1993 World Trade Center bombing

The 1993 World Trade Center bombing was a terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, carried out on February 26, 1993, when a truck bomb detonated below the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. The 1,336 lb (606 kg) urea nitratehydrogen gas enhanced device[1] was intended to send the North Tower (Tower 1) crashing into the South Tower (Tower 2), bringing both towers down and killing tens of thousands of people.[2][3] It failed to do so but killed six people and injured over a thousand.[4]

The attack was planned by a group of terrorists including Ramzi Yousef, Mahmud Abouhalima, Mohammad Salameh, Nidal A. Ayyad, Abdul Rahman Yasin, and Ahmed Ajaj. They received financing from Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Yousef's uncle. In March 1994, four men were convicted of carrying out the bombing: Abouhalima, Ajaj, Ayyad, and Salameh. The charges included conspiracy, explosive destruction of property, and interstate transportation of explosives. In November 1997, two more were convicted: Ramzi Yousef, the mastermind behind the bombings, and Eyad Ismoil, who drove the truck carrying the bomb.

1993 World Trade Center bombing
Part of terrorism in the United States
WTC 1993 ATF Commons
Underground damage after the bombing
LocationWorld Trade Center
New York City, New York, U.S.
Coordinates40°42′41″N 74°00′43″W / 40.711452°N 74.011919°WCoordinates: 40°42′41″N 74°00′43″W / 40.711452°N 74.011919°W
DateFebruary 26, 1993
12:17:37 p.m. (UTC-05:00)
TargetWorld Trade Center
Attack type
Truck bombing, mass murder
Deaths6
Non-fatal injuries
1,042
PerpetratorsRamzi Yousef, Eyad Ismoil, and co-conspirators
MotiveAmerican foreign policy
U.S. support for Israel

Planning and organization

Ramzi Yousef, who was born as Abdul Basit Mahmoud Abdul Karim in Kuwait, spent time at an al-Qaeda training camp in Afghanistan,[5] before beginning in 1991 to plan a bombing attack within the United States. Yousef's uncle Khalid Shaikh Mohammed Ali Fadden, who later was considered the principal architect of the September 11 attacks, gave him advice and tips over the phone, and funded his co-conspirator Mohammed Salameh with a US$660 wire transfer.[6]

Yousef arrived illegally in the United States on September 1, 1992, traveling with Ahmed Ajaj from Pakistan, though both sat apart on the flight and acted as though they were traveling separately. Ajaj tried to enter with a forged Swedish passport, though it had been altered and thus raised suspicions among INS officials at John F. Kennedy International Airport. When officials put Ajaj through secondary inspection, they discovered bomb-making instructions and other materials in his luggage, and arrested him. The name Abu Barra, an alias of Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, appeared in the manuals. Yousef tried to enter with a false Iraqi passport, claiming political asylum. Yousef was allowed into the United States, and was given a hearing date.[7]

Yousef set up residence in Jersey City, New Jersey, traveled around New York and New Jersey and called Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman, a controversial blind Muslim cleric, via cell phone. After being introduced to his co-conspirators by Abdel Rahman at the latter's Al-Farooq Mosque in Brooklyn, Yousef began assembling the 1,500 lb (680 kg) urea nitratehydrogen gas enhanced device for delivery to the WTC. He ordered chemicals from his hospital room when injured in a car crash – one of three accidents caused by Salameh in late 1992 and early in 1993.

El Sayyid Nosair, one of the blind sheikh's men, was arrested in 1991 for the murder of Rabbi Meir Kahane. According to prosecutors, "the Red" Mahmud Abouhalima, also convicted in the bombing, told Wadih el Hage to buy the .357 caliber revolver used by Nosair in the Kahane shooting. In the initial court case in NYS Criminal Court Nosair was acquitted of murder but convicted of gun charges (in a related and follow-up case in Federal Court, he was convicted). Dozens of Arabic bomb-making manuals and documents related to terrorist plots were found in Nosair's New Jersey apartment, with manuals from Army Special Warfare Center at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, secret memos linked to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and 1,440 rounds of ammunition. (Lance 2004 26)

Yousef's view of the attack

According to the transcript of his trial, Yousef hoped that his explosion would topple Tower 1 which would fall into Tower 2, killing the occupants of both buildings, which he estimated to be about 250,000 people[8] in vengeance for U.S. support for Israel against Palestine.[9]

According to the journalist Steve Coll, Yousef mailed letters to various New York newspapers just before the attack, in which he claimed he belonged to "Liberation Army, Fifth Battalion".[10]

These letters made three demands: an end to all US aid to Israel, an end to US diplomatic relations with Israel, and a pledge by the United States to end interference "with any of the Middle East countries' interior affairs." He stated that the attack on the World Trade Center would be merely the first of such attacks if his demands were not met. In his letters, Yousef admitted that the World Trade Center bombing was an act of terrorism, but this was justified because "the terrorism that Israel practices (which America supports) must be faced with a similar one." Yousef did not make any religious justification for the bombing . When asked about his religious views, he was evasive.[11]

Attack

1993 World Trade Center Bombing by Eric Ascalon WTC5
Image of the procession of rescue vehicles responding to the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. One World Trade Center is on the far right of the frame.
WTC1993 BlastDamage
Depiction of blast damage

On Friday, February 26, 1993, Ramzi Yousef and a Jordanian friend, Eyad Ismoil, drove a yellow Ryder van into Lower Manhattan, and pulled into the public parking garage beneath the World Trade Center around noon. They parked on the underground B-2 level. Yousef ignited the 20-foot fuse, and fled. Twelve minutes later, at 12:17:37 p.m., the bomb exploded in the underground garage, generating an estimated pressure of 150,000 psi.[12] The bomb opened a 30-m (98 ft) wide hole through four sublevels of concrete. The detonation velocity of this bomb was about 15,000 ft/s (4.5 km/s), or 10,066.2133 mph. Initial news reports indicated a main transformer might have blown, before it became clear that a bomb had exploded in the basement.

The bomb instantly cut off the World Trade Center's main electrical power line, knocking out the emergency lighting system. The bomb caused smoke to rise to the 93rd floor of both towers, including through the stairwells which were not pressurized, and smoke went up the damaged elevators in the World Trade Center Towers 1 & 2.[13] With thick smoke filling the stairwells, evacuation was difficult for building occupants and led to many smoke inhalation injuries. Hundreds were trapped in elevators in the towers when the power was cut, including a group of 17 kindergartners, on their way down from the South Tower observation deck, who were trapped between the 35th and 36th floors for five hours.[14][15]

Also as a result of the loss of power most of New York City's radio and television stations lost their over-the-air broadcast signal for almost a week, with television stations only being able to broadcast via cable and satellite via a microwave hookup between the stations and three of the New York area's largest cable companies, Cablevision, Comcast, and Time Warner Cable. Telephone service for much of Lower Manhattan was also disrupted.

Six people were killed, five Port Authority employees and a businessman whose car was in the parking garage. Additionally, 1,042 people were injured, most during the evacuation that followed the blast.[16] A report from the US Fire Administration states that, "Among the scores of people who fled to the roofs of the towers, 28 with medical problems were airlifted by New York City police helicopters". It is known that 15 people received traumatic injury from the blast and 20 complained of cardiac problems. One firefighter was hospitalized, while 87 others, 35 police officers, and an EMS worker were also injured in dealing with the fires and other aftermath.[17]

The plan was that if the bomb truck was parked at the right place, the North Tower would fall onto the South Tower, collapsing them both. The tower did not collapse according to Yousef's plan, but the garage was severely damaged in the explosion. Had the van been parked closer to the WTC's poured concrete foundations, Yousef's plan might have succeeded.[18] He escaped to Pakistan several hours after the bombing.

Bomb characteristics

Yousef was assisted by Iraqi bomb maker Abdul Rahman Yasin, who helped assemble the complex 1,310-pound (590 kg) bomb, which was made of a urea nitrate main charge with aluminum, magnesium and ferric oxide particles surrounding the explosive. The charge used nitroglycerine, ammonium nitrate dynamite, smokeless powder and fuse as booster explosives.[19] Three tanks of bottled hydrogen were also placed in a circular configuration around the main charge, to enhance the fireball and afterburn of the solid metal particles.[20] The use of compressed gas cylinders in this type of attack closely resembles the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing 10 years earlier. Both of these attacks used compressed gas cylinders to create fuel-air and thermobaric bombs[21] that release more energy than conventional high explosives. According to testimony in the bomb trial, only once before the 1993 attack had the FBI recorded a bomb that used urea nitrate.[22][23][24] The Ryder van used in the bombing had 295 cubic feet (8.4 m3) of space, which would hold up to 2,000 pounds (910 kg) of explosives. However, the van was not filled to capacity. Yousef used four 20 ft (6 m) long fuses, all covered in surgical tubing. Yasin calculated that the fuse would trigger the bomb in twelve minutes after he had used a cigarette lighter to light the fuse.

Yousef wanted the smoke to remain in the tower, therefore catching the public eye by smothering people inside, killing them slowly. He anticipated Tower One collapsing onto Tower Two after the blast.

There remains a popular belief that there was cyanide in the bomb, which is reinforced by Judge Duffy's statement at sentencing, "You had sodium cyanide around, and I'm sure it was in the bomb." However, the bomb's true composition was not able to be ascertained from the crime scene and Robert Blitzer, a senior FBI official who worked on the case, stated that there was "no forensic evidence indicating the presence of sodium cyanide at the bomb site." Furthermore, Yousef is said only to have considered adding cyanide to the bomb, and to have regretted not doing so in Peter Lance's book 1000 Years for Revenge.

Investigation

Though the cause of the blast was not immediately known, with some suspecting a transformer explosion, agents and bomb technicians from the ATF, FBI, and the NYPD quickly responded to the scene. The magnitude of the explosion was far beyond that of a transformer explosion and the FBI Laboratory Division technician, David Williams, who took charge of the crime scene, claimed to know prior to scientific testing the nature and size of the bomb which other lab specialists such as Stephen Burmeister and Frederic Whitehurst contradicted and later challenged with embarrassing consequences for the FBI Laboratory.[25] In the days after the bombing, investigators surveyed the damage and looked for clues. About 300 FBI agents were deployed under the codename TRADEBOM.[26] While combing through the rubble in the underground parking area, a bomb technician located some internal component fragments from the vehicle that delivered the bomb. A vehicle identification number (VIN), found on a piece from an axle, gave investigators crucial information that led them to a Ryder truck rental outlet in Jersey City. Investigators determined that the vehicle had been rented by Mohammed A. Salameh, one of Yousef's co-conspirators.[27] Salameh had reported the van stolen, and when he returned on March 4, 1993, to get his deposit back, authorities arrested him.[28]

Salameh's arrest led police to the apartment of Abdul Rahman Yasin in Jersey City, New Jersey, which Yasin was sharing with his mother, in the same building as Ramzi Yousef's apartment. Yasin was taken to the FBI's Newark field office in Newark, New Jersey, and was then released. The next day, he flew back to Iraq, via Amman, Jordan. Yasin was later indicted for the attack, and in 2001 he was placed on the initial list of the FBI Most Wanted Terrorists, on which he remains today. He disappeared before the U.S. coalition invasion, Operation Iraqi Freedom, in 2003. In March 1994, Salameh, Nidal Ayyad, Mahmud Abouhalima and Ahmad Ajaj were each convicted in the World Trade Center bombing. In May 1994, they were sentenced to life imprisonment.[29]

The capture of Salameh and Yasin led authorities to Ramzi Yousef's apartment, where they found bomb-making materials and a business card from Mohammed Jamal Khalifa. Khalifa was arrested on December 14, 1994, and was deported to Jordan by the INS on May 5, 1995. He was acquitted by a Jordanian court and lived as a free man in Saudi Arabia until he was killed in 2007.[30] In 2002, it was made public that Yasin, the only person involved in the bombing who was never convicted by US authorities,[31] was being held as a prisoner on the outskirts of Baghdad, Iraq since 1994.[31] When journalist Leslie Stahl interviewed him there for a segment on 60 Minutes on May 23, 2002 [31] Yasin appeared in prison pyjamas and handcuffs.[31] Yasin has not been seen or heard from since the interview. He was not located during the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

None of the U.S. government's indictments against former al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden suggested that he had any connection with this bombing.[32]

Aftermath

Victims

4.28.12Feb93BombingPanelN-73ByLuigiNovi2
The names of the six victims, and the mention of an unborn child, of the attack are inscribed in panel N-73 of the North Pool at the 9/11 Memorial, where the North Tower formerly stood.

The bombing claimed the following six victims:

  • John DiGiovanni, age 45, a dental products salesperson.
  • Robert "Bob" Kirkpatrick, age 61, Senior Structural Maintenance Supervisor.
  • Stephen Knapp, age 47, Chief Maintenance Supervisor, Mechanical Section.
  • Bill Macko, age 57, General Maintenance Supervisor, Mechanical Section.
  • Wilfredo Mercado, age 37, a receiving agent for Windows on the World restaurant.
  • Monica Rodriguez Smith age 35, a secretary, who was seven months pregnant.

At the time of the bombing, Smith was checking time sheets in her office on the B-2 level, Kirkpatrick, Knapp and Macko were eating lunch together in an employees' break room next to Smith's office, Mercado was checking in deliveries for the restaurant, and DiGiovanni was parking in the underground garage.[33]

Memorial Fountain

A granite memorial fountain honoring the victims of the bombing was designed by Elyn Zimmerman and dedicated in 1995 on Austin J. Tobin Plaza, directly above the site of the explosion. It contained the names of the six adults who were killed in the attack as well as an inscription that read:

"On February 26, 1993, a bomb set by terrorists exploded below this site. This horrible act of violence killed innocent people, injured thousands, and made victims of us all."[34]

The fountain was destroyed with the rest of the World Trade Center during the September 11 attacks. A recovered fragment from the 1993 bombing memorial with the text "John D", from bombing victim John DiGiovanni, was later incorporated into a temporary memorial designed by Port Authority architect Jacqueline Hanley, and erected on the Liberty Street side of the site following the September 11 attacks. The memorial was visible across a fence barrier but was not open to the public.[35]

At the 9/11 Memorial, which opened on the tenth anniversary of the 2001 attacks, the six adult victims of the 1993 bombing are memorialized at the North Pool, on Panel N-73.[36] The recovered fragment of the memorial fountain is on display among other artifacts[37] related to the bombing inside the museum's historical exhibition.

Stephen Knapp's name is on the Postcards memorial in Staten Island, as the sole victim from the borough involved in the bombing.

FBI involvement

In the course of the trial it was revealed that the FBI had an informant, a former Egyptian army officer named Emad Salem. Salem claims to have informed the FBI of the plot to build a bomb that would eventually be used in the World Trade Center towers as early as February 6, 1992. Salem's role as informant allowed the FBI to quickly pinpoint the conspirators out of hundreds of possible suspects. The transcripts do not make clear the extent to which Federal Authorities knew that there was a plan to bomb the World Trade Center, merely that a bombing of some sort was being discussed.

Salem claimed that the FBI's plan was for Salem to supply the conspirators with a harmless powder instead of actual explosive to build their bomb, but that the FBI chose to use him for other purposes instead. He secretly recorded hundreds of hours of telephone conversations with his FBI handlers.[38]

U.S. Diplomatic Security Service involvement

1993 Bombing Aftermath in WTC by DSS Agent
Aftermath of the bombing, photographed by DSS agents

Although the FBI received the credit, Diplomatic Security Service (DSS) special agents actually found and arrested Ramzi Ahmed Yousef, the architect of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. Special Agents Bill Miller and Jeff Riner were given a tip by an associate of Ramzi Yousef about his location. In coordination with the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), DSS arrested Yousef.[39] After his arrest, Ramzi Yousef is alleged to have said to investigators "this is only the beginning."

Allegations of Iraqi involvement

In October 2001 in a PBS interview, former CIA Director James Woolsey claimed that Ramzi Yousef worked for Iraqi intelligence.[40] He suggested the grand jury investigation turned up evidence pointing to Iraq that the Justice Department "brushed aside." But Neil Herman, who headed the FBI investigation, noted "The one glaring connection that can't be overlooked is Yasin. We pursued that on every level, traced him to a relative and a location, and we made overtures to get him back." However, Herman says that Yasin's presence in Baghdad does not mean Iraq sponsored the attack: "We looked at that rather extensively. There were no ties to the Iraqi government." CNN terrorism reporter Peter L. Bergen writes, "In sum, by the mid-'90s, the Joint Terrorism Task Force in New York, the F.B.I., the U.S. Attorney's office in the Southern District of New York, the C.I.A., the N.S.C., and the State Department had all found no evidence implicating the Iraqi government in the first Trade Center attack."[41]

Claims of direct Iraqi involvement come from Dr. Laurie Mylroie of the American Enterprise Institute and former associate professor of the U.S. Naval War College, with the claims rejected by others. CNN reporter Peter Bergen has called her a "crackpot" who claimed that "Saddam was not only behind the '93 Trade Center attack, but also every anti-American terrorist incident of the past decade, from the bombings of U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania to the leveling of the federal building in Oklahoma City bombing to September 11 itself."[41] Daniel Benjamin, a senior fellow at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, writes: "The most knowledgeable analysts and investigators at the CIA and at the FBI believe that their work conclusively disproves Mylroie's claims."[42] Dr. Robert Leiken of the Nixon Center comments on the lack of evidence in her work: "Laurie has discovered Saddam's hand in every major attack on US interests since the Persian Gulf War, including U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania and even the federal building in Oklahoma City. These allegations have all been definitively refuted by the FBI, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and other investigatory bodies...."[43]

In March 2008, the Pentagon released its study of some 600,000 documents captured in Iraq after the 2003 invasion (see 2008 Pentagon Report). The study "found no 'smoking gun' (i.e., direct connection) between Saddam's Iraq and al Qaeda."[44] Among the documents released by the Pentagon was a captured audio file of Saddam Hussein speculating that the 1993 attack on the World Trade Center had been carried out by Israel or American intelligence, or perhaps a Saudi or Egyptian faction. Saddam said that he did not trust the bomber Yasin, who was in Iraqi custody, because his testimony was too "organized." The Pentagon study found that Yasin "was a prisoner, and not a guest, in Iraq."[45] Mylroie denied that this was proof of Saddam's non-involvement, claiming that "one common purpose of such meetings was to develop cover stories for whatever Iraq sought to conceal."[46]

Improved security

In the wake of the bombing and the chaotic evacuation which followed, the World Trade Center and many of the firms inside of it revamped emergency procedures, particularly with regard to evacuation of the towers. The New York Port Authority was to govern as the main security for the World Trade buildings. All packages were scanned at various checkpoints then sent up to the proper addressee. These policies played a role in evacuating the building during the September 11 attacks, which destroyed the towers.

Free access to the roofs, which had enabled evacuation by police helicopter in the 1993 bombing, was ended soon after.

Legal responsibility

The victims of the 1993 World Trade Center bombings sued the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey for damages. A decision was handed down in 2005, assigning liability for the bombings to the Port Authority.[47] The decision declared that the agency was 68 percent responsible for the bombing, and the terrorists bore only 32 percent of the responsibility. In January 2008, the Port Authority asked a five-judge panel of the Appellate Division of the New York State Supreme Court in Manhattan to throw out the decision, describing the jury's verdict as "bizarre".[48] On April 29, 2008, a New York State Appeals Court unanimously upheld the jury's verdict. Under New York law once a defendant is more than 50 percent at fault, he/she/it can be held fully financially liable.[49] On September 22, 2011, the New York Court of Appeals, in a four to three ruling, excluded the Port Authority from claims of negligence related to the 1993 bombing.[50]

It has been argued that the problem with the apportionment of responsibility in the case is not the jury's verdict, but rather New York's tort-reform-produced state apportionment law. Traditionally, courts do not compare intentional and negligent fault. The Restatement Third of Torts: Apportionment of Liability recommends a rule to prevent juries from having to make comparisons like the terrorist-Port Authority comparison in this case. However, if a jurisdiction does compare these intentional and negligent torts, courts' second-best position is to do what the NYS Appeals Court did—to uphold all jury apportionments, even those that assign greater, or perhaps far greater, responsibility to negligent than intentional parties.[51]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Whitlock, Craig (July 5, 2005). "Homemade, Cheap and dangerous – Terror Cells Favor from Simple Ingredients In Building Bombs". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
  2. ^ Childers, J. Gilmore; Henry J. DePippo (February 24, 1998). "Senate Judiciary Committee Hearings: Foreign Terrorists in America: Five Years After the World Trade Center". US Senate Judiciary Committee. Archived from the original on December 27, 2007. Retrieved January 8, 2008.
  3. ^ Wright, Lawrence, Looming Tower, Knopf, (2006) p. 178.
  4. ^ "FBI 100 First Strike: Global Terror in America". FBI.gov. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  5. ^ Wright (2006), Chapter 9.
  6. ^ "Khalid Sheikh Mohammed". GlobalSecurity.org. Archived from the original on October 21, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
  7. ^ "Foreign Terrorists in America". 1998 Congressional Hearings – Intelligence and Security. Federation of American Scientists. February 24, 1998. Retrieved October 27, 2008.
  8. ^ Glanz, James; Lipton, Eric (January 21, 2014). City in the Sky: The Rise and Fall of the World Trade Center. Times Books. ISBN 9781466863071.
  9. ^ Wright, Lawrence (August 8, 2006). The Looming Tower. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 178. ISBN 9780307266088.
  10. ^ Coll, Steve (2004). Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001. The Penguin Press HC. ISBN 1-59420-007-6.
  11. ^ Parachini, John V. (September 16, 2001). "Religion Isn't Sole Motive of Terror". www.rand.org. Retrieved April 13, 2019.
  12. ^ Reeve (1999), p. 10.
  13. ^ Barbanel, Josh (February 27, 1993). "Tougher Code May Not Have Helped". The New York Times. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
  14. ^ Mathews, Tom (March 8, 1993). "A Shaken City's Towering Inferno". Newsweek. Archived from the original on October 30, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
  15. ^ Stone, Andrea (March 1, 1993). "A major calamity, a lot of fear". USA Today.
  16. ^ Reeve (1999), p. 15.
  17. ^ "The World Trade Center Bombing: Report and Analysis" (PDF). US Fire Administration, DHS. February 1993. Retrieved October 25, 2011.
  18. ^ "An Icon Destroyed". MSNBC. 2003. Archived from the original on March 16, 2005.
  19. ^ "Abdul Rahman Yasin". Most Wanted Terrorists. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Archived from the original on October 14, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
  20. ^ "Foreign Terrorists In America". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
  21. ^ Paul Rogers(2000) Politics in the Next 50 Years: The Changing Nature of International Conflict.
  22. ^ "Urea nitrate rarely used as explosive."
  23. ^ Alternate link: If you get a 403 server error, try this link and then click on the link for "Page 16335".
  24. ^ Frederic Whitehurst, FBI Lab Whistleblower Testifying at the World Trade Center Bombing Trial August 14, 1995 [1][2]
  25. ^ Newton, Michael. (2003). The FBI encyclopedia. Jefferson, N.C. : McFarland & Co. p. 376. ISBN 9780786417186.
  26. ^ Poveda, Tony; Powers, Richard; Rosenfeld, Susan; Theoharis, Athan G. The FBI: A Comprehensive Reference Guide. Greenwood. p. 94. ISBN 978-0897749916.
  27. ^ Reeve (1999), pp. 27–32.
  28. ^ Reeve (1999), pp. 32–26.
  29. ^ http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/05/us/1993-world-trade-center-bombing-fast-facts/
  30. ^ "Gems, al-Qaida and murder. Mystery over killing of Osama Bin Laden's friend". The Guardian. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
  31. ^ a b c d 60 Minutes (May 31, 2002). "60 Minutes: The Man Who Got Away". 60 Minutes. Retrieved February 4, 2012.
  32. ^ "FBI — USAMA BIN LADEN". FBI. Archived from the original on May 26, 2016. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
  33. ^ https://www.911memorial.org/1993-wtc-bombing-victims
  34. ^ "9/11 Living Memorial - 1993 WTC Bombing - Memorials". Voices of September 11. Archived from the original on July 20, 2012. Retrieved March 10, 2012.
  35. ^ "WTC Memorial for '93 victims unveiled". Downtown Express. 2005. Retrieved September 9, 2009.
  36. ^ "North Pool: Panel N-73". National September 11 Memorial & Museum. Archived from the original on July 27, 2013. Retrieved December 9, 2011.
  37. ^ https://www.911memorial.org/1993-world-trade-center-bombing-artifacts
  38. ^ Blumenthal, Ralph (October 28, 1993). "Tapes Depict Proposal to Thwart Bomb Used in Trade Center Blast". The New York Times. p. Section A, Page 1, Column 4. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
  39. ^ Katz, Samuel M. "Relentless Pursuit: The DSS and the manhunt for the al-Qaeda terrorists", 2002.
  40. ^ "Interviews: R. James Woolsey". Frontline: Gunning for Saddam. PBS. Archived from the original on October 29, 2008. Retrieved October 16, 2008.
  41. ^ a b Bergen, Peter (December 2003). "Armchair Provocateur". Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on November 1, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
  42. ^ Benjamin, Daniel and Steven Simon (2005). The Next Attack. Times Books. p. 145. ISBN 0-8050-7941-6.
  43. ^ Glazov, Jamie (February 11, 2005). "Symposium: The Saddam-Osama Connection: Part II". FrontPage Magazine. Archived from the original on July 30, 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
  44. ^ Woods, Kevin M. and James Lacey (November 2007). "Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents – Executive Summary; Volume 1" (PDF). Institute for Defense Analysis / Federation of American Scientists. pp. 16, 18, 51. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 31, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
  45. ^ Eli Lake, Report Details Saddam's Terrorist Ties, New York Sun, March 14, 2008.
  46. ^ Laurie Mylroie, More To Uncover on Saddam, New York Sun, April 2, 2008.
  47. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/27/nyregion/port-authority-found-negligent-in-1993-bombing.html
  48. ^ Hartocollis, Anemona (January 14, 2008). "Blame for 1993 Attack at Center Is Still at Issue". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 9, 2008. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
  49. ^ Hartocollis, Anemona (April 30, 2008). " "Port Authority Liable in 1993 Trade Center Attack". The New York Times. Retrieved October 26, 2008.
  50. ^ "1993 World Trade Center Bombing Fast Facts". CNN. November 5, 2013. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
  51. ^ Ellen M. Bublick, Upside Down? Terrorists, Proprietors and Responsibility for Criminal Harm in the Post-9/11 Tort-Reform World.

Sources

  • Lance, Peter (2003). 1000 Years for Revenge. HarperCollins.
  • Reeve, Simon (1999). The New Jackals: Ramzi Yousef, Osama bin Laden and the Future of Terrorism. Northeastern University Press.
  • Wright, Lawrence (2006). The Looming Tower: Al Qaeda and the Road to 9/11. Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-41486-X.
  • Dwyer, Jim; Kocieniewski, David; Murphy, Deidre; Tyre, Peg (1994). Two Seconds Under the World: terror comes to America—the conspiracy behind the World Trade Center bombing. New York: Crown Publishers. ISBN 0-517-59767-5. OCLC 30623523.

External links

1998 Bank of America robbery

The 1998 Bank of America robbery was a robbery of $1.6 million in cash at the Bank of America in 1 World Trade Center, in New York City, on January 14, 1998.

The robbery was plotted and executed by an actor and petty criminal named Ralph Guarino. Guarino received some intelligence from a WTC worker named Salvatore Calciano, who told him about the increased security that followed the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and would later give him his employee ID badge. Calciano also told Guarino when a Brink's armored truck would arrive to deliver money via elevator to the 11th floor of the North Tower (Tower One) of the WTC.

The two of them planned the robbery and recruited three other criminals to complete the actual robbery: Richie Gillette, 39, from Windsor Terrace, Brooklyn, as well as his friends Melvin Folk, 44, and Mike Reed, 34.

On Wednesday, January 14, 1998, a Brink's van pulled up to the World Trade Center at around 8:30 a.m. and began unloading some bags of money. Only Gillette wore a ski mask to make it more difficult for others to identify him. They successfully subdued the WTC employees and guards to steal the bags. They took a total of $1.6 million (worth $2.5 million today). The robbers exited the WTC at 8:45 a.m.

In the aftermath of the robbery, Folk and Reed returned to their old neighborhoods and were quickly identified and captured. Gillette was questioned by security after boarding an Amtrak train but was not detained at the time. He was later found and arrested in Albuquerque, New Mexico, two days later, at 8:30 p.m. January 16. The FBI did not believe the three had acted alone and began to search for a mastermind. Guarino had various ideas of how to get rid of the money but ultimately was unable to follow through on any plans before FBI agents came to arrest him at his Staten Island home. Following his arrest, Guarino agreed to become an FBI informant on the DeCavalcante mafia family.

Abdul Rahman Yasin

Abdul Rahman Yasin (Arabic: عبد الرحمن يس ‎; born April 10, 1960) is an Iraqi-American fugitive who helped make the bombs used in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing attack. He has been characterized in the American media as "the only participant in the first attempt to blow up the World Trade Center in 1993 who was never caught." Yasin's whereabouts remain unknown.

Andrew C. McCarthy

Andrew C. McCarthy III (born 1959) is an American columnist for National Review. He served as an Assistant United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York. A Republican, he is most notable for leading the 1995 terrorism prosecution against Sheikh Omar Abdel-Rahman and eleven others. The defendants were convicted of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and planning a series of attacks against New York City landmarks. He also contributed to the prosecutions of terrorists who bombed United States embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. He resigned from the Justice Department in 2003.

Assassination of Anwar Sadat

The assassination of Anwar Sadat occurred on 6 October 1981. Anwar Sadat, the President of Egypt, was assassinated during the annual victory parade held in Cairo to celebrate Operation Badr, during which the Egyptian Army had crossed the Suez Canal and taken back a small part of the Sinai Peninsula from Israel at the beginning of the Yom Kippur War. A fatwa approving the assassination had been obtained from Omar Abdel-Rahman, a cleric later convicted in the US for his role in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. The assassination was undertaken by members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad.

Central Park Medical Unit

The Central Park Medical Unit (CPMU) is an all-volunteer ambulance service that provides completely free emergency medical service to patrons of Central Park and the surrounding streets, in Manhattan, New York City, United States. In addition to its three ambulances, CPMU also operates a rapid-response bike patrol, particularly during major events such as the New York City Marathon, the 1998 Goodwill Games, and concerts in Central Park (like the 2003 Dave Matthews Band Concert and the 2008 Bon Jovi Concert). CPMU has also helped the greater New York City community during the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center, the American Airlines Flight 587 crash, the 2003 North America blackout as well as Hurricane Sandy.

Founded in 1975, CPMU's 150 certified emergency medical technicians respond to 3,000 calls annually. Many of these calls are true medical emergencies resulting in life saving care—which represents over two and a half million dollars in free care to the people of New York City. CPMU's ambulances have a response time consistently under three minutes, the lowest of any ambulance corps in the state of New York. CPMU has been recognized by numerous city and state officials, including citations from the New York City Police Department, Fire Department, Office of Emergency Management, and Department of Parks and Recreation.

Members of CPMU come from all walks of life, ranging from college students to retirees. As one of the few opportunities to volunteer as an EMT in Manhattan, CPMU trains recent EMT graduates in the practical application of their skills. CPMU is completely funded by private donations, relying on the support of corporations and individuals and receiving no financial support from the city, state, or federal governments.

Craig Wolff

Craig Wolff is an American journalist and author and a former sports, feature, and news writer for The New York Times. He was a journalism professor at New York University and the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. He is currently an editor at The Star-Ledger of Newark, N.J.

While reporting for The New York Times, Wolff was part of the team that won the Pulitzer Prize for coverage of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. He also covered the story of Tawana Brawley, which he and four of his colleagues turned into Outrage: The Story Behind the Tawana Brawley Hoax in 1990.

In 2003, he co-wrote My Heart Will Cross This Ocean: My Story, My Son, Amadou with Kadiatou Diallo, the mother of police brutality victim Amadou Diallo. It won a 2004 Christopher Award for "work that raises the human spirit."

David N. Kelley

David N. Kelley (born December 1, 1959) is an American attorney and a former United States Attorney and Deputy U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York (SDNY). He was also a co-chair of the United States Justice Department’s nationwide investigation into the September 11 attacks.

Kelley, who served as chief of the organized crime and terrorism unit in the U.S. Attorney's Office for the SDNY, is noted for leading the investigations of the 2000 millennium attack plots and the October 2000 attack on the USS Cole in Yemen, and for prosecuting Ramzi Yousef for his role in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. He was named Special Assistant United States Attorney in the Eastern District of Virginia acting as co-lead prosecutor of John Walker Lindh. Kelley is also noted for obtaining convictions of WorldCom CEO Bernie Ebbers in his prosecution for accounting fraud and Martha Stewart in the ImClone stock trading case.Kelley was raised in East Hampton, NY, and has lived in the New York metropolitan area for most of his life. He earned his undergraduate degree from The College of William & Mary and law degree in 1986 from New York Law School. Kelley was a policeman and a fireman while attending law school. After leaving the U.S. Attorney's office in 2005, Kelley joined Wall Street law firm Cahill Gordon & Reindel as a partner in its litigation and corporate investigations practice. He is currently a partner and co-leader in the White Collar and Securities Litigation practice group at Dechert.

Eyad Ismoil

Eyad Ismoil (Arabic: اياد اسماعيل‎), also transliterated as Eyad Ismail (born circa 1971), is a Jordanian citizen who, for his role in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, was convicted by the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York of conspiracy in 1997.

Joy Malbon

Joy Malbon is a Canadian journalist with CTV National News, based in Washington D.C. A veteran of more than 20 years in television, Malbon has covered a variety of major events first hand including the death of Princess Diana, the second Palestinian Intifada, the fall of the Berlin Wall, the Kosovo War, the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, Hurricane Katrina, the Rodney King verdict, Canada’s Westray mining disaster, the debate over the Meech Lake Accord and the sex-slaying trial of Paul Bernardo. As a political correspondent in Ottawa, Malbon covered landmark decisions at the Supreme Court of Canada and followed the rise of Stephen Harper and the Conservative Party of Canada. Over the years she’s been Bureau Chief for CTV in London, Halifax and Winnipeg, and has been posted to Toronto and Jerusalem. Malbon is married to Paul Hunter, a correspondent for CBC Television in Washington.

Mahmud Abouhalima

Mahmud Abouhalima (born 1958) is a convicted perpetrator of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. His red hair earned him the nickname Mahmud the Red.

Marriott World Trade Center

The Marriott World Trade Center was a 22-story steel-framed hotel building with 825 rooms. It was also known as World Trade Center 3 (WTC 3 or 3 WTC), the World Trade Center Hotel, the Vista Hotel and the Marriott Hotel. It opened in July 1981 as the Vista International Hotel and was located at 3 World Trade Center in Manhattan, New York City, with the World Trade Center complex having its own zip code of 10048. The hotel was destroyed beyond repair as a result of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, after the collapse of the Twin Towers. The hotel was not replaced as part of the new World Trade Center complex, but does share its name with the new office tower.

The Vista International was the first hotel to open in Lower Manhattan since 1836. The building was designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and was originally owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and KUO Hotels of Korea, with Hilton International acting as management agent. It was sold in 1995 to Host Marriott Corporation, after an extensive renovation following the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.

The hotel was connected to the North and South towers, and many went through the hotel to get to them. The hotel had a few establishments including The American Harvest Restaurant, The Greenhouse Café, Tall Ships Bar & Grill, a store called Times Square Gifts, The Russia House Restaurant, and a Grayline New York Tour Bus ticket counter. It also housed a gym that was the largest of any hotel in New York at the time, and a hair salon named Olga's. The hotel also had 26,000 square feet (2,400 m2) of meeting space on the entire 3rd floor, along with the New Amsterdam Ballroom on the main floor. It was considered a four-diamond hotel by AAA.In 2002, Host Marriott Corporation was offered an opportunity to rebuild the hotel in the same location within the World Trade Center site as its lease had not expired. Marriott rejected the offer, thus giving the land to the National September 11 Memorial & Museum.

Mohammed A. Salameh

Mohammed A. Salameh (Arabic: محمد سلامة‎) (born September 1, 1967 in the West Bank) is a convicted perpetrator of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. He is currently an inmate at ADX Florence in Florence, Colorado.

Omar Abdel-Rahman

Sheikh Omar Abdel-Rahman (Arabic: عمر عبد الرحمن‎, Umar 'Abdu r-Raḥman; 3 May 1938 – 18 February 2017), commonly known in the United States as "The Blind Sheikh", was a blind Egyptian Muslim leader who served a life sentence at the Federal Medical Center, Butner in Butner, North Carolina, United States. Formerly a resident of New York City, Abdel-Rahman and nine others were convicted of seditious conspiracy. His prosecution grew out of investigations of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.

Abdel-Rahman was the leader of Al-Jama'a al-Islamiyya (also known as "The Islamic Group"), a militant Islamist movement in Egypt that is considered a terrorist organization by the United States and Egyptian governments. The group was responsible for many acts of violence, including the November 1997 Luxor massacre, in which 58 foreign tourists and four Egyptians were killed.

Postcards (memorial)

Postcards is an outdoor sculpture in the St. George neighborhood of Staten Island, New York City, United States of America. Built in 2004, it is a permanent memorial honoring the 274 Staten Island residents killed in the September 11 attacks of 2001 and in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. The dead include many who worked at the World Trade Center, police and firefighters who joined the rescue effort and were killed when the towers collapsed, and one passenger on United Airlines Flight 93, who died in the crash in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. One individual who was killed in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing is also represented.

Ramzi Yousef

Ramzi Yousef (Arabic: رمزي يوسف‎ Ramzī Yūsuf; born 27 April 1968) is a convicted and incarcerated international terrorist who was one of the main perpetrators of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, the bombing of Philippine Airlines Flight 434, and was a co-conspirator in the Bojinka plot. In 1995, he was arrested by the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) and U.S. Diplomatic Security Service at a guest house in Islamabad, Pakistan while trying to set a bomb in a baby doll, then extradited to the United States.

He was tried in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of New York along with two co-conspirators and was convicted of planning the Bojinka plot. He received two life sentences plus 240 years for his part in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and Bojinka plot.

Yousef's maternal uncle is Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, with whom he allegedly planned the Bojinka plot. Mohammed is a senior al-Qaeda member accused of being the principal architect of the September 11 attacks in 2001. Yousef is serving his life sentences at ADX Florence, located near Florence, Colorado. He shares a cell block that is commonly referred to as "Bombers Row" with Terry Nichols, Eric Rudolph, and Ted Kaczynski.

Siraj Wahhaj

Siraj Wahhaj (born Jeffrey Kearse (Arabic: سراج وهاج‎), March 11, 1950) is an African-American imam of Al-Taqwa mosque in Brooklyn, New York and the leader of The Muslim Alliance in North America (MANA). He was also the former vice-president of the Islamic Society of North America.

To the Struggle Against World Terrorism

To the Struggle Against World Terrorism (also known as the Tear of Grief and the Tear Drop Memorial) is a 10–story sculpture by Zurab Tsereteli that was given to the United States as an official gift of the Russian government as a memorial to the victims of the September 11 attacks in 2001 (26 of whom were Russian) and the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. It stands at the end of the former Military Ocean Terminal in Bayonne, New Jersey. Groundbreaking was done on September 16, 2005, in a ceremony attended by Russian President Vladimir Putin, and was dedicated on September 11, 2006, in a ceremony attended by former U.S. President Bill Clinton.

Urban terrorism

Urban Terrorism, is the targeted use of terrorism in urban populations in order to cause the most harm, injury, death, or property damage. Since urban areas have significantly higher population densities than rural areas, targeting those areas can maximize the effect of the terrorist attack.

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