1998 United States embassy bombings

The 1998 United States embassy bombings were attacks that occurred on August 7, 1998, in which over 200 people were killed in nearly simultaneous truck bomb explosions in two East African cities, one at the United States Embassy in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, the other at the United States Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya.[1]

The attacks, which were linked to local members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, brought Osama bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri, and their terrorist organization, al-Qaeda, to the attention of the U.S. public for the first time, and resulted in the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) placing bin Laden on its ten most-wanted fugitives list. The FBI also connected the attack to Azerbaijan, as 60 calls were placed via satellite phone by bin Laden to associates in the country's capital Baku.[2] Fazul Abdullah Mohammed and Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah were credited with being the masterminds behind the bombings.[3][4][5]

1998 United States embassy bombings
Kenya bombing 1
LocationNairobi, Kenya
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Coordinates01°17′21″S 36°49′36″E / 1.28917°S 36.82667°E and 06°47′21″S 39°16′46″E / 6.78917°S 39.27944°E
DateAugust 7, 1998
10:30 a.m. – 10:40 a.m. EAT (UTC+3)
TargetUnited States embassies
Attack type
Truck bombs
Deaths224 (213 in Nairobi, 11 in Dar es Salaam)
Non-fatal injuries
More than 4,000
Perpetratorsal-Qaeda and Egyptian Islamic Jihad

Motivation and preparation

The bombings are widely believed to have been revenge for U.S. involvement in the extradition, and alleged torture, of four members of Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ) who had been arrested in Albania for an alleged series of murders in Egypt in the two months prior to the attacks.[6] Between June and July, Ahmad Isma'il 'Uthman Saleh, Ahmad Ibrahim al-Sayyid al-Naggar, Shawqi Salama Mustafa Atiya and Mohamed Hassan Tita were all renditioned from Albania to Egypt, with the co-operation of the United States; the four men were accused of participating in the assassination of Rifaat el-Mahgoub, as well as a later plot against the Khan el-Khalili market in Cairo.[7] The following month, a communique was issued warning the United States that a "response" was being prepared to "repay" them for their interference.[8][9] However, the 9/11 Commission Report claims that preparations began shortly after bin Laden issued his February 1998 fatwa.[10]

Nissan Atlas F22 001
A Nissan Atlas truck, similar to that used in Dar es-Salaam

According to journalist Lawrence Wright, the Nairobi operation was named after the Holy Kaaba in Mecca; the Dar es Salaam bombing was called Operation al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, but "neither had an obvious connection to the American embassies in Africa. Bin Laden initially said that the sites had been targeted because of the 'invasion' of Somalia; then he described an American plan to partition Sudan, which he said was hatched in the embassy in Nairobi. He also told his followers that the genocide in Rwanda had been planned inside the two American embassies." Wright concludes that bin Laden's actual goal was "to lure the United States into Afghanistan, which had long been called 'The Graveyard of Empires.'"[11]

In May 1998, a villa in Nairobi was purchased by one of the bombers to enable a bomb to be built in the garage. Sheikh Ahmed Salim Swedan purchased a beige Toyota Dyna truck in Nairobi and a 1987 Nissan Atlas refrigeration truck in Dar es Salaam. Six metal bars were used to form a "cage" on the back of the Atlas to accommodate the bomb.[12]

In June 1998, KK Mohamed rented House 213 in the Illala district of Dar es Salaam, about four miles (6 km) from the U.S. embassy. A white Suzuki Samurai was used to haul bomb components hidden in rice sacks, to House 213.[13]

In both Nairobi and Dar es Salaam, Mohammed Odeh supervised construction of two very large, 2,000-pound (900 kg) destructive devices. The Nairobi bomb was made of 400 to 500 cylinders of TNT (about the size of drink cans), ammonium nitrate, aluminium powder and detonating cord. The explosives were packed into twenty specially designed wooden crates that were sealed and then placed in the bed of the trucks. Mushin Musa Matwalli Atwah ran a wire from the bomb to a set of batteries in the back of the truck cab and then to a detonator switch beneath the dashboard.[12] The Dar es Salaam bomb was of slightly different construction: the TNT was attached to fifteen oxygen tanks and gas canisters, and was surrounded with four bags of ammonium nitrate fertilizer and some sand bags to tamp and direct the blast.[14]

The bombings were scheduled for August 7, the eighth anniversary of the arrival of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia during the early stages of the Persian Gulf War, likely a choice by Osama bin Laden.[15]

Attacks and casualties

Kenya bombing 2
Wreckage from the Nairobi bombing

On August 7 between 10:30 a.m. and 10:40 a.m. local time (3:30–3:40 a.m. EDT), suicide bombers in trucks laden with explosives parked outside the embassies in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi, and almost simultaneously detonated.[16] 213 people were killed in the Nairobi blast, while 11 were killed in Dar es Salaam.[17] An estimated 4,000 in Nairobi were wounded, and another 85 in Dar es Salaam. Seismological readings analyzed after the bombs indicated energy of between 3 to 17 short tons (2.7 to 15.4 metric tons) of high explosive material.[18] Although the attacks were directed at U.S. facilities, the vast majority of casualties were local citizens of the two African countries. 12 Americans were killed,[19] including two Central Intelligence Agency employees in the Nairobi embassy, Tom Shah and Molly Huckaby Hardy,[20] and one U.S. Marine, Sergeant Jesse Aliganga, a Marine Security Guard at the Nairobi embassy.[21][22] U.S. Army Sergeant Kenneth R. Hobson II was one of the 12 Americans killed in the attack.

While Azzam drove the Toyota Dyna quickly toward the Nairobi embassy along with Mohamed Rashed Daoud Al-Owhali,[23] local security guard Benson Okuku Bwaku was warned to open the gate immediately – and fired upon when he refused to comply. Al-Owhali threw a stun grenade at embassy guards before exiting the vehicle and running off.[24] Osama bin Laden later offered the explanation that it had been Al-Owhali's intention to leap out and shoot the guards to clear a path for the truck, but that he had left his pistol in the truck and subsequently ran off.[23] As Bwaku radioed to Marine Post One for backup, the truck detonated.[24]

The explosion damaged the embassy building and collapsed the neighboring Ufundi Building where most victims were killed, mainly students and staff of a secretarial college housed here. The heat from the blast was channelled between the buildings towards Haile Selassie Avenue where a packed commuter bus was burned. Windows were shattered in a radius of nearly 12 mile (800 m). A large number of eye injuries occurred because people in buildings nearby who had heard the first explosion of the hand grenade and the shooting went to their office windows to have a look when the main blast occurred and shattered the windows.

Meanwhile, the Atlas truck that attacked the US Embassy at 36 Laibon Road, Dar es Salaam was being driven by Hamden Khalif Allah Awad, known as "Ahmed the German" due to his blond hair, a former camp trainer who had arrived in the country only a few days earlier.[12] The death toll was less than in Nairobi as the U.S. embassy was located outside the city center in the upscale Oysterbay neighborhood, and a water truck prevented the suicide bombers from getting closer to the structure.

Following the attacks, a group calling itself the "Liberation Army for Holy Sites" took credit for the bombings. U.S. investigators believe the term was a cover used by Egyptian Islamic Jihad, who had actually perpetrated the bombing.[25]

Aftermath and international response

US Embassy bombing memorial in Nairobi
Memorial park at the site of the embassy in Nairobi, 2007

In response to the bombings, President Bill Clinton ordered Operation Infinite Reach, a series of cruise missile strikes on targets in Sudan and Afghanistan on August 20, 1998, announcing the planned strike in a prime time address on U.S. television.

The United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1189 condemning the attacks on the embassies.[26]

Both embassies were heavily damaged and the Nairobi embassy had to be rebuilt. It is now located across the road from the United Nations Office at Nairobi for security purposes.

A memorial park was constructed on the former embassy site, dedicated on the third anniversary of the attack.[27] Public protest marred the opening ceremony after it was announced that the park, including its wall inscribed with the names of the dead, would not be free to the public.[27] As of 2018, the park continues to charge an entrance fee.[28]

Within months following the bombings, the United States Department of State Bureau of Diplomatic Security added Kenya to its Antiterrorism Assistance Program (ATA), which was originally created in 1983. While the addition was largely a formality to reaffirm U.S. commitment to fighting terrorism in Kenya, it nonetheless sparked the beginning of an active bilateral antiterrorism campaign between the United States and Kenya. The U.S. government also rapidly and permanently increased the monetary aid to Kenya. Immediate changes included a $42 million grant targeted specifically towards Kenyan victims.[29]

In 2001, lead plaintiff James Owens, and others, filed a civil lawsuit against Sudan, for its role in the attack.[30] They argued that Sudan was at fault for providing sanctuary to the bombers, prior to the attack. They were awarded over $10 billion.[31] Sudan, which had not appeared during the initial lawsuit, appealed the judgment, arguing it did not understand the US civil suit system, and did not understand the consequences of not appearing.[32] The appeals court discounted that argument, but removed $6 billion of punitive damages that relied on violations of laws passed after the attack.


Laika ac US Embassy Bomb Memorial Installation (9788008055)
Memorial in Dar es Salaam

Following the investigation, an indictment was issued. It charges the following 21 people for various alleged roles in the bombings.[33] 18 of the cases have been settled.

Name Disposition
Osama bin Laden Killed in Abbottabad, Pakistan on May 2, 2011
Muhammad Atef Killed in Kabul, Afghanistan on November 14, 2001
Ayman al Zawahiri Fugitive
Saif al Adel Fugitive
Mamdouh Mahmud Salim Serving sentence of life imprisonment in the United States[34]
Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah Fugitive
Muhsin Musa Matwalli Atwah Killed in Naghar Kalai, Pakistan on April 12, 2006
Khalid al Fawwaz Serving sentence of life imprisonment in the United States[35]
Wadih el Hage Serving sentence of life imprisonment in the United States[36]
Anas al Libi Died in 2015 while awaiting trial in the United States
Ibrahim Eidarous Died in 2008 while under house arrest in the United Kingdom
Adel Abdel Bari Serving sentence of 25 years imprisonment in the United States[37]
Fazul Abdullah Mohammed Killed in Mogadishu, Somalia by Somali government troops on June 8, 2011
Ahmed Mohammed Hamed Ali Killed in Pakistan in 2010[38]
Mohammed Sadeek Odeh Serving sentence of life imprisonment in the United States[39]
Mohamed Rashed Daoud al-'Owhali Serving sentence of life imprisonment in the United States[40]
Mustafa Mohamed Fadhil Killed in Afghanistan.[41][42][43]
Khalfan Khamis Mohamed Serving sentence of life imprisonment in the United States[44]
Ahmed Khalfan Ghailani Serving sentence of life imprisonment in the United States[45]
Fahid Mohammed Ally Msalam Killed in Pakistan on January 1, 2009
Sheikh Ahmed Salim Swedan Killed in Pakistan on January 1, 2009

See also


  1. ^ http://hir.harvard.edu/religion/lifting-the-veil?page=0,1 Archived September 28, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "Book Review: 'Mercenaries, Extremists, and Islamist Fighters in Karabagh War". Armenian Weekly. Archived from the original on August 5, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
  3. ^ Bennett, Brian (June 12, 2011). "Al Qaeda operative key to 1998 U.S. embassy bombings killed in Somalia". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on June 13, 2011.
  4. ^ "Al-Qaida timeline: Plots and attacks – World news – Hunt for Al-Qaeda | NBC News". MSNBC. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
  5. ^ "Читать онлайн "The Black Banners" автора Soufan Ali H. - RuLit - Страница 83". Archived from the original on January 15, 2014.
  6. ^ Mayer, Jane (2008). The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How The War on Terror Turned into a War on American Ideals. New York: Doubleday. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-385-52639-5.
  7. ^ Advocate, Victoria (August 13, 1998). "Bombings connect to mysterious arrests".
  8. ^ "Summary of the Security Intelligence Report concerning Mahmoud Jaballah" (Pdf). Canadian Security Intelligence Service. February 22, 2008.
  9. ^ Higgins, Andrew (November 20, 2001). "A CIA-Backed Team Used Brutal Means to Crack Terror Cell". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 23, 2017.
  10. ^ 9/11 Commission Report Archived November 23, 2015, at the Wayback Machine p. 69
  11. ^ Wright, Lawrence (2006). Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. New York: Knopf. p. 272. ISBN 0-375-41486-X.
  12. ^ a b c Benjamin, Daniel; Simon, Steven (2002). The Age of Sacred Terror. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-375-50859-7.
  13. ^ Hamm, Mark (2007). Terrorism As Crime: From Oklahoma City to Al-Qaeda and Beyond. NYU Press. p. 65. ISBN 9780814737453. Retrieved June 23, 2016.
  14. ^ Hamm, Mark S. (2007). Terrorism as Crime: From Oklahoma City to Al-Qaeda and Beyond. NYU Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-8147-3696-8. Retrieved September 13, 2011.
  15. ^ Gunaratna, Rohan (2002). Inside Al Qaeda. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-231-12692-1.
  16. ^ "U.S. Embassy Bombings". U.S. Department of State website. Archived from the original on August 5, 2007. Retrieved August 4, 2007.
  17. ^ "Frontline: The trail of evidence - FBI executive summary". PBS.org. Archived from the original on January 21, 2015. Retrieved May 2, 2014.
  18. ^ "Some Practical Applications of Forensic Seismology" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved November 3, 2010.
  19. ^ "Profiles of Americans killed in Kenya embassy bombing". CNN.com. August 13, 1998. Archived from the original on December 16, 2006. Retrieved November 18, 2008.
  20. ^ Associated Press, "Bin Laden raid avenged secret CIA deaths", Japan Times, May 30, 2011, p. 1.
  21. ^ Jesse Nathanael Aliganga Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ "Fil-Am hero guard killed in Nairobi". highbeam.com. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012. Retrieved December 24, 2011.
  23. ^ a b Ressa, Maria (2003). Seeds of Terror. New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-5133-4.
  24. ^ a b Katz, Samuel M. (2002). Relentless Pursuit: The DSS and the manhunt for the al-Qaeda terrorists. New York: Forge/Tom Doherty. ISBN 0-7653-0402-3.
  25. ^ Global Briefings, Issue 27, "Osama bin Laden tied to other Fundamentalists", September 1998.
  26. ^ "Security Council strongly condemns terrorist bomb attacks in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam on August 7". United Nations. August 13, 1998. Archived from the original on September 20, 2014.
  27. ^ a b "Fee for Kenya memorial raises ire". The Arizona Republic. Phoenix, Arizona. Washington Post. 8 August 2001. p. 13. Archived from the original on November 5, 2018. Retrieved 22 October 2018 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  28. ^ "American Embassy Memorial Garden". Lonely Planet. Archived from the original on October 23, 2018. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  29. ^ "United States Aid to Kenya: Regional Security and Counterterrorism". Archived from the original on March 9, 2011. Retrieved June 1, 2011.
  30. ^ Nick Divito (March 25, 2016). "Sudan On the Hook for Terrorism Judgments". Courthouse News. Washington DC. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved July 29, 2017. Between March and October 2014, the D.C. District Court entered judgments of more than $10 billion on behalf of relatives and victims who had filed seven complaints after the attacks.
  31. ^ Adam Klasfeld (July 28, 2017). "D.C. Circuit Lightens Sudan's Load on Terrorism Judgments". Courthouse News. Washington DC. Archived from the original on July 29, 2017. Retrieved July 29, 2017. On appeal, Sudan advanced several arguments for its district court no-show. The county had to grapple with natural disasters and civil wars, and argued it did not understand the U.S. legal process enough to appreciate the consequences of its absence.
  32. ^ Patrick Boyle (March 24, 2016). "D.C. Judge Upholds $10B Against Sudan In Embassy Bombings". Law 360. Washington DC. Archived from the original on July 31, 2017. Retrieved July 29, 2017. A D.C. federal judge Wednesday upheld $10 billion in damages to victims of the 1998 U.S. embassy terrorist bombings who had accused Sudan of supporting the attacks, declaring the country had no grounds to overturn the award after failing to respond to the lawsuits for four years.
  33. ^ "United States v. Osama bin Laden, et al" (PDF). (indictment). Provided by the Monterey Institute of International Studies. Archived from the original (PDf) on September 6, 2012.
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  38. ^ Miller, Greg (February 21, 2010). "Increased U.S. drone strikes in Pakistan killing few high-value militants". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 28, 2012. Retrieved December 8, 2012.
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  41. ^ http://www.makingsenseofjihad.com/2009/10/a-study-of-martyrs-in-a-time-of-alienation-xvii.html
  42. ^ "INTELWIRE.com -- Open-source intelligence, primary source documents, analysis by J.M. Berger, co-author of ISIS: The State of Terror, author of Jihad Joe: Americans Who Got to War in the Name of Islam" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on July 16, 2014.
  43. ^ "JTF-GTMO Detainee Assessment for Majid Abdu Ahmed" (PDF).
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External links

Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah

Abdullah Ahmed Abdullah (Arabic: عبدالله أحمد عبدالله‎; born June 6, 1963), also known as Abu Mohammed al-Masri, is an Egyptian high-ranking member of al-Qaeda. He is wanted by the United States for his alleged role in the 1998 American embassy bombings in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Nairobi, Kenya. He has been described as al-Qaeda’s most experienced operational planner.

Abu Taha al-Sudan

Abu Taha Al-Sudan (also Abu Talha al-Sudani or Tariq Abdullah) was a suspected member of Al Qaeda terrorist organization, reported to be an explosives expert.

He is believed to have traveled to Southern Lebanon along with Saif al-Adel, Sayful Islam al-Masri, Abu Ja`far al-Masri and Abu Salim al-Masri, where he trained alongside Hezbollah.A Sudanese national married to a Somali woman, al-Sudan had lived in Somalia since 1993. He was more recently identified as a close associate of Gouled Hassan Dourad, leader of a Mogadishu-based network that worked in support of Al Qaeda. The Office of the Director of National Intelligence revealed that Al-Sudani had been involved with a plot to target the U.S. military base in Djibouti (see CJTF-HOA).

Al-Sudan was also believed to be the financier of the 1998 United States embassy bombings.In December 2006, al-Sudan was reported to have led a group of ICU fighters in Idale as part of the War in Somalia. A month later he was the target of a U.S. Air Force AC-130 airstrike that killed an undetermined number (up to 70) of civilian nomadic tribesmen, but not al-Sudan.Time, citing a Pentagon official, reported in late November 2007 that al-Sudani had been killed. On September 2, 2008, in a video taunting the United States, Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan confirmed the death of Abu Talha al Sudani.

Ada Estate

Ada Estate is a primarily residential suburb of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). In this suburb there are several embassies, including the French embassy; the American embassy was also in Ada Estate before being transferred after the 1998 United States embassy bombings. The suburb also includes some of the most advanced hospitals in Dar es Salaam, including the Tanzania Heart Institute (the only Tanzanian hospital specialized in cardiology).

Ahmad Isma'il 'Uthman Saleh

Ahmad Isma'il 'Uthman Saleh (أحمد إسماعيل عثمان) was a member of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad who was living in Albania. He was one of 14 people subjected to extraordinary rendition by the CIA prior to the 2001 declaration of a War on Terror. He was charged in the Returnees from Albania trial.He was ostensibly linked to the 1995 plot to blow up the Khan el-Khalili market, as well as the assassination of Speaker of Parliament Rifaat el-Mahgoub in October 1990.He had previously been sentenced to death in absentia in October 1997 by an Egyptian court. Unlike the four colleagues with whom he was arrested, 'Uthman was not returned to Egypt until mid-August; being subjected to electroshock torture and beatings.Together with the other three Returnees brought from Tirana, his capture and torture were listed as the main reasons for the 1998 United States embassy bombings.Following the 1999 Returnees from Albania trial, he was executed in February 2000.

Ahmed Mohammed Hamed Ali

Ahmed Mohammed Hamed Ali (Arabic: أحمد محمّد حامد علي‎) (c. 1965 - 2010) was an Egyptian national wanted by the United States government in connection with the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and Nairobi.

Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations

The Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations (OBO) is an agency of the United States Department of State based in Rosslyn, Virginia charged with constructing, purchasing, and maintaining buildings and real estate in other countries. It is responsible for building and maintaining U.S. diplomatic mission facilities, including embassies and consulate buildings.

The organization was founded as the Office of Foreign Building Operations (FBO). In the 1950s, it achieved a high profile by hiring well-known modernist architects like Ralph Rapson, Harrison & Abramovitz, and Gordon Bunshaft. In the wake of the 1983 United States Embassy bombing in Beirut and the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi, its focus has shifted from aesthetics to security.

In 2001 the Bureau was given its current name when it was upgraded to Bureau level within the Department.

As of 2013, the Bureau's director is Lydia Muniz.

FBI Most Wanted Terrorists

The FBI Most Wanted Terrorists was a list created and first released on October 10, 2001, with the authority of United States President Bush, following the September 11 attacks on the United States. Initially, the list contained 22 of the top terrorists chosen by the FBI, all of whom had earlier been indicted for acts of terrorism between 1985 and 1998. None of the 22 had been captured by US or other authorities by that date. Of the 22, only Osama bin Laden was by then already listed on the FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list.

No particular legal consequences flowed from the creation of and inclusion on the list. On January 17, 2002, the FBI released a third major FBI wanted list, which has now become known as the FBI Seeking Information – War on Terrorism list, to enlist the public's help in reporting information which may prevent future terrorist attacks. The information sought to be reported is not necessarily relating to any person on any of the FBI wanted lists.

Fahid Mohammed Ally Msalam

Fahid Mohammed Ally Msalam (Arabic: فهد محمد علي مسالم‎, also known as Usama al-Kini) (February 19, 1976 – January 1, 2009) was a Kenyan terrorist conspirator, wanted in the United States for his part in the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. He was born in Mombasa.

According to the indictment, Msalam

with Khalfan Khamis Mohamed, purchased the SUV used by the Tanzania cell

with Sheikh Ahmed Salim Swedan, purchased the Kenya bomb truck

helped to load the Tanzania bomb truck

fled Kenya to Karachi on the same airliner as Mohamed Odeh, on or about the day before the bombings.Msalam was charged with 213 counts of murder, other counts which apply specifically to attacks against American federal personnel and facilities, counts of using weapons of mass destruction, and various conspiracy counts.

Msalam once worked as a clothing vendor. He also played midfield for a local soccer team called the Black Panthers.Msalam was on the FBI's list of Most Wanted Terrorists since its inception on October 10, 2001. The United States Department of State, through the Rewards for Justice Program, offered up to US$5,000,000 for information on the location of Fahid Mohammed Ally Msalam. He served as al-Qaeda's chief of operations for Pakistan.

On January 1, 2009, Msalam was killed in Pakistan in an American unmanned drone attack along with his lieutenant, Sheikh Ahmed Salim Swedan.

Fatawā of Osama bin Laden

Osama bin Laden authored two fatāwā in the late 1990s. The first was published in August 1996 and the second in February 1998. At the time, bin Laden was not a wanted man in any country except his native Saudi Arabia, and was not yet known as the leader of the international terrorist organization al-Qaeda. Therefore, these fatāwā received relatively little attention until after the August 1998 United States embassy bombings, for which bin Laden was indicted. The indictment mentions the first fatwā, and claims that Khalid al-Fawwaz, of bin Laden's Advice and Reformation Committee in London, participated in its communication to the press.

Hamden Khalif Allah Awad

Hamden Khalif Allah Awad alias Ahmed the German (actually Egyptian) (August 13, 1970 – August 7, 1998) was one of the perpetrators of the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. He detonated the bomb in Tanzania, killing himself and 11 other people. In the 1998 indictment he is identified only as Ahmed the German. His real identity emerged later, from telephone calls made during this al-Qaeda conspiracy.

Ibrahim Eidarous

Ibrahim Hussein Abdel Hadi Eidarous (ابراهيم حسين عبد الهادي عيداروس)(c. 1957 – 2008) was an Egyptian militant who was alleged to have led the London-based chapter of al-Jihad. He was held in the custody of the United Kingdom from 1999, fighting extradition to the United States, where he was wanted in connection with the 1998 United States embassy bombings. He died of leukaemia in 2008.

Khalid Bin Whalid training camp

The Khalid Bin Whalid training camp was an Afghan training camp providing military training in the 1990s.

Muslim convert Aukai Collins described his stay in the camp in 1993. Collins said he befriended Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh there. Sheikh was later convicted of a role in the kidnapping and murder of Daniel Pearl. Collins, on the other hand, attended the camp to prepare himself for aiding militant Chechen nationalists. He claimed that some of the camp's graduates, like him, attacked only legitimate military targets.

In 1998, the camp was the target of a retaliatory attack by the United States, in response to the 1998 United States embassy bombings.

Khalid al-Fawwaz

Khalid Abdulrahman al-Fawwaz (Arabic: خالد الفواز‎; kunya: Abu Omar al-Sebai (أبو عمر)‎ is a Saudi who was under indictment in the United States from 1998, accused of helping to prepare the 1998 United States embassy bombings. He was extradited to the United States and arraigned in October 2012.Al-Fawwaz appeared on the UN 1267 Committee's list of individuals belonging to or associated with al-Qaeda, and was embargoed as a Specially Designated Global Terrorist by the US Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control.According to the Treasury statement, al-Fawwaz was born on August 25, 1962. He moved to London in 1994. He was appointed by Osama bin Laden as the first head of the media organ called the Advice and Reform Committee in London, where he met Adel Abdel Bari and Abu Qatada, amongst others. In 1995, while bin Laden was in Sudan, al-Fawwaz was said to be attempting to pave the way for bin Laden to move to Britain.He was arrested under the Prevention of Terrorism Act 1989, as part of Operation Challenge, which resulted in the arrest of seven UK-resident men, who were accused of links to al-Jihad. One of the men was charged with possession of a weapon. Six months after the arrests, British Muslims staged a demonstration in front of 10 Downing Street to protest against the continued incarceration of the seven men.L'Houssaine Kherchtou, testifying for the United States, claimed that al-Fawwaz had been the leader of an "Abu Bakr Siddique camp", which he contradictingly placed in Hayatabad, Pakistan, or Khost, Afghanistan.His trial, along with his co-defendant Abu Anas al Libi, also known as "Nazih al Raghie" or "Anas al Sebai", was scheduled to begin on 3 November 2014, before Judge Lewis A. Kaplan. At the same time, his co-conspirator, Abdel Bari, pleaded guilty.He was sentenced to life imprisonment on 15 May 2015.

Mamdouh Mahmud Salim

Mamdouh Mahmud Salim (Arabic: ممدوح محمود سالم‎, Mamdūḥ Maḥmūd Sālim; b. 1958 in Sudan) is a Sudanese co-founder of the Islamist terrorist network al-Qaeda. He was arrested on 16 September 1998 near Munich. On 20 December 1998 he was extradited to the United States, where he was charged with participating in the 1998 United States embassy bombings.

Since then he has been convicted of attempted murder, after stabbing one prison guard during an attempted escape. He was sentenced to 32 years for the crimes.

In 2008, however, a Federal Appeals judge ruled that the judge in the case was in error when he ruled that the stabbing was not part of a terrorism plot. He ordered resentencing.He was re-sentenced to life without parole in August 2010. He is now an inmate of the ADX Florence facility in Florence, Colorado.

Mohamed Hassan Tita

Mohamed Hassan Tita was a member of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad who was living in Albania. He was one of 14 people subjected to extraordinary rendition by the CIA prior to the 2001 declaration of a War on Terror.He was ostensibly linked to the 1995 plot to blow up the Khan el-Khalili market, as well as the assassination of Speaker of Parliament Rifaat el-Mahgoub in October 1990.Together with the other three Returnees brought from Tirana, his capture and torture were listed as the main reasons for the 1998 United States embassy bombings.

Mohammed Odeh

Mohammed Saddiq Odeh (born 1 March 1965) is a Palestinian terrorist and one of the four former al-Qaeda members sentenced to life imprisonment in 2001 for their parts in the 1998 United States embassy bombings. He is in a supermax prison known as ADX Florence.

In March 1993, Saif al-Adel ordered Mohammed Odeh to Somalia, telling him that his mission was to train tribes in fighting. He has been accused of training forces loyal to warlord Mohamed Farrah Aidid in 1993, while other sources have suggested he was training Al-Itihaad al-Islamiya members. The following year he was sent to Mombassa, Kenya with money from Mohammed Atef to purchase himself a 7-tonne trawler and start a fishing business.An engineer with joint Kenyan and Jordanian citizenship, Odeh was arrested after departing his flight from Nairobi to Karachi with a forged Yemeni passport with a photograph that clearly did not match his face. He was interrogated by ISI agents when he listed his flight destination as "Afghanistan", and confessed to his role in the bombings, claiming that seven men had plotted them together. A week later he was returned to Nairobi, where he was taken into custody of the FBI. The FBI interrogated him from 15 August to 27 August 1998, wherein FBI’s Special Agent Daniel Coleman confirmed that he had accepted responsibility for the bombing.

Ras Kamboni

Ras Kamboni (Somali: Raas kambooni) is a town in the Badhaadhe district of Lower Juba region, Somalia, which lies on a peninsula near the border with Kenya. The town is located 274 kilometers south of Kismayo. American officials have said that it has served as a training camp for extremists with connections to Al-Qaeda; al-Sharq al-Awsat reported in May 1999 that al-Qaeda was installing sophisticated communications equipment in the camp.US security concerns in the Horn of Africa, particularly at Ras Kamboni, heightened after the attacks on 9/11. On December 16, 2001, Paul Wolfowitz said the US was meeting with various Somali and Ethiopian contacts to "observe, survey possible escape routes, possible sanctuaries" for Al Qaeda operatives. On March 2, 2002 a briefing was held in the Pentagon discussing the possible use of Ras Kamboni by Islamic terrorist groups, including al-Ittihaad al-Islamiya (AIAI) and Al Qaeda. In December 2002, the US established the Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) to monitor developments in the region and to train local militaries on counterterrorism.American officials believe that several terrorist attacks were orchestrated from Ras Kamboni, including the 1998 United States embassy bombings and the 2002 Mombasa hotel bombing.

Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan

Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan (Arabic: صالح علي صالح نبهان‎) (April 4, 1979, Mombasa, Kenya – September 14, 2009, near Baraawe, Somalia) was the leader of al-Qaeda in Somalia. He was listed on the FBI's third major "wanted" list, the FBI Seeking Information - War on Terrorism list, for his association with multiple attacks in Kenya in 2002, as well as his possible involvement in the 1998 United States embassy bombings, in which over 250 people lost their lives.In September 2009, he was killed in a raid undertaken by United States Navy SEALs.

Technical Support Working Group

The Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) is a United States Interagency program for research and development into combating terrorism measures. Established in 1986, TSWG falls under the oversight of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations/Low-Intensity Conflict (ASD SO/LIC) and derives some authorities for international work from the Coordinator for Counterterrorism at the Department of State.

TSWG is organized into several subgroups and has representatives from more than 50 federal organizations. It addresses R&D requirement in various application and technology areas including:

Advanced Analytic Capabilities

Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives

Improvised Device Defeat / Explosives Countermeasures

Investigative and Forensic Science

Irregular Warfare and Evolving Threats

Personnel Protection

Physical Security

Surveillance, Collections, and Operations Support

Tactical Operations Support

Training Technology DevelopmentTSWG is a key sponsor of the Global Security Challenge at London Business School

TSWG was credited with helping save lives in the September 11 attacks on The Pentagon. Following the 1998 United States embassy bombings, TSWG conducted research into improved blast-resistant structures and windows, some of which was incorporated into the recently renovated part of the Pentagon which was hit by the attack.

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