to go rapidly to statehood, in the Compromise of 1850. The Gold Rush had severe effects on Native Californians and resulted in a precipitous population decline from disease, genocide and starvation. By the time it ended, California had gone from a thinly populated ex-Mexican territory, to having one of its first two U.S. Senators, John C. Frémont, selected to be the first presidential nominee for the new Republican Party, in 1856.

The effects of the Gold Rush were substantial. Whole indigenous societies were attacked and pushed off their lands by the gold-seekers, called "forty-niners" (referring to 1849, the peak year for Gold Rush immigration). Outside of California, the first to arrive were from Oregon, the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), and Latin America in late 1848. Of the approximately 300,000 people who came to California during the Gold Rush, about half arrived by sea and half came overland on the California Trail and the Gila River trail; forty-niners often faced substantial hardships on the trip. While most of the newly arrived were Americans, the gold rush attracted thousands from Latin America, Europe, Australia, and China. Agriculture and ranching expanded throughout the state to meet the needs of the settlers. San Francisco grew from a small settlement of about 200 residents in 1846 to a boomtown of about 36,000 by 1852. Roads, churches, schools and other towns were built throughout California. In 1849 a state constitution was written. The new constitution was adopted by referendum vote, and the future state's interim first governor and legislature were chosen. In September 1850, California became a state.

At the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no law regarding property rights in the goldfields and a system of "staking claims" was developed. Prospectors retrieved the gold from streams and riverbeds using simple techniques, such as panning. Although the mining caused environmental harm, more sophisticated methods of gold recovery were developed and later adopted around the world. New methods of transportation developed as steamships came into regular service. By 1869, railroads were built from California to the eastern United States. At its peak, technological advances reached a point where significant financing was required, increasing the proportion of gold companies to individual miners. Gold worth tens of billions of today's US dollars was recovered, which led to great wealth for a few, though many who participated in the California Gold Rush earned little more than they had started with.

Columbine High School massacre

The Columbine High School massacre was a school shooting that occurred on April 20, 1999, at Columbine High School in Columbine, an unincorporated area of Jefferson County (Jeffco), Colorado, United States, near Littleton in the Denver metropolitan area. The perpetrators, twelfth grade (senior) students Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, murdered 12 students and one teacher. Ten students were murdered in the library, where the pair subsequently committed suicide. At the time, it was the deadliest shooting at a high school in United States history. The crime has inspired several copycats, and "Columbine" has become a euphemism for a school shooting.

They injured 21 additional people with gunshots, and exchanged gunfire with the police. Another three people were injured trying to escape the school. In addition to the shootings, the attack involved several homemade bombs. The largest of these were two placed in the cafeteria, car bombs were in the parking lot, and at another location were those intended to divert first responders. The cafeteria and car bombs failed to detonate.

The motive remains unclear, but the pair planned for about a year and wished the massacre to rival the Oklahoma City bombing and cause the most deaths in United States history. The attack has been referred to by USA Today as a "suicidal attack [that was] planned as a grand—if badly implemented—terrorist bombing."Due to a delay in entering the school, local police have been heavily criticized for not intervening during the shooting. It resulted in the introduction of the Immediate Action Rapid Deployment tactic, used in situations with an active shooter whose goal is to kill rather than take hostages. It also resulted in an increased emphasis on school security with zero tolerance policies, and sparked debate over gun control laws, high school cliques, subcultures, and bullying; as well as a moral panic over goths, gun culture, social outcasts, the use of pharmaceutical antidepressants by teenagers, teenage Internet use and violence in video games.

Cricket World Cup

The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of One Day International (ODI) cricket. The event is organised by the sport's governing body, the International Cricket Council (ICC), every four years, with preliminary qualification rounds leading up to a finals tournament. The tournament is one of the world's most viewed sporting events and is considered the "flagship event of the international cricket calendar" by the ICC.The first World Cup was organised in England in June 1975, with the first ODI cricket match having been played only four years earlier. However, a separate Women's Cricket World Cup had been held two years before the first men's tournament, and a tournament involving multiple international teams had been held as early as 1912, when a triangular tournament of Test matches was played between Australia, England and South Africa. The first three World Cups were held in England. From the 1987 tournament onwards, hosting has been shared between countries under an unofficial rotation system, with fourteen ICC members having hosted at least one match in the tournament.

The World Cup is open to all members of the International Cricket Council (ICC), although the highest-ranking teams receive automatic qualification. The remaining teams are determined via the World Cricket League and the ICC World Cup Qualifier. A total of twenty teams have competed in the eleven editions of the tournament, with fourteen competing in the latest edition in 2015; the next edition in 2019 will have only ten teams. Australia has won the tournament five times, with the West Indies, India (twice each), Pakistan and Sri Lanka (once each) also having won the tournament. The best performance by a non-full-member team came when Kenya made the semi-finals of the 2003 tournament.

Dreamcast

The Dreamcast is a home video game console released by Sega on November 27, 1998 in Japan, September 9, 1999 in North America, and October 14, 1999 in Europe. It was the first in the sixth generation of video game consoles, preceding Sony's PlayStation 2, Nintendo's GameCube and Microsoft's Xbox. The Dreamcast was Sega's final home console, marking the end of the company's 18 years in the console market.

In contrast to the expensive hardware of the unsuccessful Sega Saturn, the Dreamcast was designed to reduce costs with "off-the-shelf" components, including a Hitachi SH-4 CPU and an NEC PowerVR2 GPU. Released in Japan to a subdued reception, the Dreamcast enjoyed a successful U.S. launch backed by a large marketing campaign, but interest in the system steadily declined as Sony built hype for the upcoming PlayStation 2. Sales did not meet Sega's expectations despite several price cuts, and the company continued to incur significant financial losses. After a change in leadership, Sega discontinued the Dreamcast on March 31, 2001, withdrawing from the console business and restructuring itself as a third-party publisher. 9.13 million Dreamcast units were sold worldwide.

Although the Dreamcast had a short lifespan and limited third-party support, reviewers have considered the console ahead of its time. Its library contains many games considered creative and innovative, including Crazy Taxi, Jet Set Radio and Shenmue, as well as high-quality ports from Sega's NAOMI arcade system board. The Dreamcast was also the first console to include a built-in modem for Internet support and online play.

Edie Falco

Edith Falco (; born July 5, 1963) is an American television, film, and stage actress, known for her roles as Diane Whittlesey in the HBO series Oz (1997–2000) and Carmela Soprano on the HBO series The Sopranos (1999–2007), for which she received six Emmy nominations, winning three for an Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series as well as winning two Golden Globes and five Screen Actors Guild Awards.

Falco portrayed the eponymous role on the Showtime series Nurse Jackie (2009–15), earning six further Emmy nominations and winning once for an Outstanding Lead Actress in a Comedy. In 2016, she played Sylvia Wittel on the Louis C.K. web series, Horace and Pete. In 2017, Falco portrayed real life defense attorney Leslie Abramson in the first season of the true crime anthology series Law & Order True Crime, for which she garnered her 14th Emmy nomination, this one for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Limited Series or Movie.

Falco's film roles include lead roles in Laws of Gravity (1992), for which she was nominated for the Independent Spirit Award for Best Female Lead and Judy Berlin (1999), and supporting roles in films including Sunshine State (2002), Freedomland (2006) and The Comedian (2016). For her role in the 2011 Broadway revival of The House of Blue Leaves, Falco earned a nomination for a Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Play.

Elections in India

Elections in the Republic of India include elections for the Parliament, Rajya Sabha, Lok Sabha, the Legislative Assemblies, and numerous other Councils and local bodies.

According to Constitution of India, elections for the Parliament and the State Legislative Assemblies should take place every five years, unless a state of emergency has been declared. Any vacancy caused by death or resignation must be filled through an election within six months of any such occurrence. The elections for the lower houses (in Parliament and in the states) use the first-past-the-post electoral system (i.e. the candidate with the majority of the votes wins the election).

Elections for one-third of the seats of the upper house of the Parliament, the Rajya Sabha, are conducted every two years. The members of the upper house are elected indirectly by the state legislative assemblies based on proportional representation. Members of the state legislative councils (in states that have an upper house) are elected indirectly through local bodies.

The 2014 general election involved an electorate of 863,500,000 people. It was conducted in nine stages. The expenditure for the 2014 election was approximately 3765 crore. The cost per voter was Rs 37.5. Votes were cast using over one million electronic voting machines. In the 2014 election, the National Democratic Alliance led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) came to power. The BJP secured a majority of 282 seats and Narendra Modi became the Prime Minister of India. As per the Center for media studies, Rs. 30,000 crore were spent during the 2014 Lok sabha elections in India.

Fight Club

Fight Club is a 1999 film based on the 1996 novel by Chuck Palahniuk. It was directed by David Fincher and stars Brad Pitt, Edward Norton, and Helena Bonham Carter. Norton plays the unnamed narrator, who is discontent with his white-collar job. He forms a "fight club" with soap salesman Tyler Durden (Pitt), and becomes embroiled in a relationship with him and a destitute woman, Marla Singer (Bonham Carter).

Palahniuk's novel was optioned by 20th Century Fox producer Laura Ziskin, who hired Jim Uhls to write the film adaptation. Fincher was selected because of his enthusiasm for the story. He developed the script with Uhls and sought screenwriting advice from the cast and others in the film industry. He and the cast compared the film to Rebel Without a Cause (1955) and The Graduate (1967), with a theme of conflict between Generation X and the value system of advertising. Fincher used the homoerotic overtones of Palahniuk's novel to make audiences uncomfortable and keep them from anticipating the twist ending.Studio executives did not like the film and restructured Fincher's marketing campaign to try to reduce anticipated losses. Fight Club failed to meet the studio's expectations at the box office and received polarized reviews, becoming one of the most controversial and talked-about films of the year. Critics praised the acting, directing, and themes, but debated the violence and moral ambiguity. Over time, however, critical and public reception towards the film has become largely positive, and the film found success with its DVD release, which established Fight Club as a cult film.

J1 League

The J1 League (J1リーグ, J1 Rīgu) is the top division of the Japan Professional Football League (日本プロサッカーリーグ, Nippon Puro Sakkā Rīgu) and the top professional association football J.League in Japan. It is one of the most successful leagues in Asian club football. Currently, the J1 League is the first level of the Japanese association football league system. The second tier is represented by the J2 League. It is currently sponsored by Meiji Yasuda Life and thus officially known as the Meiji Yasuda J1 League. Until the 2014 season it was named the J.League Division 1.

Kargil War

The Kargil War, also known as the Kargil conflict,[note (I)] was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC). In India, the conflict is also referred to as Operation Vijay (Hindi: विजय, literally "Victory") which was the name of the Indian operation to clear the Kargil sector.The cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers disguised as Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the LOC, which serves as the de facto border between the two states. During the initial stages of the war, Pakistan blamed the fighting entirely on independent Kashmiri insurgents, but documents left behind by casualties and later statements by Pakistan's Prime Minister and Chief of Army Staff showed involvement of Pakistani paramilitary forces, led by General Ashraf Rashid. The Indian Army, later supported by the Indian Air Force, recaptured a majority of the positions on the Indian side of the LOC infiltrated by the Pakistani troops and militants. Facing international diplomatic opposition, the Pakistani forces withdrew from the remaining Indian positions along the LOC.

The war is one of the most recent examples of high-altitude warfare in mountainous terrain, which posed significant logistical problems for the combating sides. It is also one of the very few instances of direct, conventional warfare between nuclear states (i.e., those possessing nuclear weapons). India had conducted its first successful test in 1974; Pakistan, which had been developing its nuclear capability in secret since around the same time, conducted its first known tests in 1998, just two weeks after a second series of tests by India.

Kosovo War

The Kosovo War was an armed conflict in Kosovo that started in late February 1998 and lasted until 11 June 1999. It was fought by the forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (by this time, consisting of the Republics of Montenegro and Serbia), which controlled Kosovo before the war, and the Kosovo Albanian rebel group known as the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), with air support from the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) from 24 March 1999, and ground support from the Albanian army.The KLA, formed in 1991, initiated its first campaign in 1995 when it launched attacks targeting Serbian law enforcement in Kosovo, and in June 1996 the group claimed responsibility for acts of sabotage targeting Kosovo police stations. In 1997, the organisation acquired a large amount of arms through weapons smuggling from Albania, following a rebellion which saw large numbers of weapons looted from the country's police and army posts. In 1998, KLA attacks targeting Yugoslav authorities in Kosovo resulted in an increased presence of Serb paramilitaries and regular forces who subsequently began pursuing a campaign of retribution targeting KLA sympathisers and political opponents in a drive which killed 1,500 to 2,000 civilians and KLA combatants. After attempts at a diplomatic solution failed, NATO intervened, justifying the campaign in Kosovo as a "humanitarian war". This precipitated a mass expulsion of Kosovar Albanians as the Yugoslav forces continued to fight during the aerial bombardment of Yugoslavia (March–June 1999). By 2000, investigations had recovered the remains of almost three thousand victims of all ethnicities, and in 2001 a United Nations administered Supreme Court, based in Kosovo, found that there had been "a systematic campaign of terror, including murders, rapes, arsons and severe maltreatments", but that Yugoslav troops had tried to remove rather than eradicate the Albanian population.The war ended with the Kumanovo Treaty, with Yugoslav and Serb forces agreeing to withdraw from Kosovo to make way for an international presence. The Kosovo Liberation Army disbanded soon after this, with some of its members going on to fight for the UÇPMB in the Preševo Valley and others joining the National Liberation Army (NLA) and Albanian National Army (ANA) during the armed ethnic conflict in Macedonia, while others went on to form the Kosovo Police. After the war, a list was compiled which documented that over 13,500 people were killed or went missing during the two year conflict. The Yugoslav and Serb forces caused the displacement of between 1.2 million to 1.45 million Kosovo Albanians. After the war, around 200,000 Serbs, Romani and other non-Albanians fled Kosovo.

The NATO bombing campaign has remained controversial, as it did not gain the approval of the UN Security Council and because it caused at least 488 Yugoslav civilian deaths, including substantial numbers of Kosovar refugees.

The Matrix

The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction action film written and directed by The Wachowskis and starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Hugo Weaving, and Joe Pantoliano. It depicts a dystopian "future in which reality as perceived by humans is actually" a simulated reality called 'the Matrix,' created by thought-capable machines (artificial beings) "to subdue the human population, while their bodies' heat and electrical activity are used as an energy source". Hacker and computer programmer Neo learns this truth and "is drawn into a rebellion against the machines", which involves other people who have been freed from the "dream world".

The Matrix is known for popularizing a visual effect known as "bullet time", in which the heightened perception of certain characters is represented by allowing the action within a shot to progress in slow-motion while the camera's viewpoint appears to move through the scene at normal speed. The film is an example of the cyberpunk subgenre.The film contains numerous allusions to philosophical and religious ideas, and while some critics see this elements as important others emphasis the idea that this is an highly entertaining action movie.The Wachowskis' approach to action scenes drew upon their admiration for Japanese animation and martial arts films, and the film's use of fight choreographers and wire fu techniques from Hong Kong action cinema influenced subsequent Hollywood action film productions.

The Matrix was first released in the United States on March 31, 1999 and grossed over $460 million worldwide. It was well-received by many critics and won four Academy Awards, as well as other accolades, including BAFTA Awards and Saturn Awards. The Matrix was praised for its innovative visual effects, cinematography and entertainment value. The film has since appeared in lists of the greatest science fiction films, and, in 2012, was added to the National Film Registry for preservation. The success of the film led to the release of two feature film sequels, both written and directed by the Wachowskis: The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions. The Matrix franchise was further expanded through the production of comic books, video games and animated short films, in which the Wachowskis were heavily involved, and even inspired books and theories on ideas in religion and philosophy.

The Mummy (1999 film)

The Mummy is a 1999 American action horror film written and directed by Stephen Sommers and starring Brendan Fraser, Rachel Weisz, John Hannah, and Kevin J. O'Connor, with Arnold Vosloo in the titular role as the reanimated mummy. It is a loose remake of the 1932 film The Mummy. In this film, adventurer Rick O'Connell travels to Hamunaptra, the city of the dead, with a librarian and her brother. There they accidentally awaken Imhotep, a high priest from the reign of the pharaoh Seti I who has been cursed for eternity.

Filming began in Marrakech, Morocco, on May 4, 1998, and lasted seventeen weeks; the crew had to endure dehydration, sandstorms, and snakes while filming in the Sahara. The visual effects were provided by Industrial Light & Magic, who blended film and computer-generated imagery to create the titular mummy. Jerry Goldsmith provided the orchestral score.

The Mummy opened on May 7, 1999, and grossed $43 million in 3,210 theaters during its opening weekend in the United States; a surprise hit, the film went on to gross $416 million worldwide. The box-office success led to a 2001 sequel, The Mummy Returns, as well as an animated series, and the prequel/spin-off film The Scorpion King. Seven years later, the third installment, The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor, opened on August 1, 2008. Universal Pictures also opened a roller coaster, Revenge of the Mummy, in 2004. Novelizations of the film and its sequels were written by Max Allan Collins.

The Sixth Sense

The Sixth Sense is a 1999 American supernatural horror film written and directed by M. Night Shyamalan. The film tells the story of Cole Sear (Haley Joel Osment), a troubled, isolated boy who is able to see and talk to the dead, and an equally troubled child psychologist named Malcolm Crowe (Bruce Willis) who tries to help him. The film established Shyamalan as a writer and director, and introduced the cinema public to his traits, most notably his affinity for surprise endings.Released by Hollywood Pictures on August 6, 1999, the film was well-received by critics; praise was given to its acting performances (particularly Willis, Osment, and Toni Collette), atmosphere, and twist conclusion. The Sixth Sense was the second-highest-grossing film of 1999 (behind Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace), taking about $293 million in the US and $379 million in other markets. This made it the highest-grossing horror film (in unadjusted dollars) until 2017, when it was surpassed by It.

The film was nominated for six Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director for Shyamalan, Best Original Screenplay, Best Supporting Actor for Osment, and Best Supporting Actress for Collette.

Vince Lombardi

Vincent Thomas Lombardi (June 11, 1913 – September 3, 1970) was an American football player, coach, and executive in the National Football League (NFL). He is best known as the head coach of the Green Bay Packers during the 1960s, where he led the team to three straight and five total NFL Championships in seven years, in addition to winning the first two Super Bowls at the conclusion of the 1966 and 1967 NFL seasons. Following his sudden death from cancer in 1970, the NFL Super Bowl trophy was named in his honor. He was enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1971, the year after his death. Lombardi is considered by many to be the greatest coach in football history, and he is more significantly recognized as one of the greatest coaches and leaders in the history of any American sport.Lombardi began his coaching career as an assistant and later as a head coach at St. Cecilia High School in Englewood, New Jersey. He was an assistant coach at Fordham, at the United States Military Academy, and with the New York Giants before becoming a head coach for the Green Bay Packers from 1959 to 1967 and the Washington Redskins in 1969. He never had a losing season as a head coach in the NFL, compiling a regular season winning percentage of 72.8% (96–34–6), and 90% (9–1) in the postseason for an overall record of 105 wins, 35 losses, and 6 ties in the NFL.

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