1992 Winter Olympics

The 1992 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XVIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver), were a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 8 to 23 February 1992 in Albertville, France. They were the last Winter Olympics to be held the same year as the Summer Olympics,[1][2] and the first where the Winter Paralympics were held at the same site. Albertville was selected as host in 1986, beating Sofia, Falun, Lillehammer, Cortina d'Ampezzo, Anchorage and Berchtesgaden. The games were the third Winter Olympics held in France, after Chamonix in 1924 and Grenoble in 1968, and the fifth Olympics overall in the country.

Only some of the skating and the opening and closing ceremonies took place in Albertville, while the rest of the events took place in the villages of Courchevel, La Plagne, Les Arcs, Les Menuires, Les Saisies, Méribel, Pralognan-la-Vanoise, Tignes and Val d'Isère. Sixty-four nations with 1,801 athletes participated in the games, including the Unified Team which represented non-Baltic former Soviet republics. Germany participated as a unified team, while five newly independent European countries debuted, as did six "warm-weather" countries. Short track speed skating, moguls and women's biathlon made their debut as an Olympic sport. The games were the last Winter Games until 2014 to have demonstration sports, consisting of curling, aerials, ski ballet and speed skiing. It was the last Olympics to have an outdoor speed skating rink. The games were succeeded by the 1992 Winter Paralympics from 25 March to 1 April.

Norwegians won every male cross-country skiing race, with Bjørn Dæhlie and Vegard Ulvang both collecting three gold. Ski jumper Toni Nieminen, 16, became the youngest male gold medalist of a Winter Olympic event. Petra Kronberger won both the combined event and the slalom, while Bonnie Blair won both the 500 m and 1000 m speed skating events and Gunda Niemann took both of the longest races. Kim Kihoon earned gold medals in both men's short track events. Ye Qiaobo of China won the country's first medal in the Winter Olympics, a silver in women's 500 metres speed skating. Annelise Coberger of New Zealand won the southern hemisphere's first Winter Olympic medal—a silver in the women's slalom. Nicolas Bochatay was killed during a training session. Germany won the most medals and the most gold.

XVI Olympic Winter Games
1992 Winter Olympics logo
Emblem of the 1992 Winter Olympics[a]
Host cityAlbertville, France
MottoAt the Peak of Performance
(French: A la Pointe de la Performance)
Nations64
Athletes1,801 (1313 men, 488 women)
Events57 in 6 sports (12 disciplines)
Opening8 February
Closing23 February
Opened by
Cauldron
StadiumThéâtre des Cérémonies
Winter
Calgary 1988 Lillehammer 1994
Summer
Seoul 1988 Barcelona 1992

Host city selection

Olímpic France 2
Mexican sculptor Abel Ramírez Águilar working on his gold medal piece in snow sculpture competition related to the Games

The vote to select the host city of the 1992 Winter Olympics was conducted on 17 October 1986, in Lausanne, Switzerland, at the 91st IOC Session. A record of seven different locales bid for these Games.[3]

Legacy

The 1992 Olympic Winter Games marked the last time both the Winter and Summer games were held in the same year. The 1992 Olympics also marks the last time France hosted the Olympics. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics.

Cost and cost overrun

The Oxford Olympics Study established the outturn cost of the Albertville 1992 Winter Olympics at USD 2.0 billion in 2015-dollars and cost overrun at 137% in real terms.[5] This includes sports-related costs only, that is, (i) operational costs incurred by the organizing committee for the purpose of staging the Games, e.g., expenditures for technology, transportation, workforce, administration, security, catering, ceremonies, and medical services, and (ii) direct capital costs incurred by the host city and country or private investors to build, e.g., the competition venues, the Olympic village, international broadcast center, and media and press center, which are required to host the Games. Indirect capital costs are not included, such as for road, rail, or airport infrastructure, or for hotel upgrades or other business investment incurred in preparation for the Games but not directly related to staging the Games. The cost and cost overrun for Albertville 1992 compares with costs of USD 2.5 billion and a cost overrun of 13% for Vancouver 2010, and costs of USD 51 billion and a cost overrun of 289% for Sochi 2014,[6] the latter being the most costly Olympics to date. Average cost for Winter Games since 1960 is USD 3.1 billion, average cost overrun is 142%.

Mascot

Magique (Magic) was the Olympic mascot of these Games, and was a little imp in the shape of a star and a cube. It was created by Philippe Mairesse and was presented in 1989. His star shape symbolises dreams and imagination. His colours come from the French flag, with a red hat and a blue costume.

Notable events

  • Freestyle skiing moguls, short-track speedskating and women's biathlon made their debuts as medal disciplines.
  • Norwegian skiers won every male cross-country skiing race. Bjørn Dæhlie and Vegard Ulvang each won three gold medals.
  • Speedskater Bonnie Blair won both the 500 and 1,000 m events; Gunda Niemann took both of the longest races.
  • Ski jumper Toni Nieminen, 16, became the youngest male gold medalist of a Winter Olympic event.
  • Italian alpine skier Alberto Tomba won the Giant Slalom for the second time in a row.
  • Austrian alpine skier Petra Kronberger won both the combined event and the slalom.
  • Kim Kihoon earned gold medals in both men's short-track inaugural events at this Olympics.
  • Ye Qiaobo of China won the country's first medal in the Winter Olympics, a silver in women's 500 metres speed skating (she added another silver in 1000 metres).
  • Annelise Coberger of New Zealand won the southern hemisphere's first Winter Olympic medal—a silver in the women's slalom.
  • Kristi Yamaguchi of the United States and Midori Ito of Japan became the first persons of Asian descent to win Olympic medals in figure skating.
  • Midori Ito became the first woman to land a triple Axel in Olympic competition.
  • The Swiss speed skier Nicolas Bochatay died on the morning of the speed-skiing finals, when he collided with a snow-grooming vehicle while skiing on a public slope outside the racing area.

Sports

There were 57 events contested in 6 sports (12 disciplines). See the medal winners, ordered by sport:

Demonstration sports

This was the final time demonstration sports were included in the Winter Olympics programme.

  • Curling – Competed for the first time since 1924. It became a regular discipline in 1998.
  • Freestyle skiing – Although moguls skiing was an official discipline, aerials and ski ballet were still considered demonstration events.
  • Speed skiing – A death occurred during a training session. The sport has not been included in the Winter Olympics program.

Participating nations

A total of 64 nations sent athletes to compete in these Games. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, six states formed a Unified Team, while the Baltic States of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania had their own teams. Croatia and Slovenia, who were making their first appearance at the Winter Olympics, competed as independent nations after leaving Yugoslavia. The UN sanctions against Yugoslavia that saw them miss the 1992 Summer Olympics had yet to come into effect. The German team won most medals in the games, with a total of 10 gold medals, 10 silver and 6 bronze. It was the first time since the 1936 Winter Olympics that Germany competed with a unified team after the reunification.

Making their debuts were Algeria, Bermuda, Brazil, Honduras, Ireland and Swaziland (as well as the previously mentioned Croatia and Slovenia). It would also be the only appearance for both Honduras and Swaziland in Winter Olympics to date.

Venues

The 1992 Games are (as of today) the last ones where the speed skating venue was outdoors.

Medal table

(Host nation is highlighted.)

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 Germany1010626
2 Unified Team¹96823
3 Norway96520
4 Austria67821
5 United States54211
6 Italy46414
7 France3519
8 Finland3137
9 Canada2327
10 South Korea2114
Totals (10 nations)534940142

(¹ combined team with athletes from 6 nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States; team only appeared in these Winter Olympics)

Broadcasting Rights

ORF

Ten Australia

CBC

CCTV

DR1

EBU, Eurosport

Yle

TF1, France 2, France 3

ARD ZDF

RÚV

RAI

TVNZ

NRK

TVR

SVT1

SRG SSR

BBC, ITV

CBS Sports,[7][8][9] Turner Sports

See also

Notes

Notes

  1. ^ The emblem is the flag of Savoy region in the shape of the Olympic flame, dancing above stripes representing the flag of France.

Citations

  1. ^ "Albertville 1992". www.olympic.org. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2010.
  2. ^ "The Olympic Winter Games Factsheet" (PDF). International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
  3. ^ IOC Vote History
  4. ^ "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  5. ^ Flyvbjerg, Bent; Stewart, Allison; Budzier, Alexander (2016). The Oxford Olympics Study 2016: Cost and Cost Overrun at the Games. Oxford: Saïd Business School Working Papers (Oxford: University of Oxford). pp. 9–13. SSRN 2804554.
  6. ^ "Sochi 2014: the costliest Olympics yet but where has all the money gone?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-02-12.
  7. ^ Stewart, Larry (9 February 1992). "The Olympic Winter Games at Albertville: With CBS in Charge, McKay Will Be Among the Missing". Los Angeles Times.
  8. ^ Carter, Bill (3 February 1992). "THE MEDIA BUSINESS: Albertville 92; CBS Gambling Heavily On Success of Olympics". The New York Times.
  9. ^ Sandomir, Richard (2 February 1992). "ALBERTVILLE '92; CBS Winter Vacation Ends After 32 Years". The New York Times.

External links

Preceded by
Calgary
Winter Olympics
Albertville

XVI Olympic Winter Games (1992)
Succeeded by
Lillehammer
1992 Winter Olympics medal table

The 1992 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event held in Albertville, France, from February 8 to February 23. A total of 1,801 athletes representing 64 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) (+7 from 1988 Olympics) participated in 57 events (+11 from 1988) from 12 different sports and disciplines (+2 from 1988). In a break from tradition, the medals were primarily made of crystal rather than metal: gold, silver, or bronze was used only on the border.Athletes from 20 NOCs won at least one medal, and athletes from 14 secured at least one gold medal. Making their first Olympic appearance since German reunification in 1990, Germany led in both gold and overall medals, with 10 and 26 respectively. The Unified Team, consisting of athletes from six former Soviet republics, was second in both categories, with 9 gold and 23 overall medals. Four nations won their first Winter Olympic medal in Albertville. South Korea won the country's first Winter Olympic medal—a gold—when Kim Ki-hoon came first in the newly introduced Olympic sport of short track speed skating. Silver medal-winning slalom skier Annelise Coberger—in addition to winning New Zealand's first Winter Olympic medal—became the first athlete from the Southern Hemisphere to win a medal at the Winter Olympics. Speed skater Ye Qiaobo of the People's Republic of China and alpine skier Marc Girardelli of Luxembourg also won their country's first ever Winter Olympic medals in Albertville. Croatia and Slovenia participated at their first Olympic Games as independent nations, though neither won a medal.Two athletes, both cross-country skiers for the Unified Team, tied for the most medals for an individual athlete with five each. Lyubov Yegorova won three gold and two silver medals, while Yelena Välbe won one gold and four bronze medals. Ski jumper Toni Nieminen of Finland became the youngest male to win a gold medal in the Winter Olympics at the age of 16.

Alpine skiing at the 1992 Winter Olympics

Alpine Skiing at the 1992 Winter Olympics at Albertville, France, consisted of ten alpine skiing events, held 9–22 February. The men's races were held at Val d’Isère, except for the slalom, which was at Les Menuires. All five women's events were conducted at Méribel.

Austria at the 1992 Winter Olympics

Austria competed at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France.

Biathlon at the 1992 Winter Olympics

Biathlon at the 1992 Winter Olympics consisted of six biathlon events. They were held at Les Saisies, about 40 kilometres from the host city of Albertville. The events began on 11 February and ended on 20 February 1992.The 1992 Games were the first in which women competed in biathlon.

The Russian biathlete Sergei Tarasov admitted in 2015 that the EUN biathlon team had carried out illegal blood transfusions at the Games. Something went very wrong with his transfusion, and he was rushed to the hospital where they saved his life.

Bobsleigh at the 1992 Winter Olympics

Bobsleigh at the 1992 Winter Olympics consisted of two events, at La Plagne. The competition took place between February 15 and February 22, 1992.

Cross-country skiing at the 1992 Winter Olympics

The 1992 Winter Olympic games cross-country skiing results. The cross-country skiing competitions were held at Les Saisies, about 40 km from the host city Albertville.

Figure skating at the 1992 Winter Olympics

The figure skating events at the 1992 Winter Olympic Games were held at the Halle Olympique located next to the Théâtre des Cérémonies, two kilometres southwest of downtown Albertville.

The final placements were decided by factored placements. In the men's singles, ladies' singles and the pairs event, the short program (SP) was factored by 0.5, one-third (33.3%) of the total score, while the free skating (FS) was factored by 1.0, two-thirds (66.7%) of the total score. In ice dance, the two compulsory dances (CD) were factored by a total of 0.4 (0.2 each dance), which was 20% of the total score (10% each dance). The original dance (OD) was factored by 0.6 (30% of the total score), while the free dance (FD) was factored by 1.0 (50% of the total score). In the result of factored placements being tied, the free skating was the tie-breaker.

At the 1992 Winter Olympics, the short program was called the original program. The 1992 Winter Olympics was also the first time that the men's and ladies' events did not include a compulsory figures competition.

Finland at the 1992 Winter Olympics

Finland competed at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France.

Germany at the 1992 Winter Olympics

Germany competed at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France. It was the first time that the nation had competed at the Olympic Games following reunification in 1990. Previously, West Germany and East Germany had sent independent teams to the Games.

Great Britain at the 1992 Winter Olympics

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland competed as Great Britain at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France. As of 2018, this is the last time in Olympic history that Great Britain failed to win a medal.

Ice hockey at the 1992 Winter Olympics

The men's ice hockey tournament at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France, was the 16th Olympic Championship. The games were played at the Méribel Ice Palace in Méribel, about 45 km from host city Albertville. The competition, held from 8 to 23 February, was won by the Unified Team in its only appearance. The team was composed of some newly emerged nations from the former Soviet Union, which had dissolved just weeks before the Games began. Canada won the silver medal, its first hockey medal since 1968 and 11th Olympic ice hockey medal.

Netherlands at the 1992 Winter Olympics

This article lists athletes from the Netherlands who competed at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France.

Norway at the 1992 Winter Olympics

Norway competed at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France.

Pralognan-la-Vanoise

Pralognan-la-Vanoise is a commune in the Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.

The Patinoire olympique was the curling venue for the 1992 Winter Olympics.

South Korea at the 1992 Winter Olympics

South Korea, as Republic of Korea, competed at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France.

Speed skating at the 1992 Winter Olympics

Speed skating at the 1992 Winter Olympics, was held from 9 February to 20 February. Ten events were contested at L'anneau de vitesse.

Speed skiing at the 1992 Winter Olympics

Speed skiing was a demonstration sport at the 1992 Winter Olympics. The venue was in Les Arcs, about 60 km from the host city Albertville. Michael Prufer, a 31-year-old medical doctor from Savoie, improved his own 1988 world record by 5.558 km/h. Philippe Goitschel, the nephew of French ski champion Marielle Goitschel, was second and the American Jeffrey Hamilton was third. The competition was, however, marred by the death of Nicolas Bochatay from Switzerland, who died while free skiing the morning of the finals.

Tarja Mulari from Finland achieved a top speed of 219.245 km/h, breaking the previous women's world record of 214.723 km/h.

Toni Nieminen

Toni Markus Nieminen (born 31 May 1975) is a Finnish former ski jumper who competed from 1991 to 2004, with a brief comeback in 2016. He is one of the most successful contemporary ski jumpers from Finland, having won the World Cup in 1991, the Four Hills Tournament in 1992, and three medals at the 1992 Winter Olympics. He remains the youngest ever Winter Olympic gold medalist, at 16 years and 261 days. Additionally, he is known for being the first male ski jumper to land a jump surpassing 200 metres (660 ft), which he achieved in 1994 with a world record of 203 m (666 ft) in Planica.

Unified Team at the 1992 Winter Olympics

The Unified Team at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville was a joint team consisting of six of the fifteen former Soviet republics: Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Uzbekistan and Armenia. The Unified Team's only other appearance was at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona. It competed under the IOC country code EUN (from the French Equipe Unifiée).

1992 Winter Olympics
1992 Winter Olympics bidding results[4]
City Country Round 1 Round 2 Round 3 Round 4 Run-off Round 5
Albertville  France 19 26 29 42 51
Sofia  Bulgaria 25 25 28 24 25
Falun  Sweden 10 11 11 11 41 9
Lillehammer  Norway 10 11 9 11 40
Cortina d'Ampezzo  Italy 7 6 7
Anchorage  United States 7 5
Berchtesgaden  West Germany 6
Participating National Olympic Committees
Summer
Games
Winter
Games
Events at the 1992 Winter Olympics (Albertville)
Nations at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, France
Africa
America
Asia
Europe
Oceania
Other
Venues of the 1992 Winter Olympics (Albertville)

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