The 1994 San Marino Grand Prix (formally the 14° Gran Premio di San Marino) was a Formula One motor race held on 1 May 1994 at the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari, located in Imola, Italy. The San Marino Grand Prix was the third race of the 1994 Formula One season.
Fatalities and injuries at this Grand Prix proved to be a major turning point in both the 1994 season, and in the development of Formula One itself, particularly with regard to safety. The race weekend was marked by the deaths of Austrian driver Roland Ratzenberger and of three-time world champion Ayrton Senna in separate accidents. Other incidents saw driver Rubens Barrichello injured and several mechanics and spectators injured. They were the first fatalities in the Formula One World Championship since the 1982 Canadian Grand Prix, and the first with two driver deaths since the 1960 Belgian Grand Prix.
Michael Schumacher, driving for Benetton, won the race despite contact with Damon Hill (who dropped to the back of the field and battled back to finish sixth). Nicola Larini, driving for Ferrari, scored the first points of his career when he achieved a podium finish in second position. Mika Häkkinen finished third in a McLaren.
The race led to an increased emphasis on safety in the sport as well as the reforming of the Grand Prix Drivers' Association after a 12-year hiatus, and the changing of many track layouts and car designs. Since the race, numerous regulation changes have been made to slow Formula One cars down and new circuits incorporate large run-off areas to slow cars before they collide with a wall. Senna was given a state funeral in his home town of São Paulo, Brazil, where around 500,000 people lined the streets to watch the coffin pass. Italian prosecutors charged six people with manslaughter in connection with Senna's death, all of whom were later acquitted. The case took more than 11 years to conclude due to an appeal and a retrial following the original verdict of not guilty.
As a result of increased standards in safety following this race, there was a 20-year gap between the deaths of Ratzenberger and Senna, and the crash of Jules Bianchi at the 2014 Japanese Grand Prix which led to his death the following year.
|1994 San Marino Grand Prix|
|Race 3 of 16 in the 1994 Formula One World Championship|
|Date||1 May 1994|
|Official name||14° Gran Premio di San Marino|
Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari|
Imola, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
|Course||Permanent racing facility|
|Course length||5.040 km (3.144 mi)|
|Distance||58 laps, 292.320 km (182.351 mi)|
|Scheduled distance||61 laps, 307.440 km (191.784 mi)|
|Time||1:24.335 on lap 10|
Heading into the third round of the season, Benetton driver Michael Schumacher was leading the World Drivers' Championship with 20 points; Jordan driver Rubens Barrichello was second on seven points, 13 points behind Schumacher. Behind Schumacher and Barrichello was Damon Hill in third place on six points, tied on points with Ferrari driver Gerhard Berger. Berger's teammate Jean Alesi was fifth on four points. In the World Constructors' Championship, Benetton were leading on 20 points and Ferrari were second on ten points, with Jordan third on seven points.
There were two driver changes heading into the race. JJ Lehto replaced Jos Verstappen at Benetton, the latter having replaced Lehto for the opening two races of the season due to an injury sustained by Lehto in pre-season testing. Aguri Suzuki was replaced with Andrea de Cesaris at Jordan.
On Friday, 29 April, during the first qualifying session to determine the starting order for the race, Rubens Barrichello, a driver for Jordan, hit a kerb at the Variante Bassa corner at 140 mph (225 km/h), launching him into the air. He hit the top of the tyre barrier, and was knocked unconscious. His car rolled several times after landing before coming to rest upside down. Medical teams treated him at the crash site, and he was taken to the circuit's medical centre before being transferred to Maggiore Hospital in Bologna by helicopter for routine tests and observation to be carried out. He returned to the race meeting the next day, although his broken nose and a plaster cast on his arm forced him to sit out the rest of the race weekend. Ten years after the incident, Damon Hill, who drove for the Williams-Renault team at the time, described the feeling after the crash: "We all brushed ourselves off and carried on qualifying, reassured that our cars were tough as tanks and we could be shaken but not hurt."
Despite a spin, Senna was the fastest driver at the end of Friday's session with a time of 1:21.548, almost five-tenths of a second faster than Schumacher and Berger. Senna's teammate Damon Hill was seventh, having spun himself, over 1.6 seconds behind Senna.
Twenty minutes into the final qualifying session, Austrian driver Roland Ratzenberger failed to negotiate the Villeneuve curva in his Simtek; he subsequently hit the opposing concrete barrier wall almost head-on and was critically injured. Although the survival cell remained largely intact, the force of the impact inflicted a basal skull fracture. Ratzenberger, in his first season as a Formula One driver, had run over a kerb at the Acque Minerali chicane on his previous lap, the impact of which is believed to have damaged his front wing. Rather than return to the pitlane, he continued on another fast lap. Travelling at 190 mph (306 km/h) his car suffered a front wing failure leaving him unable to control it.
The session was stopped while doctors attended to Ratzenberger. After initially being taken by ambulance to the on-circuit medical centre, he was airlifted to Maggiore Hospital shortly after, the second driver to be admitted there during the weekend. The session was restarted approximately 25 minutes later, but several teams—including Williams and Benetton—took no further part. Later in hospital, it was announced that Ratzenberger had died as a result of his multiple injuries. His death marked the first Formula One race weekend fatality since the 1982 Canadian Grand Prix when Riccardo Paletti was killed. It had been eight years since Elio de Angelis died testing a Brabham car at the Circuit Paul Ricard. Professor Sid Watkins, then head of the Formula One on-track medical team, recalled in his memoirs Ayrton Senna's reaction to the news, stating that "Ayrton broke down and cried on my shoulder." Watkins tried to persuade Senna not to race the following day, asking "What else do you need to do? You have been world champion three times, you are obviously the quickest driver. Give it up and let's go fishing." Senna replied, "Sid, there are certain things over which we have no control. I cannot quit, I have to go on."
Senna had qualified on pole position, having not set a lap time following Ratzenberger's death. He was joined on the front row by Schumacher and Berger qualified in 3rd. Damon Hill was able to improve on his disastrous Friday session before the red flag, improving his time by one second and qualifying fourth as a result. A time posted by Ratzenberger before his fatal crash would have been sufficient for entry into the race starting from the 26th and final position on the grid; Paul Belmondo and Barrichello did not qualify.
The race took place in the afternoon from 14:00 CEST (UTC+2), in dry and sunny weather. At the start of the race, J.J. Lehto stalled his Benetton on the grid. Pedro Lamy, starting from further back on the grid, had his view of the stationary Benetton blocked by other cars and hit the back of Lehto's car, causing bodywork and tyres to fly into the air. Parts of the car went over the safety fencing designed to protect spectators at the startline causing minor injuries to nine people. Further back, Martin Brundle had a good start, overtaking two cars as well as Lehto, propelling him from thirteenth to tenth place.
The incident between Lehto and Lamy caused the safety car to be deployed, with all the remaining competitors holding position behind it while travelling at a reduced speed. During this period, as a result of travelling at slower speeds, tyre temperatures dropped. At the drivers' briefing before the race, Senna, along with Gerhard Berger, had expressed concern that the safety car (itself only reintroduced in Formula One in 1993 and only the third time used since then, the other occurrences being the 1993 Brazilian Grand Prix and the 1993 British Grand Prix) did not go fast enough to keep tyre temperatures high. Senna was also worried by a procedure introduced at the 1994 Pacific Grand Prix, whereby the safety car would lead the grid on the formation lap, rather than letting the race leader choose the pace of the formation lap. The procedure was removed for this race. The safety car chosen for the event, an Opel Vectra, traveled very slowly on the track, even when the reduced speeds of a safety car period were factored in, and Senna pulled alongside it several times, urging the driver to increase his speed. It was later learned the car's brakes had been overwhelmed and started fading on the first lap, and thus the driver had to reduce his speed to avoid the possibility of the safety car itself causing an accident.
Once the track was reported clear of debris, the safety car was withdrawn and the race restarted on lap five. Jonathan Palmer, commentating alongside Murray Walker for the BBC, remarked how quick Schumacher was, as his time in the warm-up session on Sunday morning gave rise to speculation that he was going to make one pit stop and, therefore, race with a heavier car than Senna, who was planning to make two, as was conventional. Martin Brundle had told BBC presenter Steve Rider that McLaren were going to make two stops. On the second lap after the restart, with Ayrton Senna leading Michael Schumacher, Senna's car left the road at the Tamburello corner, and after slowing from 190 mph (306 km/h) to 131 mph (211 km/h), hit the concrete wall, with debris flying into the path of the other drivers.
At 14:17 local time, a red flag was shown to indicate the race was stopped and FIA race doctor Sid Watkins arrived at the scene to treat Senna. When a race is stopped under a red flag, cars must slow down and make their way back to the pit lane or starting grid unless notified of a restart. This protects race marshals and medical staff at the crash scene, and allows easier access for medical cars to the incident. Approximately 10 minutes after Senna's crash, the Larrousse team mistakenly allowed one of their drivers, Érik Comas, to leave the pits despite the circuit being closed under red flags. Marshals frantically waved him down as he approached the scene of the accident travelling at close to full speed. Eurosport commentator John Watson described the incident as "the most ridiculous thing I have ever seen at any time in my life". Comas avoided hitting any of the people or cars that were on the circuit but after going over towards Senna's accident scene, he was so distressed at what he saw that he withdrew from the race.
The pictures shown on the world feed (supplied by host broadcaster RAI) of Senna being treated were considered by the BBC (the corporation responsible for broadcasting the San Marino Grand Prix to viewers in the United Kingdom) to be too upsetting for general viewing at the time (around 13:20 GMT), and the BBC abandoned RAI's world feed to focus on their own camera in the pit lane. BBC commentator Murray Walker has frequently talked about how upsetting it was to have to talk to viewers whilst avoiding mentioning the images shown on RAI. Referring to the number of times the incident was replayed on the world feed, Ferrari team principal Jean Todt stated that "even if you didn't want to watch it, you could barely fail to". Senna was lifted from the wrecked Williams, and after approximately fifteen minutes of on-site medical attention, was airlifted directly to Maggiore Hospital, becoming the third and final driver to be admitted there during the weekend. Medical teams continued to treat him during the flight. Thirty-seven minutes after the crash, at 2:55 pm local time, the race was restarted.
The race was restarted from the beginning of lap 6. The first five laps would be added to the second part of the race and the overall result would be decided on aggregate. The race ran to a total of 58 laps, five from the first section and 53 from the second section.
On the second formation lap, Heinz-Harald Frentzen stalled his Sauber whilst attempting to leave the grid and was forced to start from the pitlane. The other cars started from the grid in the order they were at the point the race was stopped. Michael Schumacher had a poor start and Gerhard Berger took the lead on track (but Schumacher still led the race overall due to the amount of time he was ahead of Berger before the race was stopped). Hill, from third, made contact attempting to overtake Schumacher at the Tosa corner, dropping Hill to the back of the field and was forced to make a pitstop in order to fit a new nose cone. Hill battled back to finish in sixth position.
Schumacher took the lead on track on lap 12 when Berger ran wide, before relinquishing the race lead overall to Berger when he made his first pitstop, confirming that his pace both before and after the red flag was down to him running a three-stop strategy, therefore racing with a lighter car. Berger pitted at the end of lap 15 for his first of two scheduled stops, before retiring a lap later with handling problems. Häkkinen led his first ever laps of a Formula One World Championship race, before pitting at the end of lap 18. Following the first series of pit stops, Schumacher resumed the race lead.
Schumacher's extra pace as a result of his lighter fuel loads meant he was able to pull out enough of a gap to Häkkinen which enabled him to make an extra pit stop. Häkkinen's pace was very slow, allowing Nicola Larini to leapfrog him when the two-stoppers made their final pit stops.
On lap 48, Michele Alboreto came in for a pit stop, but as he left, the rear-right wheel came loose from the Minardi as it left the pit lane, striking two Ferrari and two Lotus mechanics, who were left needing hospital treatment.
Meanwhile towards the end of the race Christian Fittipaldi would eventually retired his Footwork with brake problems on lap 55 but would be classified 13th whilst battling for 5th with Ukyo Katayama's Tyrrell & Damon Hill's Williams.
Towards the end of the race, Häkkinen's pace was so slow that Karl Wendlinger was catching him in the Sauber, aiming to give Sauber their first podium finish. However, Häkkinen was able to resist Wendlinger's challenge and finish in third place, with Wendlinger fourth. Ukyo Katayama finished fifth for Tyrrell and Hill was able to battle back to finish sixth, the last of the points-scorers.
Michael Schumacher won the race ahead of Larini and Häkkinen, giving him a maximum 30 points after 3 rounds of the 1994 Formula One season. It was the only podium finish of Larini's career, and the first of just two occasions when he scored world championship points. Karl Wendlinger rode back to the pits on Häkkinen's McLaren after Wendlinger's car broke down on the slowing-down lap. At the podium ceremony, out of respect for Roland Ratzenberger, who had died the day before, no champagne was sprayed.
In the press conference following the race, Schumacher said that he "couldn't feel satisfied, couldn't feel happy" with his win following the events that had occurred during the race weekend. Two hours and 20 minutes after Schumacher crossed the finish line, at 6:40 pm local time, Dr. Maria Teresa Fiandri announced that Ayrton Senna had died. The official time of death was given, however, as 2:17 pm local time, meaning that Senna had been killed instantly. The autopsy recorded the cause of death as head injuries likely caused by an impact from a wheel and suspension. BBC Television commentator Murray Walker described it as "the blackest day for Grand Prix racing that I can remember".
On 3 May, the FIA called a meeting at the request of the Italian Automobile Club to review the events of the Weekend. Later on, the governing body announced new safety measures for the next round in Monaco which included the entry and exit of the pitlane to be controlled by a curve to force cars to run at a reduced speed, no team mechanic would be allowed onto the pit lane surface except for pit stops and a draw would be arranged to determine the order in which cars make pit stops and be limited to emergencies with cars not taking on new tyres or allowed to refuel.
Senna was given a state funeral in São Paulo, Brazil on 5 May 1994. Approximately 500,000 people lined the streets to watch the coffin pass. Senna's rival Alain Prost was among the pallbearers. The majority of the Formula One community attended Senna's funeral; however the president of the sport's governing body, the FIA, Max Mosley attended the funeral of Ratzenberger instead which took place on 7 May 1994 in Salzburg, Austria. Mosley said in a press conference ten years later, "I went to his funeral because everyone went to Senna's. I thought it was important that somebody went to his."
The 1994 Imola layout, which had been in place since 1981, was never again used for a Formula One race. The circuit was heavily modified following the race, including a change at Tamburello—also the scene of major accidents for Gerhard Berger (1989) and Nelson Piquet (1987)—from a high speed corner to a much slower chicane. The FIA also changed the regulations governing Formula One car design, to the extent that the 1995 regulations required all teams to create completely new designs, as their 1994 cars could not be adapted to them. The concern raised at the drivers briefing the morning of the race, by Senna and Berger, would lead to the Grand Prix Drivers' Association reforming at the following race, the 1994 Monaco Grand Prix. The GPDA, which was founded in 1961, had previously disbanded in 1982. The primary purpose of it reforming was to allow drivers to discuss safety issues with a view to improve standards following the incidents at Imola. The front two grid slots at the Monaco Grand Prix that year, which were painted with Brazilian and Austrian flags, were left clear in memory of the two drivers who had lost their lives, while both Williams and Simtek entered only one car each. Additionally, a minute of silence was observed before the race.
In October 1996 FIA set about researching a driver restraint system for head-on impacts, in conjunction with McLaren and Mercedes-Benz. Mercedes contacted the makers of the HANS (Head and Neck Support) device, with a view to adapting it for Formula One. The HANS device was first released in 1991 and was designed to restrain the head and neck in the event of an accident to avoid basal skull fracture, the injury which killed Ratzenberger. Initial tests proved successful, and at the 2000 San Marino Grand Prix the final report was released which concluded that the HANS should be recommended for use. Its use was made compulsory from the start of the 2003 season.
Senna was the last driver for twenty years to die in a Formula One accident, until the death of Jules Bianchi in 2015 from injuries sustained at the 2014 Japanese Grand Prix. However, three trackside marshals were killed during those years as a direct result of such crashes: Paolo Gislimberti at the 2000 Italian Grand Prix, Graham Beveridge at the 2001 Australian Grand Prix and Mark Robinson at the 2013 Canadian Grand Prix.
Italian prosecutors brought legal proceedings against six people in connection with Senna's death. They were Frank Williams, Patrick Head and Adrian Newey of Williams; Fedrico Bendinelli representing the owners of the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari; Giorgio Poggi as the circuit director and Roland Bruynseraede who was race director and sanctioned the circuit. The trial verdict was given on 16 December 1997, clearing all six defendants of manslaughter charges. The cause of Senna's accident was established by the court as the steering column breaking. The column had been cut and welded back together at Senna's request in order for him to be more comfortable in the car.
Following the court's decision, an appeal was lodged by the state prosecutor against Patrick Head and Adrian Newey. On 22 November 1999, the appeal absolved Head and Newey of all charges, stating that no new evidence had come to light (there was missing data from the black box recorder on Senna's car due to damage, and 1.6 seconds of video from the onboard camera of Senna's car was unavailable because the broadcaster switched to another car's camera just before the accident), and so under Article 530 of the Italian Penal Code, the accusation had to be declared as "non-existent or the fact doesn't subsist". This appeal result was annulled in January 2003, as the Court of Cassation believed that Article 530 was misinterpreted, and a retrial was ordered. On 27 May 2005, Newey was acquitted of all charges while Head's case was "timed out" under a statute of limitations. The Italian Court of Appeal, on 13 April 2007, stated the following in the verdict numbered 15050: "It has been determined that the accident was caused by a steering column failure. This failure was caused by badly designed and badly executed modifications. The responsibility of this falls on Patrick Head, culpable of omitted control". Even being found responsible for Senna's accident, Patrick Head was not arrested, as the verdict was delivered past the Italian statute of limitation for manslaughter.
Liverpool Data Research Associates (LDRA) were called in to investigate allegations of cheating using banned driving aids, such as traction control and launch control, both prohibited at the start of the year. The top three cars of Michael Schumacher, Nicola Larini and Mika Häkkinen were investigated and their teams were asked to surrender their systems' source code to the company. Larini's team, Ferrari, complied in light of allegations that they were cheating, but Schumacher and Häkkinen's teams, Benetton and McLaren refused, claiming copyright reasons. After being fined $100,000 by the FIA, both teams complied eight days after the race. LDRA discovered that McLaren were running a programme that permitted automatic gearshifts but the car was declared legal.
Benetton sent an alternative suggestion to the company on 10 May 1994, accepted by LDRA five days later. Tests on the car were to be carried out on 28 June 1994, but were cancelled. The tests eventually took place on 6 July 1994. LDRA found the tests unsatisfactory. Benetton therefore complied with the original request, the source code, on 18 July 1994. Analysis of the software found that it included launch control, a banned aid. Benetton stated that "it can only be switched on by recompilation of the code." However LDRA found this to be untrue; launch control could be switched on by connecting a computer to the gearbox control unit. Benetton conceded that this was possible but this "came as a surprise to them". To switch the system on, the user is presented with a menu with 10 visible options. "Launch Control" was not visibly listed as an option, however, should the user scroll down to option 13, launch control could be enabled.
|Pos||No||Driver||Team||Q1 Time||Q2 Time||Gap|
|1||2||Ayrton Senna||Williams-Renault||1:21.548||no time||—|
|7||30||Heinz-Harald Frentzen||Sauber-Mercedes||1:23.119||no time||+1.571|
|21||15||Andrea de Cesaris||Jordan-Hart||1:25.234||1:25.872||+3.686|
|28||14||Rubens Barrichello||Jordan-Hart||14:57.323||no time||+13:35.775|
|2||27||Nicola Larini||Ferrari||58||+54.942 secs||6||6|
|3||7||Mika Häkkinen||McLaren-Peugeot||58||+70.679 secs||8||4|
|4||29||Karl Wendlinger||Sauber-Mercedes||58||+73.658 secs||10||3|
|5||3||Ukyo Katayama||Tyrrell-Yamaha||57||+1 lap||9||2|
|6||0||Damon Hill||Williams-Renault||57||+1 lap||4||1|
|7||30||Heinz-Harald Frentzen||Sauber-Mercedes||57||+1 lap||7|
|8||8||Martin Brundle||McLaren-Peugeot||57||+1 lap||13|
|9||4||Mark Blundell||Tyrrell-Yamaha||56||+2 laps||12|
|10||12||Johnny Herbert||Lotus-Mugen-Honda||56||+2 laps||20|
|11||26||Olivier Panis||Ligier-Renault||56||+2 laps||19|
|12||25||Éric Bernard||Ligier-Renault||55||+3 laps||17|
|Ret||15||Andrea de Cesaris||Jordan-Hart||49||Spun off||21|
|Ret||23||Pierluigi Martini||Minardi-Ford||37||Spun off||14|
|Ret||31||David Brabham||Simtek-Ford||27||Spun off||24|
|Ret||2||Ayrton Senna||Williams-Renault||5||Fatal accident||1|
|DNS||32||Roland Ratzenberger||Simtek-Ford||Fatal accident during qualifying|
1994 Pacific Grand Prix
|FIA Formula One World Championship
1994 Monaco Grand Prix
1993 San Marino Grand Prix
|San Marino Grand Prix||Next race:|
1995 San Marino Grand Prix
The 1960 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Spa-Francorchamps on 19 June 1960. It was race 5 of 10 in the 1960 World Championship of Drivers and race 4 of 9 in the 1960 International Cup for Formula One Manufacturers. Stirling Moss and Mike Taylor were seriously injured in crashes during practice, and Chris Bristow and Alan Stacey were killed in accidents during the race. With the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix, it is one of two occasions in which two driver fatalities have occurred at a Formula One race meeting.1982 Canadian Grand Prix
The 1982 Canadian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Circuit Gilles Villeneuve on 13 June 1982. It was the eighth race of the 1982 Formula One World Championship. This was the first Canadian Grand Prix to be held in June, the organisers having moved the race from the autumn to allow for warmer weather; it has been held in June ever since.
The 70-lap race was won by Nelson Piquet, driving a Brabham-BMW. It was the first Formula One victory for a BMW-engined car, but the only victory of the season for defending Drivers' Champion Piquet. Team-mate Riccardo Patrese finished second in an older Brabham-Ford, with John Watson third in a McLaren-Ford.
The race was marred by the death of young Italian driver Riccardo Paletti, in only his second F1 race start. At the start of the race Didier Pironi, on pole position, stalled his Ferrari. Most of the other cars were able to avoid Pironi, but Paletti, starting from 23rd in his Osella, ran straight into the back of the Ferrari at around 110 mph (180 km/h). Paletti was knocked unconscious and was trapped in the wreckage of his car, which caught fire as Pironi and rescue workers tried to free him. He was eventually airlifted to hospital, where he died of internal injuries some two hours later. Paletti was the last driver to be killed during a Formula One race weekend until Roland Ratzenberger at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix, and the last to die in a Formula One car until Elio de Angelis lost his life while testing for Brabham at the Circuit Paul Ricard in France in 1986.1993–94 A.C. Milan season
Associazione Calcio Milan won three trophies during a successful 1993–94 season, most memorable for the 4–0 victory against FC Barcelona in the Champions League Final in Athens. That game saw a goal explosion from a Milan side that had been extremely defensive during the entire league season, which in part caused the Italian Football Federation to introduce three points for victories starting in the autumn 1994. Milan won Serie A with a mere 36 goals scored in 34 games, but conceding a mere 15, which meant they had the defensive line, with Franco Baresi and Paolo Maldini as key players, to thank for their third consecutive domestic success. Milan's match against struggling Reggiana at San Siro on 1 May 1994 came on a day when the sporting world was overshadowed with the death of racing driver Ayrton Senna in the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix, but the football world was focused on AC Milan's attempts to seal a 14th title. It was a narrow 1–0 defeat for Reggiana, with a goal from Massimiliano Esposito, but enough to seal the Scudetto.1994 Spanish Grand Prix
The 1994 Spanish Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 29 May 1994 at the Circuit de Catalunya, Barcelona. It was the 36th Spanish Grand Prix to be held since the first was held at Guadarrama in 1913. It was the fourth to be held at Circuit de Catalunya. It was the fifth race of the 1994 Formula One season.
The race was won by British driver Damon Hill driving a Williams FW16 taking his first win of the season. It was also Williams first win of the season, and a cathartic win for the team still shocked from the death of Ayrton Senna a few weeks earlier at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix. Hill won by 24 seconds over German driver Michael Schumacher, who for most of the race was stuck in fifth gear in his Benetton B194. Third was British driver Mark Blundell driving a Tyrrell 022. It would be the third and final podium of Blundell's career and would be the season highlight for the Tyrrell team.
The Grand Prix was additionally notable for the season-ending crash of debutant Italian driver Andrea Montermini in his Simtek S941 on the front straight. Montermini, elevated from test driver status after the death of Roland Ratzenberger at the San Marino Grand Prix crashed heavily into the pit wall. It also marked the Formula 1 debut of British Driver David Coulthard, replacing Senna for Williams.Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari
The Autodromo Internazionale Enzo e Dino Ferrari is a motorsport race circuit near the Italian town of Imola, 40 kilometres (24.9 mi) east of Bologna and 80 kilometres (49.7 mi) east of the Ferrari factory in Maranello. The circuit is named after Ferrari's late founder Enzo and his son Dino who had died in the 1950s. Before Enzo Ferrari's death in 1988 it was called 'Autodromo Dino Ferrari'. The circuit has FIA Grade 1 license.It was the venue for the Formula One San Marino Grand Prix (for many years two Grands Prix were held in Italy every year, so the race held at Imola was named after the nearby state) and it also hosted the 1980 edition of the Italian Grand Prix, which usually takes place in Monza. When Formula One visits Imola, it is seen as the 'home circuit' of Ferrari and masses of tifosi (Ferrari supporters) come out to support the local team.
Imola, as it is colloquially known, is one of the few major international circuits to run in an anti-clockwise direction. (Istanbul Park, Korea International Circuit, Marina Bay Street Circuit, Autódromo José Carlos Pace, Circuit of the Americas, and the Yas Marina Circuit are other anti-clockwise circuits used recently by Formula One.)Autódromo Internacional Ayrton Senna (Caruaru)
Autódromo Internacional Ayrton Senna is a motorsports circuit located in Caruaru, Brazil. Opened in 1992, it hosted motor racing events for the defunct Formula Three Sudamericana and Fórmula Truck series.Autódromo Internacional Ayrton Senna (Goiânia)
Autódromo Internacional Ayrton Senna is a motorsport race track located in Goiânia, Brazil. From 1987 to 1989, it hosted the Brazilian motorcycle Grand Prix in MotoGP. The circuit now also hosts the new Brazilian Formula Three Championship.Autódromo Internacional Ayrton Senna (Londrina)
Autódromo Internacional Ayrton Senna is a motorsports circuit located in Londrina, Brazil. Opened in 1992, it hosts
motor racing events for the Formula Three Sudamericana and Formula Renault series.Death of Ayrton Senna
Three-time Formula One World Champion Ayrton Senna died on 1 May 1994 after his car crashed into a concrete barrier while he was leading the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix at the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari in Italy. The previous day, Roland Ratzenberger had died when his car crashed during qualification for the race. His and Senna's accidents were the worst of several accidents that took place that weekend and were the first fatal accidents to occur during a Formula One race meeting in twelve years. They became a turning point in the safety of Formula One, prompting the implementation of new safety measures in both Formula One and the circuit, as well as the Grand Prix Drivers' Association to be reestablished. The Supreme Court of Cassation of Italy ruled that mechanical failure was the cause of the accident, although this has been disputed.Formula 1 Decade
Formula 1 Decade was a television show on Speed Channel. First airing on May 11, 2003 the show takes a look at Formula One Grand Prix events that were run 10 years prior to the present season. A one-hour show, the announcers, SPEED's Formula One commentary team, Bob Varsha, Steve Matchett, and David Hobbs, perform a mixture of a commentary as if the race is taking place right now along with reminiscing about rules changes and also Matchett's then role with Michael Schumacher's team. In 2003, when the show looked back at the 1993 season, dominated by Alain Prost, Varsha was the show's host, while Hobbs and Matchett looked at videotape of the races, and reminisced. That changed in 2004, when Matchett began introducing the race that would be seen on an episode and wrapping up each show, while Varsha joined Matchett and Hobbs to do commentary.
Speed Channel picked up the rights to broadcast the years-old races in their three-year agreement with FOM in 2003. It was included in their contract that allowed them to continue broadcasting live Formula One races, though it cost extra money, as the Formula One archives are rarely opened to any network.
On April 2, 2004 the show had the daunting task of airing the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix, and showing the crash that claimed the life of 3-time World Drivers' Champion, and 41-time Grand Prix race winner Ayrton Senna in that event. Matchett, a mechanic for Benetton-Ford that weekend, made these remarks at the beginning of the broadcast:
"Welcome to F1 Decade, Speed Channel's retrospective of the 1994 Formula 1 World Championship. We have reached round three-the San Marino Grand Prix. The constant, metronomic beat of the clock has led us, inescapably, to Imola, and when the date 1994 and the name of Imola are brought together, they combine to form nothing but black, somber memories. The events of that race weekend, from the morning of April 28, when the teams first assembled at the track, until the evening of Sunday, May 1, rest amongst motor racing's darkest times. It was a weekend of tragedy, despair, and death. 10 years on, it may be that some viewers would prefer not to watch the coverage of these events, and if you feel in any way unsure, then I urge you to switch off your TV now. We cannot shy away from the fact that three very serious accidents happened.* The events of Imola are a part of the sport's history. The aftermath of that horrible weekend would forever change the way Grand Prix cars are built, and forever change the way the races themselves are conducted. We at Speed Channel feel it is only proper that the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix is correctly documented, and that, in our opinion, must include correct coverage of Ayrton Senna's fatal accident."(*)-There had already been two serious accidents in the days before Senna's-one on April 29 during Friday practice, that nearly killed Rubens Barrichello, and one on April 30 during Saturday qualifying that killed Roland Ratzenberger.
The show returned in 2005, taking a look back at the 1995 season, when Michael Schumacher took his second straight World Drivers' Championship. F1 Decade was not renewed for 2006; if it had been, it would have looked back at Damon Hill's championship season in 1996.Imola
Imola (Italian: [ˈiːmola]; Emilian: Iommla, Romagnol: Jômla or Jemula) is a city and comune in the Metropolitan City of Bologna, located on the river Santerno, in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. The city is traditionally considered the western entrance to the historical region Romagna.
The city is most noted as the home of the Autodromo Enzo e Dino Ferrari which formerly hosted the Formula One San Marino Grand Prix (the race was named after the nearby independent republic of San Marino, as Monza already hosted the Italian Grand Prix), and the deaths of Formula One drivers Ayrton Senna and Roland Ratzenberger at the circuit during the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix. The death of Senna (three-times world champion) was an event that shocked the sporting world and led to heightened Formula One safety standards.Jules Bianchi
Jules Lucien André Bianchi (French pronunciation: [ʒyl bjɑ̃ki]; 3 August 1989 – 17 July 2015) was a French motor racing driver who drove for the Marussia F1 Team in the FIA Formula One World Championship.
Bianchi had previously raced in Formula Renault 3.5, GP2 and Formula Three and was a Ferrari Driver Academy member. He entered Formula One as a practice driver in 2012 for Sahara Force India. In 2013, he made his debut driving for Marussia, finishing 15th in his opening race in Australia and ended the season in 19th position without having scored any points. His best result that year was 13th at the Malaysian Grand Prix. In October 2013, the team confirmed that he would drive for the team the following season. In the 2014 season, he scored both his and the Marussia team's first points in Formula One at the Monaco Grand Prix.On 5 October 2014, during the Japanese Grand Prix, Bianchi lost control of his Marussia in very wet conditions and collided with a recovery vehicle, suffering a diffuse axonal injury. He underwent emergency surgery and was placed into an induced coma, and remained comatose until his death on 17 July 2015. Bianchi was the first Formula One driver in over 21 years to die as a result of an F1 racing accident since Ayrton Senna’s death at the May 1994 San Marino Grand Prix.List of Formula One Grand Prix wins by Ayrton Senna
Ayrton Senna was a Brazilian racing driver who won three Formula One world championships. He entered Formula One in 1984 with the Toleman team, but after one season, he moved to Lotus. He spent three seasons with Lotus before moving to McLaren in 1988. Over the next five years, the intense rivalry between Senna and Alain Prost, a leading Formula One driver, came to the forefront, with particularly notable race incidents and collisions occurring between the two. Senna won all three of his world championships during his six seasons with McLaren, in 1988, 1990 and 1991. He wanted to move to Williams after 1992, but was prevented from doing so by a clause in Alain Prost's contract. He moved to Williams in 1994, but during the third race of the season, he was killed in an accident while leading the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix. He was among the most dominant and successful Formula One drivers of the modern era, and is considered by some as the greatest racing driver of all time.Senna achieved his first victory in Formula One at the 1985 Portuguese Grand Prix on 21 April. John Blunsden of The Times described the win as "one of the most telling examples of supreme driving ability", while fellow driver Patrick Tambay described the race as a nightmare, as it was "very, very flooded everywhere, the cloud ceiling very low and the light very poor". He won two races in each of his three years with Lotus before moving to McLaren for the 1988 season. He secured his first Formula One world championship that year and enjoyed his most successful season in terms of race wins. His eight victories that year set a new record for the most wins in a season, breaking the previous record of seven by Jim Clark. In the subsequent three seasons with McLaren, he won six or more races each season, securing two more Formula One world championship titles in 1990 and 1991. Senna managed only three victories in 1992. His final win in Formula One came at the final race of the 1993 season at the Australian Grand Prix. In all, Senna won 41 Grands Prix at seventeen different circuits.All but six of Senna's 41 victories were for McLaren, and 32 of his wins were in cars with a Honda engine. Of his remaining nine victories, five were achieved with Ford powered cars, and four with Renault. He was most successful at Monaco, where he won six times during his career, including a record five consecutive times between 1989 and 1993. His largest margin of victory was 1:23.199 at the 1993 European Grand Prix, while the narrowest margin was at the 1986 Spanish Grand Prix, when he beat Nigel Mansell by 0.014 seconds, one of the closest finishes in Formula One.List of red-flagged Formula One races
Formula One, abbreviated to F1, is the highest class of open-wheeled auto racing defined by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), motorsport's world governing body. The "formula" in the name refers to a set of rules to which all participants and vehicles must conform. The F1 World Championship season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix, usually held on purpose-built circuits, and in a few cases on closed city streets. The results of each race are combined to determine two annual championships, one for drivers and one for constructors.
A red flag is shown when there has been an accident or the track conditions are poor enough to warrant the race being stopped. The flags are displayed by the marshals at various points around the circuit. A Global Positioning System (GPS) marshalling system was introduced in 2007. It involves a display of flag signals in the driver's cockpit, which alerts them to the accident. Following a red flag being shown, the exit of the pit lane is closed and cars must proceed to the pit lane slowly without overtaking, lining up at the pit exit. From 2005, a ten-minute warning is given before the race is resumed behind the safety car, which leads the field for a lap before it returns to the pit lane. Previously, the race was restarted in race order from the penultimate lap before the red flag was shown. If a race is unable to be resumed, "the results will be taken at the end of the penultimate lap before the lap during which the signal to suspend the race was given". If 75 per cent of the race distance has not been completed and the race cannot be resumed, half points are awarded. No points are awarded if the race cannot be restarted and less than two laps have been completed.Since the first World Championship Grand Prix in 1950, red flags have been shown in seventy races, with the latest one being at the 2017 Azerbaijan Grand Prix on 25 June 2017. Twenty-six were restarted on the first lap. Thirteen races were not restarted, nine because of rain and four due to accidents involving drivers. Five races were stopped due to incidents that resulted in fatalities: The 1975 Spanish Grand Prix was stopped on lap twenty-nine and not restarted after Rolf Stommelen's car crashed into a spectator area, killing five people. The 1978 Italian Grand Prix was red-flagged after a massive crash that ultimately contributed to the death of Ronnie Peterson. The 1982 Canadian Grand Prix was halted on the first lap after Riccardo Paletti was killed when his car collided with the back of Didier Pironi's Ferrari. The 1994 San Marino Grand Prix was red-flagged on lap five following the fatal accident of Ayrton Senna, in which his car crashed into a wall at the Tamburello curve. The 2014 Japanese Grand Prix was red-flagged for a second time following a serious collision between Jules Bianchi and a recovery vehicle which would ultimately prove to be fatal.Nicola Larini
Nicola Larini (born 19 March 1964) is an Italian racing driver. He participated in 75 Formula One Grands Prix, debuting on 6 September 1987. He finished second in the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix on a substitute outing for Ferrari, but only scored points once more in his career. He enjoyed greater success in touring car racing, primarily for Alfa Romeo.Paolo Gislimberti
Paolo Giancarlo Faletti Gislimberti (19 May 1967 – 10 September 2000) was an Italian volunteer firefighter and youth coach. He was killed by a loose wheel from Heinz-Harald Frentzen's Jordan Formula One car in the 2000 Italian Grand Prix.Roland Bruynseraede
Roland Bruynseraede (born 15 October 1939) is a Belgian motorsport official currently occupying the role of race director for the DTM series. He has previously worked as the FIA circuit inspector and Formula One safety delegate. From 1988 to 1995 he was the Formula One race director.
Although born in Belgium, Bruynseraede grew up in Germany. He is fluent in French, Dutch, German and English. He initially became involved in motorsport during his spare time while he was working for Ford Motor Company. In 1971, he succeeded Pierre Stasse as clerk of the course at the Zolder circuit in Belgium. His involvement in the organisation of international motorsport events began in 1982. He took up the position of Formula One starter and circuit inspector before the 1987 season following the retirement of Derek Ongaro. A reorganisation of roles within Formula One resulted in him becoming race director and FIA safety delegate.During his time in the role as circuit inspector, he was charged with the death of Ayrton Senna by Italian prosecutors, which occurred during the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix. All charges against him were dropped, after it was established by the investigation that Senna was not killed by his car's impact with a wall at the circuit which Bruynseraede had declared as safe, but because a piece of the car's suspension pierced his helmet causing fatal head injuries.He left his Formula One roles in December 1995, and was appointed race director and safety delegate for the new International Touring Car Championship. The ITCC was cancelled after one season, but was later reborn as the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters until he was sacked on 31 May 2007 due to his mistake during the Lausitzring round and thus replaced by Sven Stoppe from Brands Hatch round onwards.Roland Ratzenberger
Roland Ratzenberger (German: [ˈʁoːlant ˈʁatsn̩bɛɐ̯ɡɐ]; 4 July 1960 – 30 April 1994) was an Austrian racing driver who raced in sports prototype, British Formula 3000, Japanese Formula 3000 and Formula One. He died in a crash during qualifying for the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix, the same event at which three-time World Champion Ayrton Senna died the following day. The crash occurred after part of the front wing got lodged under his car causing him to lose steering, he was pronounced dead at hospital, as a direct result of his death it was agreed that the Grand Prix Drivers' Association should be reformed and that the HANS device became compulsory.Senna (film)
Senna is a 2010 British documentary film that depicts the life and death of Brazilian motor-racing champion Ayrton Senna, directed by Asif Kapadia. The film was produced by StudioCanal, Working Title Films, and Midfield Films, and was distributed by the parent company of the latter two production companies, Universal Pictures.
The film's narrative focuses on Senna's racing career in Formula One, from his debut in the 1984 Brazilian Grand Prix to his death in an accident at the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix, with particular emphasis on his rivalry with fellow driver Alain Prost. It relies primarily on archive racetrack footage and home video clips provided by the Senna family, rather than retrospective video interviews, and has no formal commentary.
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