1998 Winter Olympics

The 1998 Winter Olympics, officially the XVIII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XVIIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver)[1] (Japanese: 第十八回オリンピック冬季競技大会 Dai Jūhachi-kai Orinpikku Tōkikyōgi Taikai), and commonly known as Nagano 1998, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 7 to 22 February 1998 in Nagano, Japan.

72 nations and 2,176 participants contested in 7 sports and 68 events at 15 venues.[2] The Games saw the introduction of women's ice hockey, curling and snowboarding. National Hockey League players were allowed to participate in the men's ice hockey for the first time.

The host was selected on June 15, 1991, over Salt Lake City, Östersund, Jaca and Aosta. They were the third Olympic Games and second Winter Olympics to be held in Japan, after the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo and the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo. Nagano is so far the southernmost city to host a Winter Olympics, next to Squaw Valley, host of the 1960 Winter Olympics. The games were succeeded by the 1998 Winter Paralympics from 5 to 14 March. These were the final Winter Olympic Games under the IOC Presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch.

XVIII Olympic Winter Games
1998 Winter Olympics logo
Emblem of the 1998 Winter Olympics[a]
Host cityNagano, Japan
MottoCoexistence with Nature
(Japanese: 自然との共存, Shizen to no Kyōzon)
Nations72
Athletes2,176 (1,389 men, 787 women)
Events68 in 7 sports (14 disciplines)
Opening7 February
Closing22 February
Opened by
Cauldron
StadiumNagano Olympic Stadium
Winter
Lillehammer 1994 Salt Lake 2002
Summer
Atlanta 1996 Sydney 2000

Host city selection

Other candidate cities for the 1998 Olympics were Aosta, Italy; Jaca, Spain; Östersund, Sweden; and Salt Lake City, United States. The host city selection was held in Birmingham, United Kingdom, on 15 June 1991, at the 97th IOC session. Nagano prevailed over Salt Lake City by just 4 votes. In June 1995, Salt Lake was chosen as the host of the following 2002 Winter Olympics.

The Nagano Olympic bid committee spent approximately $14 million to entertain the 62 International Olympic Committee members and many of their companions. The precise figures are unknown since Nagano, after the IOC asked that the entertainment expenditures not be made public, destroyed the financial records.[3][4]

Sports

The 1998 Winter Olympics featured 68 medal events over 14 disciplines in 7 sports.

  1. Biathlon
  2. Bobsleigh
  3. Curling
  4. Ice hockey
  5. Luge
  6. Skating
  7. Skiing

Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested in each separate discipline.

Venues

Hakuba

Iizuna

Karuizawa

Nagano

Nozawaonsen:

Yamanouchi

Cost and cost overrun

The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Nagano 1998 Winter Olympics at US$2.2 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 56% in real terms.[6] This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g., the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Nagano 1998 compares with costs of US$2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, and costs of US$51[7] billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014, the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is US$3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%.

Participating National Olympic Committees

72 nations participated in the 1998 Winter Olympic Games. The nations Azerbaijan, Kenya, Macedonia, Uruguay, and Venezuela participated in their first Winter Olympic Games.

1998 Winter Olympic Games countries
Participating nations

Calendar

All dates are in Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)
OC Opening ceremony Event competitions 1 Event finals CC Closing ceremony
February 7th
Sat
8th
Sun
9th
Mon
10th
Tue
11th
Wed
12th
Thu
13th
Fri
14th
Sat
15th
Sun
16th
Mon
17th
Tue
18th
Wed
19th
Thu
20th
Fri
21st
Sat
22nd
Sun
Events
Ceremonies OC CC N/A
Alpine skiing pictogram.svg Alpine skiing 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 10
Biathlon pictogram.svg Biathlon 1 1 1 1 1 1 6
Bobsleigh pictogram.svg Bobsleigh 1 1 2
Cross country skiing pictogram.svg Cross country skiing 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 10
Curling pictogram.svg Curling 2 2
Figure skating pictogram.svg Figure skating 1 1 1 1 4
Freestyle skiing pictogram.svg Freestyle skiing 2 2 4
Ice hockey pictogram.svg Ice hockey 1 1 2
Luge pictogram.svg Luge 1 1 1 3
Nordic combined pictogram.svg Nordic combined 1 1 2
Short track speed skating pictogram.svg Short track 2 1 3 6
Ski jumping pictogram.svg Ski jumping 1 1 1 3
Snowboarding pictogram.svg Snowboarding 1 2 1 4
Speed skating pictogram.svg Speed skating 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10
Daily medal events 3 3 5 7 4 3 4 6 5 6 4 5 5 6 2 68
Cumulative total 3 6 11 18 22 25 29 35 40 46 50 55 60 66 68
February 7th
Sat
8th
Sun
9th
Mon
10th
Tue
11th
Wed
12th
Thu
13th
Fri
14th
Sat
15th
Sun
16th
Mon
17th
Tue
18th
Wed
19th
Thu
20th
Fri
21st
Sat
22nd
Sun
Total events

Medal table

1998 Winter Olympics medals
The silver, gold and bronze medals.

These are the top ten nations that won medals at the 1998 Winter Games.

  *   Host nation (Japan)

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Germany129829
2 Norway1010525
3 Russia96318
4 Canada65415
5 United States63413
6 Netherlands54211
7 Japan*51410
8 Austria35917
9 South Korea3126
10 Italy26210
Totals (10 nations)615043154

Marketing

Mascots

Sukki, Nokki, Lekki and Tsukki, also known as the Snowlets are the 1998 Winter Olympic mascots and are four snowy owls. They represent respectively fire (Sukki), air (Nokki), earth (Lekki) and water (Tsukki) and together they represent the four major islands of Japan.

Sponsors

Broadcasting rights

ORF

Seven Network

CBC

CCTV

DR1

TF1, FTV

Yle

ARD, ZDF

RÚV

RAI

NOS

NRK

SVT

BBC

CBS Sports, Turner Sports (In the United States, this was CBS' last of three cycles as Winter Olympic broadcast partner. Turner Sports, through TNT, had been its cable television partner for the three competitions CBS was contracted to carry. NBC, which had aired the Summer Olympics since 1988, took over the Winter Olympics beginning with the Salt Lake City Games, and its family of networks has been the exclusive home for the Olympics in the United States ever since.)

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ The emblem represents a flower, with each petal representing an athlete practicing a different winter sport. It can also be seen as a snowflake, thus the name "Snowflower" was given to it.

Citations

  1. ^ "French and English are the official languages for the Olympic Games.", [1].(..)
  2. ^ "The Olympic Winter Games Factsheet" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  3. ^ Jordan, Mary; Sullivan, Kevin (21 January 1999), "Nagano Burned Documents Tracing '98 Olympics Bid", Washington Post, pp. A1, retrieved 20 August 2016
  4. ^ Macintyre, Donald (1 February 1999). "Japan's Sullied Bid". Time Magazine. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  5. ^ "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  6. ^ Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 9–13. SSRN 2804554.
  7. ^ "Sochi 2014: the costliest Olympics yet but where has all the money gone?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-02-12.

External links

Preceded by
Lillehammer
Winter Olympics
Nagano

XVIII Olympic Winter Games (1998)
Succeeded by
Salt Lake City
1998 Winter Olympics medal table

The 1998 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVIII Olympic Winter Games, was a winter multi-sport event held in Nagano, Japan, from 7 to 22 February 1998. Twenty-four nations earned medals at these Games, and fifteen won at least one gold medal; forty-eight countries left the Olympics without winning a medal. Competitors from Germany earned the highest number of gold medals (12) and the most overall medals (29). With 10 gold medals and 25 overall medals, Norway finished second in both categories. Denmark won its first – and as of 2018 only – Winter Olympics medal, while Bulgaria and the Czech Republic won their first Winter Games gold medals. Azerbaijan, Kenya, Macedonia, Uruguay, and Venezuela competed for the first time, but none of them won a medal.Varying statistics are reported for the number of participants at the 1998 Winter Olympics. The Sports-Reference website states that 2,180 athletes from 72 nations participated in 68 events from 14 sports and disciplines. Olympic historian Bill Mallon, in his Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement, agrees with the figure of 2,180 participants. In contrast, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) website reports that 2,176 athletes competed at the Games. The sport of curling returned after a single appearance in the 1924 Olympics, snowboarding was added as a new sport, and women's ice hockey made its first appearance in the Olympics.The leading medal winner at the Games was Russian skier Larisa Lazutina, who won five medals, including three golds. The only other athlete to win three gold medals was Norwegian skier Bjørn Dæhlie, who won four medals overall, making him the first Winter Olympian to win twelve career medals, eight of which were gold. Nine other athletes won three medals, including three Germans. American figure skater Tara Lipinski became the youngest competitor in Winter Olympics history to earn a gold medal in an individual event.

Alpine skiing at the 1998 Winter Olympics

Alpine Skiing at the 1998 Winter Olympics consisted of ten alpine skiing events. The speed events were held at Hakuba and the technical events at Shiga Kogen. There were a number of race postponements due to weather; the events began on 10 February and ended on 21 February.

Biathlon at the 1998 Winter Olympics

Biathlon at the 1998 Winter Olympics consisted of six biathlon events. They were held at Nozawa Onsen. The events began on 9 February and ended on 21 February 1998.

Cross-country skiing at the 1998 Winter Olympics

The 1998 Winter Olympic Games cross-country skiing competition results were as follows.

Figure skating at the 1998 Winter Olympics

The figure skating events in 1998 Winter Olympics were held at the White Ring in Nagano. There were no changes in the format or scoring systems from 1994. Professionals were again allowed to compete, although they had to declare that intention and compete in ISU-approved events to do so. Most of the top competitors by 1998 were now openly professional.

The competitions took place on the following days:

Pairs: 8–10 February 1998

Men's singles: 12–14 February 1998

Ice dance: 13–16 February 1998

Ladies' singles: 18–20 February 1998

Exhibition gala: 21 February 1998

France at the 1998 Winter Olympics

France competed at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.

Germany at the 1998 Winter Olympics

Germany competed at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.

Great Britain at the 1998 Winter Olympics

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland competed as Great Britain at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.

Ice hockey at the 1998 Winter Olympics

Ice hockey at the 1998 Winter Olympics was played at The Big Hat and Aqua Wing Arena in Nagano, Japan.

Ice hockey at the 1998 Winter Olympics – Women's tournament

The 1998 Olympic women's ice hockey tournament was the first year that featured women in ice hockey competition. It was greatly anticipated that the women's gold medal match would feature Canada versus the United States. Canada was favored to come out on top as they had won all the competitions in previous years in women's hockey, with the United States perpetually finishing second, while no other national teams could match their level of play. However, the United States beat Canada in the final and became the first country to win gold in women's ice hockey at the Olympics.There were no qualification tournaments, the host Japan played alongside the top five nations at the previous season's world championships.

Israel at the 1998 Winter Olympics

Israel competed at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.

The Israeli delegation included 3 figure skaters. Michael Shmerkin competed in the men's event, Galit Chait and Sergei Sakhnovski competed in ice dancing.

Netherlands at the 1998 Winter Olympics

Athletes from the Netherlands competed at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.

Nordic combined at the 1998 Winter Olympics

Nordic combined at the 1998 Winter Olympics, consisted of two events, held from 13 February to 20 February. The ski jumping portion took place at Hakuba Ski Jumping Stadium, while the cross-country portion took place at Snow Harp.

Norway at the 1998 Winter Olympics

Norway competed at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.

Russia at the 1998 Winter Olympics

Russia competed at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.

South Korea at the 1998 Winter Olympics

South Korea, as Republic of Korea, competed at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.

Speed skating at the 1998 Winter Olympics

Speed skating at the 1998 Winter Olympics, was held from 8 February to 20 February. Ten events were contested at M-Wave.

Switzerland at the 1998 Winter Olympics

Switzerland competed at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan.

Turkey at the 1998 Winter Olympics

Turkey sent a delegation to compete at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan from 7–22 February 1998. This was Turkey's 12th time appearing at a Winter Olympic Games. The Turkish delegation to Nagano consisted of a single alpine skier, Arif Alaftargil. In the men's slalom, he finished in 29th place.

1998 Winter Olympics bidding results[5]
City Country Round 1 Run-off Round 2 Round 3 Round 4
Nagano  Japan 21 30 36 46
Salt Lake City  United States 15 59 27 29 42
Östersund  Sweden 18 25 23
Jaca  Spain 19 5
Aosta  Italy 15 29
Participating National Olympic Committees
Sponsors of the 1998 Winter Olympics
Worldwide Olympic Partners
Gold Sponsors
Official Supporters and Suppliers
Summer
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Winter
Games
Events at the 1998 Winter Olympics (Nagano)
Nations at the 1998 Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan
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Venues of the 1998 Winter Olympics (Nagano)

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