1994 German federal election

Federal elections were held in Germany on 16 October 1994 to elect the members of the 13th Bundestag. The CDU/CSU alliance led by Helmut Kohl remained the largest faction in parliament, with Kohl remaining Chancellor. This elected Bundestag was largest in history until 2017, numbering 672 members.

1994 German federal election

16 October 1994

All 672 seats in the Bundestag
337 seats were needed for a majority
Turnout79.0% (voting eligible)[1]
  KAS-Kohl, Helmut-Bild-2574-3 Bundeswehr-Foto BVM012 Rudolf Scharping Antje Vollmer
Leader Helmut Kohl Rudolf Scharping Antje Vollmer
Party CDU/CSU SPD Green
Leader since 1973 1993
Last election 319 seats 239 seats 8 seats
Seats won 294 252 49
Seat change Decrease25 Increase13 Increase41
Popular vote 19,517,156 17,140,354 3,424,315
Percentage 41.4% 36.4% 7.3%
Swing Decrease2.4% Increase2.9% Increase2.3%

  Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F063645-0024, Pullach, Besuch Carstens beim BND Gregor gysi.vortrag 1997.universitaet-hildesheim
Leader Klaus Kinkel Gregor Gysi
Party FDP PDS
Leader since 1993 1990
Last election 79 seats 17 seats
Seats won 47 30
Seat change Decrease32 Increase13
Popular vote 3,258,407 2,066,176
Percentage 6.9% 4.4%
Swing Decrease4.1% Increase2.0%

German Federal Election - Party list vote results by state - 1994
Party list election results by state: dark blue denotes states where CSU had the absolute majority of the votes; lighter blue denotes states where CDU had the plurality of votes; and pink denotes states where the SPD had the plurality of votes

Chancellor before election

Helmut Kohl
CDU/CSU

Elected Chancellor

Helmut Kohl
CDU/CSU

Issues and campaign

The SPD let its members elect a candidate for Chancellor against Helmut Kohl. Rudolf Scharping, Minister-President of Rhineland-Palatinate, beat Gerhard Schröder and Heidemarie Wieczorek-Zeul in the SPD's internal election. Tension between Scharping and other SPD leaders such as Oskar Lafontaine and Gerhard Schröder hampered his campaign.

For the first time in their existence, the Greens seemed to be willing to actually join a government in the event that a centre-left SPD-Grünen coalition had a workable majority in the Bundestag.

Results

 Summary of 16 October 1994 German Bundestag election results
Parties Constituency Party list Total seats
Votes % +/− Seats +/− Votes % +/− Seats +/− Seats +/− %
Social Democratic Party (SPD) 17,966,813 38.3 +3.1 103 +12 17,140,354 36.4 +2.9 149 +1 252 +13 37.5
Christian Democratic Union (CDU) 17,473,325 37.2 −1.1 177 −15 16,089,960 34.2 −2.5 67 −9 244 −24 36.3
Christian Social Union (CSU) 3,657,627 7.8 +0.4 44 +1 3,427,196 7.3 +0.2 6 −2 50 −1 7.4
Alliance '90/The Greens 3,037,902 6.5 +0.9 0 ±0 3,424,315 7.3 +2.3 49 +41 49 +41 7.3
Free Democratic Party (FDP) 1,558,185 3.3 −4.5 0 −1 3,258,407 6.9 −4.1 47 −31 47 −32 7.0
Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS) 1,920,420 4.1 +1.8 4 +3 2,066,176 4.4 +2.0 26 +10 30 +13 4.5
The Republicans (REP) 787,757 1.7 ±0 0 ±0 875,239 1.9 −0.2 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
The Grays – Gray Panthers (GRAUE) 178,450 0.4 −0.1 0 ±0 238,642 0.5 −0.3 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Ecological Democratic Party (ÖDP) 200,138 0.4 −0.1 0 ±0 183,715 0.4 ±0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Natural Law Party (Naturgesetz) 59,087 0.1 +0.1 0 ±0 73,193 0.2 +0.2 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Animal Protection Party 71,643 0.2 +0.2 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Party of Bible-abiding Christians (PBC) 26,864 0.1 +0.1 0 ±0 65,651 0.1 +0.1 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Statt Party (STATT) 7,927 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 63,354 0.1 +0.1 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Bavaria Party (BP) 3,324 0.0 ±0 0 ±0 42,491 0.1 ±0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Car-drivers' and Citizens' Interests Party (APD) 1,654 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 21,533 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Christian Centre (CM) 3,559 0.0 ±0 0 ±0 19,887 0.0 −0.1 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Party of the Willing to Work and Socially Vulnerable (PASS) 489 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 15,040 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Marxist-Leninist Party of Germany (MLPD) 4,932 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 10,038 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Solidarity (BüSo) 8,032 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 8,103 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Christian League (Liga) 3,788 0.0 ±0 0 ±0 5,195 0.0 −0.1 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Centre Party (Zentrum) 1,489 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 3,757 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Federation of Socialist Workers (BSA) 1,285 0.0 ±0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Free Citizens' Union (FBU) 8,193 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
German Social Union (DSU) 2,395 0.0 −0.3 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
German Communist Party (DKP) 693 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
DVP 606 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Free Social Union (FSU) 467 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Communist Party of Germany (KPD) 426 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Independent Workers' Party (UAP) 302 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Liberal Democrats (LD) 221 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Federation for a Complete Germany (BGD) 107 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Democrats (DEMOKRATEN) 104 0.0 +0.0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Electoral groups and independents 34,080 0.1 ±0 0 ±0 0 ±0 0
Invalid/blank votes 788,643 632,825
Totals 47,737,999 100 ±0.0 328 ±0 47,737,999 100 ±0.0 344 +10 672 +10 ±0
Registered voters/turnout 60,452,009 79.0 60,452,009 79.0
Source: Federal Returning Officer
^† — totals for the Greens reflect the merger of the Western and Eastern Green parties.
1994 federal german result
Seat results – SPD in red, combined Greens in green, PDS in purple, FDP in yellow, CDU/CSU in black
294 47 252 49 30
CDU/CSU FDP SPD Grüne PDS
Popular Vote
CDU/CSU
41.43%
SPD
36.39%
B'90/GRÜNE
7.27%
F.D.P.
6.92%
PDS
4.39%
REP
1.86%
Other
1.75%
Bundestag seats
CDU/CSU
43.75%
SPD
37.50%
B'90/GRÜNE
7.29%
F.D.P.
6.99%
PDS
4.46%

Post-election

The coalition between the CDU/CSU and the FDP was able to continue in power with Helmut Kohl as chancellor.

The PDS won four constituency seats in its power base of the former East Berlin, qualifying it for proportional representation even though the party won 4.4 percent of the vote, just short of the 5% electoral threshold required for full parliamentary status. Under a longstanding electoral law intended to benefit regional parties, any party that wins at least three constituency seats is entitled to its share of proportionally-elected seats, regardless of vote share.[2]

This was the first time in the history of the Federal Republic that the FDP was not the third largest party in the chamber.

References

  1. ^ "Voter turnout by election year". Website of the Federal Returning Officer's Office. The Federal Returning Officer. Archived from the original on 7 November 2014. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  2. ^ Dan Hough; Michael Koß; Jonathan Olsen (2007). The Left Party in Contemporary German Politics. Springer. ISBN 0230592147.

Sources

Norbert Röttgen

Norbert Röttgen (born 2 July 1965) is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union. He was Federal Minister for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety from 2009 to May 2012.

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