The 1994 FIFA World Cup was the 15th FIFA World Cup, held in nine cities across the United States from 17 June to 17 July 1994. The United States was chosen as the host by FIFA on 4 July 1988. Despite the host nation's lack of football tradition, the tournament was the most financially successful in World Cup history; aided by the high-capacity stadia in the United States, it broke the World Cup average attendance record with more than 69,000 spectators per game, a mark that still stands. The total attendance of nearly 3.6 million for the final tournament remains the highest in World Cup history, despite the expansion of the competition from 24 to 32 teams (and from 52 to 64 games), which was first introduced at the 1998 World Cup and is the current format.
Brazil won the tournament after beating Italy 3–2 in a penalty shoot-out at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California near Los Angeles, after the game had ended 0–0 after extra time. It was the first World Cup final to be decided on penalties. The victory made Brazil the first nation to win four World Cup titles. There were four new entrants in the tournament: Greece, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, as well as two countries that were formed at the end of the Cold War: Russia, following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and for the first time since 1938, a newly reunified Germany took part in the tournament, following Germany reunification in October 1990, a few months after West Germany's victory in the 1990 World Cup.
|1994 FIFA World Cup|
|World Cup USA '94|
1994 FIFA World Cup official logo
|Host country||United States|
|Dates||17 June – 17 July (31 days)|
|Teams||24 (from 5 confederations)|
|Venue(s)||9 (in 9 host cities)|
|Champions||Brazil (4th title)|
|Goals scored||141 (2.71 per match)|
|Attendance||3,597,042 (69,174 per match)|
|Top scorer(s)|| Hristo Stoichkov|
(6 goals each)
|Best young player||Marc Overmars|
|Best goalkeeper||Michel Preud'homme|
|Fair play award||Brazil|
Three teams, one African, one Asian, and one European, made their debuts at the 1994 tournament. Nigeria qualified from the African zone alongside Cameroon and Morocco as CAF was granted three spots as a result of the strong performances by African teams in 1990. In the Asian zone, Saudi Arabia qualified for the first time by topping the final round group ahead of South Korea as both edged out Japan, who were close to making their own World Cup debut, but were denied by Iraq in what became known as the "Agony of Doha". The Japanese would not have to wait long, though, debuting in the 1998 tournament. In the European zone, Greece made their first World Cup appearance after topping a group from which Russia also qualified, competing independently for the first time after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The defending champions West Germany were united with their East German counterparts, representing the unified Germany for the first time since the 1938 World Cup. Norway qualified for the first time since 1938, Bolivia for the first time since 1950, and Switzerland for the first time since 1966. Norway's 56-year gap between appearances in the final tournament equalled Egypt's record in the previous tournament as the longest. Mexico had its first successful qualification campaign since 1978, failing to qualify in 1982, qualifying as hosts in 1986 and being banned for the Cachirules scandal in 1990.
The qualification campaigns of both Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia were affected by political events. The nation of Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, and the team completed its qualifying group under the name "Representation of Czechs and Slovaks" (RCS), but failed to qualify for the finals, having been edged out by Romania and Belgium at Group 4. Yugoslavia (which was supposed to play in Group 5) was suspended from international competition in 1992 as part of United Nations sanctions against the country as a result of the Yugoslav Wars. The sanctions were not lifted until 1994, by which time it was no longer possible for the team to qualify. Chile's suspension from the 1990 FIFA World Cup, following the forced interruption of their qualification game against Brazil, extended to the 1994 qualifiers as well.
This was the second World Cup (the first being the 1938 edition), for which neither England, Scotland, Northern Ireland nor Wales (the Home Nations) qualified, with England (finishing third behind Norway and Netherlands in Group 2) missing out after having finished fourth in the 1990 tournament, and Scotland (which finished fourth in Group 1) failing to qualify for the first time since 1970. France, who had been already designated as hosts of the 1998 tournament, also missed out following surprise home losses to Israel and Bulgaria. This was the second World Cup in a row for which France had failed to qualify, and the last one to date to not feature England, France and Japan. Other notable absentees were 1990 Round of 16 participants Uruguay, UEFA Euro 1992 champions Denmark, Poland, Portugal and Hungary (all four for the second time in a row).
The following 24 teams, shown with final pre-tournament rankings, qualified for the final tournamentː
Three nations bid for host duties: United States, Brazil, and Morocco. The vote was held in Zurich on 4 July 1988, and only took one round with the United States bid receiving a little over half of the votes by the Exco members. FIFA hoped that by staging the world's most prestigious tournament there, it would lead to a growth of interest in the sport. One condition FIFA imposed was the creation of a professional football league – Major League Soccer was founded in 1993 and began operating in 1996. There was some initial controversy about awarding the World Cup to a country where football was not a nationally popular sport, and at the time, in 1988, the U.S. did not have a professional league of its own anymore; the North American Soccer League, set up in the 1970s, had folded in 1984 after attendance faded. Success of the 1984 Summer Olympics and particularly the football tournament also contributed to FIFA's decision. Despite the controversy, the U.S. staged a hugely successful tournament, with average attendance of nearly 70,000 breaking a record that surpassed the 1966 FIFA World Cup average attendance of 51,000, thanks to the large seating capacities the stadiums in the United States provided for the spectators in comparison to the smaller venues of Europe and Latin America. To this day, the total attendance for the final tournament of nearly 3.6 million remains the highest in World Cup history, despite the expansion of the competition from 24 to 32 teams at the 1998 World Cup in France. Germany, Brazil, Argentina, Belgium, Italy and the United States were seeded for the final draw, which took place in Las Vegas on 19 December 1993.
The format of the competition stayed the same as in the 1990 World Cup: 24 teams qualified, divided into six groups of four. Sixteen teams would qualify for the knockout phase: the six group winners, the six group runners-up, and the four third-placed teams with the best records. This was the last time this format was used, due to the expansion of the finals tournament in 1998 to 32 teams. This World Cup was the first in which three points were awarded for a win instead of two. FIFA instituted this feature to encourage attacking football after the defensive display of many teams at Italia '90.
The tournament saw the end of Diego Maradona's World Cup career, having played in the 1982, 1986, and 1990 World Cups, and leading Argentina to the 1986 World Cup title and the final of the 1990 World Cup. Maradona was expelled from the tournament after he failed a drug test which uncovered ephedrine, a weight loss drug, in his blood. Colombia, despite high expectations due to their style and impressive qualifying campaign, failed to advance from the round robin. The team was supposedly dogged by influence from betting syndicates and drug cartels, with coach Francisco Maturana receiving death threats over squad selection. Defender Andrés Escobar was a tragic figure of this tournament, as in the group stage game against the United States, he scored an own goal that eliminated his team. Escobar was shot to death outside a bar in a Medellín suburb only 10 days later, apparently in retaliation for the own goal.
On the field, Bulgaria was one of the biggest surprises of the tournament. The Bulgarians had never won a game in five previous World Cup finals but, led by Hristo Stoichkov who eventually shared the tournament lead in scoring, they made a surprising run; Bulgaria won two of their three group games to qualify for the second round, where they advanced with a 3–1 penalty shoot-out win over Mexico. Bulgaria then faced the reigning world champions, Germany, in the quarter-finals, where goals from Stoichkov and Yordan Letchkov gave them a 2–1 victory. Bulgaria went on to finish in fourth place after losing to Italy after extra time and Sweden, in the semi-finals and third-place game, respectively.
The United States, relatively new to professional football, advanced to the second round as one of the best third-place teams. They played Brazil on Independence Day and, despite a 1–0 defeat, the United States' performance was considered a great success in their football history.
Brazil's win over the hosts helped take them to the final against Italy. While Brazil's path was relatively smooth as they defeated the Netherlands in the quarter-finals and Sweden in the semis, the Italians had made hard work of reaching the final. During the group stage Italy struggled and narrowly advanced to the next round, despite losing 1–0 to the Republic of Ireland. Italian playmaker Roberto Baggio, who was expected to be one of the stars of the tournament, had not yet scored a goal. During the Round of 16 game against Nigeria, Italy was trailing 1–0 in the dying minutes when Baggio scored the tying goal, forcing the game into extra time. He scored again with a penalty kick to send Italy through. Baggio carried the Italians from there, scoring the game-winning goal in the quarter-final against Spain, and both goals in Italy's semi-final victory over Bulgaria.
The third-place playoff was set between Bulgaria and Sweden, the team which scored more goals than any other in this World Cup. These teams had also previously met in the qualifying group. Sweden won, 4–0. Swedish forward Tomas Brolin was named to the All-star team.
The final game at the Rose Bowl was tense, but devoid of scoring chances. It was the second time in 24 years that the two nations had met in a final. Despite the strategies implemented by FIFA to promote offensive play, both teams failed to produce a goal. After 120 goalless minutes, the World Cup was decided for the first time by a penalty shoot-out. After four rounds, Brazil led 3–2, and Baggio, playing injured, had to score to keep Italy's hopes alive. He missed by shooting it over the crossbar, and the Brazilians were crowned champions for the fourth time. After the game ended, then-Vice-President Al Gore hosted the awarding ceremony by handing Brazilian captain Dunga the prestigious trophy; the Brazilian national team dedicated the title to the deceased Formula One motor racing champion and countryman Ayrton Senna, who had died two and a half months prior.
The tournament's Golden Boot went jointly to Bulgaria's Stoichkov and Oleg Salenko of Russia, the latter becoming the first player to score five goals in a game, coming in a 6–1 victory against Cameroon. Both players scored six goals in the tournament. Brazilian striker Romário, with five goals, won the Golden Ball as the tournament's best player.
The official mascot of this World Cup was Striker, the World Cup Pup, a dog wearing a red, white and blue football uniform with a ball. Striker was designed by the Warner Bros. animation team. A dog was picked as the mascot because dogs are a common pet in the United States.
The games were played in nine cities across the country. All stadiums had a capacity of at least 53,000, and their usual tenants were professional or college American football teams. The venue used most was the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, with eight games, among them one round of 16 match, a semi-final, the third-place game, and the final. Giants Stadium near New York hosted seven matches including a semi-final; Boston (Foxborough), San Francisco (Stanford) and Dallas hosted 6 matches each and Chicago, Washington and Orlando each hosted 5 matches. The least used was the Pontiac Silverdome near Detroit, the first indoor stadium used in a World Cup, with four group stage games. The Pontiac Silverdome was also the only venue of the 9 used that did not host any knockout round matches.
Because of the large area of the continental United States, the match locations were often far apart. Some teams in Groups A and B had to travel from Los Angeles or San Francisco all the way to Detroit and back again, covering 2,300 mi (3,680 km) and three time zones one way. The teams in Groups C and D only played in Foxborough (Boston), Chicago and Dallas – a trip from Boston to Dallas is 2,000 miles (3,200 km), but only covers one time zone; Chicago is in the same time zone as Dallas but is still 1,000 miles (1,600 km) away from both Dallas and Boston. The teams in Groups E and F's travel was a bit easier – they played exclusively in East Rutherford (New York City), Washington and Orlando- all in the same time zone. A few teams such as Cameroon and Italy did not have to travel great distances to cities to play matches.
The variety of climate in different cities all over the United States made playing conditions challenging. Aside from the oceanic coolness of Boston (Foxborough), the Mediterranean climate of San Francisco (Stanford) and occasionally the coolness of Chicago, most matches were played in very hot and/or humid conditions, thanks to nearly all of the matches being scheduled to be played during the day instead of at night in order to suit a time difference compromise for television in Europe, Africa and the Middle East; this had always been done every time a World Cup was held in the Americas. Although playing in the sometimes triple-digit dry heat and smoggy conditions of Los Angeles (Pasadena) and the intense mixture of heat and humidity of Washington and New York City (East Rutherford) proved to be difficult, the cities with the most oppressive conditions were the southern cities of Orlando and Dallas because of the combination of triple-digit heat and extreme humidity. The Floridian tropical climate of Orlando meant all matches there were played in temperatures of 95 °F (35 °C) or above with humidity at 70% or more (the temperature there during the group stage match between Mexico and Ireland was 105 °F (41 °C)) thanks to the mid-day start times. Dallas was not much different: in the semi-arid heat of a Texas summer, temperatures exceeded 100 °F (38 °C) during mid-day, when matches there were staged in the open-type Cotton Bowl meant that conditions were just as oppressive there as they were in Orlando. Detroit also proved to be difficult: the Pontiac Silverdome did not have a working cooling system and because it was an interior dome-shaped stadium, the air could not escape through circulation, so temperatures inside the stadium would climb past 90 °F (32 °C) with 40% humidity. United States midfielder Thomas Dooley described the Silverdome as "the worst place I have ever played at".
(Los Angeles area)
(San Francisco Bay area)
|East Rutherford, New Jersey|
(New York City area)
|Rose Bowl||Stanford Stadium||Pontiac Silverdome||Giants Stadium|
|Capacity: 94,194||Capacity: 84,147||Capacity: 77,557||Capacity: 76,322|
|Chicago, Illinois||Orlando, Florida||Foxborough, Massachusetts
|Soldier Field||Citrus Bowl||Foxboro Stadium||Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium|
|Capacity: 63,160||Capacity: 62,387||Capacity: 54,456||Capacity: 53,121|
Teams were selected as usual following FIFA rules with 22 players. Greece, Italy, Saudi Arabia and Spain were the only countries who had all their players coming from domestic teams, while the Republic of Ireland and Nigeria had no players from domestic teams. Saudi Arabia was the only team with no players from European teams.
The composition of the four pots was based on the FIFA World Ranking (established in 1993) and on the qualified teams' results in the three previous World Cups. The teams' pre-tournament rankings are shown in parenthesis. The principle of the draw was that each group must have at least two European teams, USA and Mexico could not be drawn in the same group, and Brazil and Argentina could not be drawn with another South American team.
|Pot 1 (Top 5 plus hosts)||Pot 2 (Africa + Americas)||Pot 3 (Europe 1–6)||Pot 4 (Europe 7–10 + Asia)|
The draw for the tournament took place at the Las Vegas Convention Center on 19 December 1993, officiated by general-secretary Sepp Blatter. Teams were drawn by German legend Franz Beckenbauer, heavyweight boxing champion Evander Holyfield and comedian and actor Robin Williams. Numbers for placement in the group were drawn by actor Beau Bridges, Women's World Cup champion Michelle Akers, model Carol Alt, artist Peter Max, racecar driver Mario Andretti and Olympic gold medalist in gymnastics Mary Lou Retton.
The opening ceremony of the World Cup was held on 17 June at Chicago's Soldier Field. Numerous dignitaries attended, including United States President Bill Clinton, Chancellor of Germany Helmut Kohl and President of Bolivia Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada. The ceremony was emceed by Oprah Winfrey, who fell off the dais in introducing Diana Ross, who gave a musical performance. Ross was also supposed to kick a football into the goal from the penalty spot at the beginning of her performance, with the goal then splitting in two as part of a pre-orchestrated stunt. She kicked the ball wide to the left, missing the goal, but the goalposts were collapsed anyway in accordance with the stunt plans. In addition, Daryl Hall and Jon Secada also gave musical performances.
Times are Eastern Daylight Time (UTC−4) (East Rutherford, Foxborough, Orlando, Pontiac and Washington), Central Daylight Time (UTC−5) (Chicago and Dallas), and Pacific Daylight Time (UTC−7) (Pasadena and Stanford)
In the following tables:
The Group A game between the United States and Switzerland was the first to take place indoors, played under the roof at the Pontiac Silverdome.
Following the tournament, Colombian defender Andrés Escobar was shot dead on his return to Colombia, after his own goal had contributed to his country's elimination.
Victories against Colombia and the United States (in front of a crowd of 93,869) were enough to see Romania through as group winners, despite a 4–1 hammering by Switzerland in between. The magnitude of that victory allowed Switzerland to move ahead of the United States on goal difference, although the hosts qualified for the second round as one of the best third-placed teams.
Switzerland's 4–1 victory over Romania came nearly 40 years to the date of Switzerland's last World Cup victory, also a 4–1 victory, on that occasion over Italy. The United States' 2–1 victory over Colombia was its first World Cup victory since 29 June 1950 when it upset England 1–0 in the 1950 World Cup.
|1||Romania||3||2||0||1||5||5||0||6||Advance to knockout stage|
|3||United States (H)||3||1||1||1||3||3||0||4|
|18 June 1994|
|United States||1–1||Switzerland||Pontiac Silverdome, Pontiac|
|Colombia||1–3||Romania||Rose Bowl, Pasadena|
|22 June 1994|
|Romania||1–4||Switzerland||Pontiac Silverdome, Pontiac|
|United States||2–1||Colombia||Rose Bowl, Pasadena|
|26 June 1994|
|Switzerland||0–2||Colombia||Stanford Stadium, Stanford|
|United States||0–1||Romania||Rose Bowl, Pasadena|
Group B produced two of the four semi-finalists of this World Cup, and was also one of the two groups in which two, rather than three, sides would progress to the second round. Brazil and Sweden proved to be far stronger than Cameroon and Russia in every department. The game between the latter two broke two World Cup records. Oleg Salenko of Russia became the first – and remains the only – man to score five goals in a single World Cup game as Russia ran out 6–1 winners against their African opponents. The goals also ensured that Salenko finished the tournament joint-top scorer with six goals, having previously bagged one against Sweden. Cameroon left a mark too as Roger Milla, at the age of 42, became the oldest World Cup goalscorer of all time as he grabbed his side's consolation goal in the game. The result was not enough to take Russia through following heavy defeats at the hands of both Brazil and Sweden. Brazil overcame Cameroon with similar ease before a draw with Sweden confirmed top spot.
The Swedes also progressed, finishing in second place with five points. Sweden's 3–1 victory over Russia was the nation's first World Cup victory, in a knockout stage game, since 3 July 1974. Russia failed to progress to the second round for the second time, while Cameroon failed to repeat their surprise performance from the previous tournament.
|1||Brazil||3||2||1||0||6||1||+5||7||Advance to knockout stage|
|19 June 1994|
|Cameroon||2–2||Sweden||Rose Bowl, Pasadena|
|20 June 1994|
|Brazil||2–0||Russia||Stanford Stadium, Stanford|
|24 June 1994|
|Brazil||3–0||Cameroon||Stanford Stadium, Stanford|
|Sweden||3–1||Russia||Pontiac Silverdome, Pontiac|
|28 June 1994|
|Russia||6–1||Cameroon||Stanford Stadium, Stanford|
|Brazil||1–1||Sweden||Pontiac Silverdome, Pontiac|
As was the case with Group B, Group C would only send two teams into the Round of 16 as Spain and defending champions Germany progressed to round two. Coming from two goals down with four minutes left to snatch a 2–2 draw against Spain, the South Koreans very nearly eclipsed that feat against Germany when they came from 3–0 down to lose narrowly 3–2. In spite of these comebacks, South Korea was held to a 0–0 draw against Bolivia in their other group game when a win would have seen them through. Spain's late implosion against the South Koreans effectively decided that it would be Germany who won the group and not them.
Germany, who defeated Bolivia 1–0 in the tournament's opening game, finished with seven points. Spain had to settle for second place despite leading in all three games.
Despite Bolivia finishing last in the group, Erwin Sanchez made team history after scoring the nation's first World Cup goal in a 3-1 loss to Spain. Prior to 1994, Bolivia had never scored in either of their previous appearances at the 1930 and 1950 World Cups.
|1||Germany||3||2||1||0||5||3||+2||7||Advance to knockout stage|
|17 June 1994|
|Germany||1–0||Bolivia||Soldier Field, Chicago|
|Spain||2–2||South Korea||Cotton Bowl, Dallas|
|21 June 1994|
|Germany||1–1||Spain||Soldier Field, Chicago|
|23 June 1994|
|South Korea||0–0||Bolivia||Foxboro Stadium, Foxborough|
|27 June 1994|
|Bolivia||1–3||Spain||Soldier Field, Chicago|
|Germany||3–2||South Korea||Cotton Bowl, Dallas|
Tournament favorites Argentina led by Diego Maradona collected a maximum of six points from their opening two games after dominating Greece 4–0 in Foxboro with a Gabriel Batistuta hattrick before winning a close match against a formidable Nigeria with a 2–1 victory on the same field four days later; despite this Argentina finished third in the group. Nigeria had been very impressive on their World Cup debut, and despite the narrow loss to Argentina, had emerged as group winners following victories against Bulgaria and Greece, the latter in which Nigeria doubled its lead late on a goal from Daniel Amokachi – a goal that would allow Nigeria to top its group. Maradona only played with Argentina during their first two games, both in Foxborough (playing Greece and Nigeria, the former scoring his last ever World Cup goal against); he was thrown out of the tournament after testing positive for ephedrine.
Having qualified for the tournament through a last-gasp goal against France, Bulgaria surprised many people, as the nation had never even won a game at the World Cup finals prior to this tournament. Despite losing its opening game 3–0 to Nigeria, Bulgaria came back in style with a 4–0 win over Greece (who had suffered exactly the same fate five days earlier against Argentina), and a 2-0 win against Argentina saw them advance. Argentina had actually been winning the group going into injury time, while Bulgaria played the last 25 minutes with 10 men; however, a 91st-minute header from Nasko Sirakov meant that Argentina dropped two places and finished third. Nigeria won the group on goal difference. Bulgaria's victory over Argentina earned them second place.
|1||Nigeria||3||2||0||1||6||2||+4||6||Advance to knockout stage|
|21 June 1994|
|Argentina||4–0||Greece||Foxboro Stadium, Foxborough|
|Nigeria||3–0||Bulgaria||Cotton Bowl, Dallas|
|25 June 1994|
|Argentina||2–1||Nigeria||Foxboro Stadium, Foxborough|
|26 June 1994|
|Bulgaria||4–0||Greece||Soldier Field, Chicago|
|30 June 1994|
|Argentina||0–2||Bulgaria||Cotton Bowl, Dallas|
|Greece||0–2||Nigeria||Foxboro Stadium, Foxborough|
Group E remains the only group in World Cup history in which all four teams finished with the same points and same goal difference. It began at Giants Stadium where Ray Houghton's chip ensured a shock Irish victory over the then-three-time champions Italy by 1–0, as well as gaining a measure of revenge for the previous World Cup, in which Italy both hosted and eliminated Ireland at quarter-finals. The next day in Washington, Norway played its first World Cup game since 1938 and Kjetil Rekdal's goal five minutes from time proved decisive in an equally tense encounter as Norway beat Mexico.
In the second round of group play, the tropical weather of Orlando played a key factor for Mexico in their next game against Ireland. The match was held in record-breaking heat and humidity, temperatures in which the Mexicans were accustomed to but visibly uncomforted the Irish. Luis García's double had them 2–0 up and in control of the game before a disagreement on the touchline resulted in fines for both Republic of Ireland's manager, Jack Charlton, and their striker John Aldridge. Aldridge was able to regain concentration in time to score six minutes from the end of the game to make it 2-1. Despite their loss, Aldridge's goal proved crucial to Ireland in the final group standings.
During the previous day at Giants Stadium in New Jersey, Italy's World Cup hopes seemed to be diminishing fast as goalkeeper Gianluca Pagliuca was sent off with the game still at 0–0. Yet despite this, Italy was still able to salvage an important 1–0 victory. Norway would ultimately pay a price for their inability to take advantage of Pagliuca's dismissal. With the four teams level on points, the final two group games would each have to finish as draws for things to stay that way. Republic of Ireland made it through after a dreary 0–0 draw with Norway; midfielders Massaro and Bernal traded strikes as Italy and Mexico played to a 1–1 draw.
Those results meant that Mexico won the group on goals scored, with three in the group. With Ireland and Italy also progressing having finished with identical records, Ireland finished ahead of Italy because of Ireland's victory over Italy. Norway's shortcomings in attack ultimately let them down, and they exited the tournament with only one goal.
|1||Mexico||3||1||1||1||3||3||0||4||Advance to knockout stage|
|2||Republic of Ireland||3||1||1||1||2||2||0||4|
|18 June 1994|
|Italy||0–1||Republic of Ireland||Giants Stadium, East Rutherford|
|19 June 1994|
|Norway||1–0||Mexico||RFK Stadium, Washington|
|23 June 1994|
|Italy||1–0||Norway||Giants Stadium, East Rutherford|
|24 June 1994|
|Mexico||2–1||Republic of Ireland||Citrus Bowl, Orlando|
|28 June 1994|
|Italy||1–1||Mexico||RFK Stadium, Washington|
|Republic of Ireland||0–0||Norway||Giants Stadium, East Rutherford|
Just as happened to Argentina in Group D, Belgium endured the same fate in Group F. Despite winning both of its first two matches 1–0 against Morocco and neighbors Netherlands, Belgium finished third as, in an upset, it lost to tournament newcomers Saudi Arabia 1–0 in the third game. During that game, Saudi player Saaed Al-Owairian ran from his own half through a maze of Belgian players to score the game's only goal.
Saudi Arabia advanced through to the Round of 16 as well, having also defeated Morocco 2–1. The Netherlands endured a somewhat nervier experience. The opening 2–1 victory against Saudi Arabia was followed by the 1–0 loss against Belgium before another 2–1 victory against Morocco, with Bryan Roy scoring the winner a mere 12 minutes from time, saw the Dutch win the group because of having scored more goals against Belgium and Saudi Arabia. Morocco, despite losing all three of their group games, did not leave without a fight, as each of their losses were by just a single goal, 1–0 to Belgium, 2–1 to Saudi Arabia, and 2–1 to the Netherlands.
|1||Netherlands||3||2||0||1||4||3||+1||6||Advance to knockout stage|
|19 June 1994|
|Belgium||1–0||Morocco||Citrus Bowl, Orlando|
|20 June 1994|
|Netherlands||2–1||Saudi Arabia||RFK Stadium, Washington|
|25 June 1994|
|Saudi Arabia||2–1||Morocco||Giants Stadium, East Rutherford|
|Belgium||1–0||Netherlands||Citrus Bowl, Orlando|
|29 June 1994|
|Belgium||0–1||Saudi Arabia||RFK Stadium, Washington|
|Morocco||1–2||Netherlands||Citrus Bowl, Orlando|
|1||D||Argentina||3||2||0||1||6||3||+3||6||Advance to knockout stage|
|Round of 16||Quarter-finals||Semi-finals||Final|
|3 July – Pasadena|
|10 July – Stanford|
|3 July – Dallas|
|Sweden (p)||2 (5)|
|13 July – Pasadena|
|4 July – Orlando|
|9 July – Dallas|
|Republic of Ireland||0|
|4 July – Stanford|
|17 July – Pasadena|
|Brazil (p)||0 (3)|
|5 July – East Rutherford|
|10 July – East Rutherford|
|Bulgaria (p)||1 (3)|
|2 July – Chicago|
|13 July – East Rutherford|
|5 July – Foxborough|
|9 July – Foxborough||16 July – Pasadena|
|2 July – Washington|
|Völler 6', 40'
Luis Enrique 74'
Begiristain 86' (pen.)
|Al-Ghesheyan 85'||Report||Dahlin 6'
K. Andersson 51', 88'
|Dumitrescu 11', 18'
|Report||Batistuta 16' (pen.)
|Netherlands||2–0||Republic of Ireland|
|Amunike 15'||Report||R. Baggio 89', 101' (pen.)|
|García Aspe 18' (pen.)||Report||Stoichkov 6'|
|D. Baggio 25'
R. Baggio 88'
|Report||Matthäus 47' (pen.)|
|Răducioiu 89', 101'||Report||Brolin 79'
K. Andersson 115'
|Stoichkov 44' (pen.)||Report||R. Baggio 21', 25'|
K. Andersson 40'
|Golden Shoe||Golden Ball||Yashin Award||Best Young Player||FIFA Fair Play Trophy||Most Entertaining Team|
| Hristo Stoichkov
|Romário||Michel Preud'homme||Marc Overmars||Brazil||Brazil|
The All-star team is a squad consisting of the eleven most impressive players at the 1994 World Cup, as selected by FIFA's Technical Study Group.
After the tournament, FIFA published a ranking of all teams that competed in the 1994 World Cup finals based on progress in the competition, overall results and quality of the opposition.
|Eliminated in the quarter-finals|
|Eliminated in the round of 16|
|16||Republic of Ireland||E||4||1||1||2||2||4||−2||4|
|Eliminated in the group stage|
|FIFA World Cup sponsors||USA Supporters|
The official game ball was the Adidas Questra.
During the final match of the final qualification round for the 1994 FIFA World Cup, Japan and Iraq played to a 2–2 draw in Doha, Qatar. If Japan had won the match, they would have qualified for the World Cup for the first time. Instead, Japan finished third in the AFC qualification and arch-rival South Korea qualified instead. The Japanese media refers to the match as the "Agony of Doha" (Japanese: ドーハの悲劇, translit. Dōha no higeki), whereas the South Korean media, which the country's national football team was qualified as a last minute result of this match, refers to it as the "Miracle of Doha" (Korean: 도하의 기적, translit. Dohaui gijeok).
The failure to qualify and the dramatic way in which it happened caused great disappointment for Japanese fans. Football had become wildly popular in Japan with the launch of the professional J. League earlier that year and the team had never been this close to qualifying for the World Cup. Although Japan has since qualified for six consecutive World Cup finals (even co-hosting one), team members from this match are still known as "Class of Doha" (ドーハ組, Dōha gumi) and "Never forget Doha" (ドーハを忘れるな, Dōha o wasureruna) remains a rallying cry for fans.1994 FIFA World Cup Final
The 1994 FIFA World Cup Final was a football match that took place at the Rose Bowl in Pasadena, California, United States, on 17 July 1994 to determine the winner of the 1994 FIFA World Cup. Brazil beat Italy 3–2 on penalties to claim their fourth World Cup title when the match finished 0–0 after extra time; this meant that Brazil surpassed Italy and Germany as the tournament's most successful nation.It was the first World Cup final to be both scoreless in regular and extra time and to be decided by a penalty shoot-out. Silver Ball winner Roberto Baggio missed the decisive penalty. Brazil had previously beaten Italy in the 1970 final, marking the 1994 final as the second time that the same teams had met in two different World Cup finals, after Argentina and Germany met in 1986 and 1990 (those two later faced each other again in the 2014 final). Played at 12:30 local time, this was the most recent World Cup final to be played in a broad daylight.
FIFA awarded the final match of the tournament to this famous college sports stadium near Los Angeles on 30 June 1992; the Rose Bowl was the largest stadium used for this tournament.The Brazilian team dedicated their win to the late triple Formula One motor racing world champion Ayrton Senna, who had died in an accident at that year's San Marino Grand Prix in Italy two and a half months before. With Italy finishing as runners-up, Franco Baresi became the sixth player in history to win gold, silver and bronze medals at the FIFA World Cup.1994 FIFA World Cup qualification
The 1994 FIFA World Cup qualification was a series of tournaments organised by the six FIFA confederations. The 1994 FIFA World Cup featured 24 teams with one place reserved for the host nation, United States, and one place for the defending champions, Germany. The remaining 22 places were determined by a qualification process, in which 147 teams, from the six FIFA confederations, competed. Most of the successful teams were determined within these confederations, with a limited number of inter-confederation play-offs occurring at the end of the process.
Thirteen teams withdrew: Liechtenstein, Cuba, Gambia, Burkina Faso, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Uganda, Myanmar and Western Samoa, and three team were excluded: Yugoslavia and Libya due to UN sanctions and Chile for unsporting conduct during 1990 qualification.
A total of 130 teams played at least one qualifying match. A total of 497 qualifying matches were played, and 1446 goals were scored (an average of 2.91 per match).The first qualification match, between Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, was played on 21 March 1992, and the Puerto Rican forward Marcos Lugris scored the first goal in qualification. Qualification ended on 17 November 1993, when European qualification ended and the OFC–CONMEBOL play-off match was played. Eighteen of FIFA's twenty-four top-ranked countries eventually qualified.1994 FIFA World Cup qualification (AFC)
Listed below are the dates and results for the 1994 FIFA World Cup qualification rounds for the Asian zone (AFC). For an overview of the qualification rounds, see the article 1994 FIFA World Cup qualification.
A total of 30 teams entered the competition. The Asian zone was allocated 2 places (out of 24) in the final tournament.
There were two rounds of play:
First Round: The 30 teams were divided into 6 groups of 5 teams each, although Myanmar and Nepal withdrew after playing no matches. The teams would play against each other twice. The group winners would advance to the Final Round.
Final Round: The 6 teams would play against each other once in Qatar. The group winner and runner-up would qualify.1994 FIFA World Cup qualification (CAF)
Listed below are the dates and results for the 1994 FIFA World Cup qualification rounds for the African zone (CAF). For an overview of the qualification rounds, see the article 1994 FIFA World Cup qualification.
A total of 40 CAF teams entered the competition. However, Burkina Faso, Malawi, São Tomé and Príncipe and Sierra Leone all withdrew before the draw was made. The African Zone was allocated three places (out of 24) in the final tournament.
There would be two rounds of play:
First Round: The 36 teams were divided into 9 groups of 4 teams each. The teams would play against each other on a home-and-away basis. The group winners would advance to the Final Round.
Final Round: The 9 teams were divided into 3 groups of 3 teams each. The teams would play against each other on a home-and-away basis. The group winners would qualify.1994 FIFA World Cup qualification (CONCACAF)
Listed below are the dates and results for the 1994 FIFA World Cup qualification rounds for the North, Central American and Caribbean zone (CONCACAF). For an overview of the qualification rounds, see the article 1994 FIFA World Cup qualification.
A total of 24 CONCACAF teams entered the competition. The North, Central American and Caribbean zone was allocated 2.25 places (out of 24) in the final tournament. The United States, as hosts, qualified automatically, leaving 1.25 spot open for competition between 22 teams, because Cuba (Caribbean group) withdrew before playing.
There would be three rounds of play. Mexico and Canada received byes and advanced to the second round directly. The remaining 20 teams were divided into two zones, based on geographical considerations, as follows:
Caribbean Zone: The 14 teams played in knockout matches on a home-and-away basis to determine three winners advancing to the second round.
Central American Zone: The six teams were paired up to play knockout matches on a home-and-away basis. The winners would advance to the second round.In the second round, the eight teams were divided into two groups of four teams each. They played against each other on a home-and-away basis. The group winners and runners-up would advance to the final round.
In the final round, the four teams played against each other on a home-and-away basis. The group winner would qualify. The runner-up would advance to the CONCACAF–OFC intercontinental play-off.1994 FIFA World Cup qualification (CONMEBOL)
Listed below are the dates and results for the 1994 FIFA World Cup qualification rounds for the South American zone (CONMEBOL). For an overview of the qualification rounds, see the article 1994 FIFA World Cup qualification.
A total of 9 CONMEBOL teams entered the competition. Chile was banned by FIFA due to the 1989 Maracanazo incident. The South American zone was allocated 3 direct places and 1 play-off places in the final tournament.
The 9 teams were divided into 2 groups. The teams would play against each other on a home-and-away basis. The number of teams and spots for each group were as follows:
Group A had 4 teams. The group winner would qualify. The runner-up would advance to the CONMEBOL / CONCACAF / OFC Intercontinental Play-off.
Group B had 5 teams. The group winner and runner-up would qualify.1994 FIFA World Cup qualification (OFC–CONMEBOL play-off)
The 1994 FIFA World Cup CONMEBOL–OFC qualification play-off was a two-legged home-and-away tie between the winners of the Oceania qualifying tournament and CONCACAF–OFC play-off winners, Australia, and the second-placed team from the CONMEBOL Group 1, Argentina.1994 FIFA World Cup qualification (UEFA)
A total of 39 UEFA teams entered qualification for the 1994 FIFA World Cup. However, Liechtenstein withdrew before the draw was made. Moreover, firstly the CIS, then Russia took the spot of Soviet Union after the Soviet Union was dissolved, and Yugoslavia were suspended by FIFA due to United Nations sanctions stemming from the Yugoslav wars. The European zone was allocated 13 from 24 places in the final tournament. Germany, the defending champions, qualified automatically, leaving 12 spots open for competition between 37 teams.
The 37 teams were divided into six groups, five of six teams each and one of seven teams (though Group 5 ended up with just five teams after Yugoslavia were suspended). The teams would play against each other on a home-and-away basis. The group winners and runners-up would qualify.
San Marino and Faroe Islands competed in World Cup qualifiers for the first time, and Israel moved to UEFA after competing in Oceanian zone for 1986 and 1990 qualification. while Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia competed separately after playing as a part of the Soviet Union from 1958 to 1990.1994 FIFA World Cup qualification (UEFA – Group 1)
Group 1 consisted of six of the 39 teams entered into the European zone: Estonia, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Scotland, and Switzerland. These six teams competed on a home-and-away basis for two of the 12 spots in the final tournament allocated to the European zone, with the group's winner and runner-up claiming those spots.1994 FIFA World Cup squads
Below are the squads for the 1994 FIFA World Cup final tournament in the United States. Greece, Italy, Saudi Arabia and Spain were the only countries who had all their players selected from domestic clubs, while the Republic of Ireland and Nigeria had no players from domestic clubs. Saudi Arabia were the only team with no players from European clubs.
The players' age, caps and clubs are as of 16 June 1994 (the tournament started on 17 June).André Egli
André "Andy" Egli (born 8 May 1958 in Bäretswil) is a retired Swiss football defender and current coach.
He was capped 79 times and scored 9 goals for the Swiss national team between 1979 and 1994. He was an unused substitute at the 1994 FIFA World Cup.Cotton Bowl (stadium)
Cotton Bowl Stadium is an outdoor stadium in Dallas, Texas, United States, opening in 1930 at the site of the State Fair of Texas. Concerts or other events using a stage allow the playing field to be used for additional spectators.
The Cotton Bowl was the longtime home of the annual college football post-season bowl game known as the Cotton Bowl Classic, for which the stadium is named. Starting on New Year's Day 1937, it hosted the first 73 editions of the game, through January 2009; the game was moved to AT&T Stadium in Arlington in January 2010. The stadium also hosts the Red River Showdown, the annual college football game between the Oklahoma Sooners and the Texas Longhorns, and the Heart of Dallas Bowl.
The stadium has been home to many football teams over the years, including: SMU Mustangs (NCAA), Dallas Cowboys (NFL; 1960–1971), Dallas Texans (NFL) (1952), Dallas Texans (AFL; 1960–1962), and soccer teams, the Dallas Tornado (NASL; 1967–1968), and FC Dallas (the Dallas Burn 1996-2004, FC Dallas 2005) (Major League Soccer; 1996–2002, 2004–2005). It was also one of the nine venues used for the 1994 FIFA World Cup.
It became known as "The House That Doak Built", due to the immense crowds that SMU running back Doak Walker drew to the stadium during his college career in the late 1940s.In their seventh season, the Cowboys hosted the Green Bay Packers for the NFL championship at the Cotton Bowl on January 1, 1967. The college bowl game that year included SMU and was played the day before, New Year's Eve, which required a quick turnaround to transform the field. The two games were filled to the 75,504 capacity, but both local teams came up short.
Artificial turf was installed in 1970 and removed in 1993 in preparation for the 1994 FIFA World Cup. The elevation of the playing field is approximately 450 feet (140 m) above sea level.Georges Bregy
Georges Bregy (born 17 January 1958 in Raron) is a retired Swiss football striker and midfielder.
He was capped 54 times and scored 12 goals for the Swiss national team between 1984 and 1994. He played four games at the 1994 FIFA World Cup, and scored a free kick goal against the United States.
Bregy won the top goalscorer title in Switzerland in 1984, having scored 21 goals during the season.
He coached Raron, Lausanne, Thun, Zürich and Stäfa.Ha Seok-ju
Ha Seok-ju (born February 20, 1968) is a retired South Korean football player and now a manager. Ha played for the South Korea national football team and was a participant at the 1994 FIFA World Cup and the 1998 FIFA World Cup.Manuel Díaz Vega
Manuel Díaz Vega (born September 1, 1954 in Salas, Asturias) is a Spanish retired football referee. He officiated one match in both the 1994 FIFA World Cup and the 1996 UEFA European Football Championship. He also refereed the 1996 UEFA Champions League Final between Juventus and Ajax.Paul Van Himst
Paul Van Himst (born 2 October 1943) is a retired Belgian football forward and a football manager. Now retired, he still supports R.S.C. Anderlecht, his former team.Sándor Puhl
Sándor Puhl (born 14 July 1955) is a retired Hungarian football referee. He is mostly known for supervising four matches in the 1994 FIFA World Cup in the United States, including the final between Brazil and Italy. He also refereed UEFA Champions League matches, including the 1997 UEFA Champions League Final between Borussia Dortmund and Juventus. Dortmund ended up being 3–1 winners.
He was elected as IFFHS' World's Best Referee of the Year four times in a row between 1994 and 1997.After retiring as a referee, he was Deputy Chairman of the Hungarian Football Association from 2000 to 2006. He has also worked as a co-commentator for a Hungarian sports TV channel.
Puhl speaks Hungarian, German, Italian and English.Zetti
Armelino Donizetti Quagliato, best known as Zetti (born 10 January 1965 in Porto Feliz) is a Brazilian former association football goalkeeper and manager. He is a goalkeeping analyst for ESPN Brasil.