1991 Pacific typhoon season

The 1991 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1991, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November.[1] These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator and west of the international date line. Storms that form east of the date line and north of the equator are called hurricanes; see 1991 Pacific hurricane season. Tropical Storms formed in the entire west pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical depressions in this basin have the "W" suffix added to their number. Tropical depressions that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility are assigned a name by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration or PAGASA. This can often result in the same storm having two names.

1991 Pacific typhoon season
1991 Pacific typhoon season summary
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedMarch 5, 1991
Last system dissipatedDecember 5, 1991
Strongest storm
 • Maximum winds220 km/h (140 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure895 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions38
Total storms29
Super typhoons5 (unofficial)
Total fatalities~5,505
Total damage> $10.1 billion (1991 USD)
Related articles


32 tropical cyclones formed this year in the Western Pacific, of which 30 became tropical storms. 17 storms reached typhoon intensity, of which 5 reached super typhoon strength.

Severe Tropical Storm Sharon (Auring)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Sharon Mar 10 1991 0521
Sharon 1991 track
DurationMarch 5 – March 16
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

Sharon hit the Philippines.

Typhoon Tim

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
Tim Mar 24 1991 0426Z
Tim 1991 track
DurationMarch 20 – March 27
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  970 hPa (mbar)

On March 17, a cluster of thunderstorms grouped together which formed a low pressure area far east of the Mariana islands. The low pressure area rapidly intensified and became a tropical storm 4 days after formation. Favorable conditions allowed the system to continue to intensify into a Category 1 typhoon. High wind shear on March 25 caused the system to weakened, and it transitioned into an extratropical cyclone.

Tropical Storm Vanessa (Bebeng)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Vanessa Apr 26 1991 0634Z
Vanessa 1991 track
DurationApril 23 – April 28
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  994 hPa (mbar)

Vanessa deepened over the South China Sea.

Typhoon Walt (Karing)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Walt May 12 1991 0512Z
Walt 1991 track
DurationMay 5 – May 17
Peak intensity185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  915 hPa (mbar)

On May 3 an area of disturbed area formed south east of the Mariana Islands. A day later the system strengthened into a tropical depression, and continued to intensify into typhoon status four days later. The system showed annular characteristics on May 11, showing an axisymmetric shape. Walt reached peak intensity on May 12, before showing a distinct eyewall replacement cycle lasting four hours from late May 13 to May 14. When the eyewall replacement cycle was over, a new, larger eye measuring 65 kilometers across formed. Walt soon turned north east, becoming extratropical on May 17, before merging with another extratropical cyclone north east of Japan.

Typhoon Yunya (Diding)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 3 typhoon (SSHWS)
Typhoon Yunya 1991 on June 13
Yunya 1991 track
DurationJune 12 – June 17
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  950 hPa (mbar)

After a month without any activity in the Western Pacific, a weak tropical depression (with winds of only 10 knots) developed just east of the Philippines and south of the Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough on June 11. Located in an area of little wind shear, it headed southwestward, developing spiral-band outflow and becoming a tropical storm on the 12th. As a small central dense overcast (CDO) developed over Yunya, it rapidly developed, becoming a typhoon on the 13th as it paralleled the eastern Philippines. The mid-level ridge forced Yunya westward, where it briefly reached a peak intensity of 120 mph (195 km/h) winds on the 14th. Subsequently, the eastward building of the subtropical ridge produced unfavorable vertical wind shear that weakened Yunya to a minimal typhoon before hitting Dingalan Bay, Luzon early on the 15th. Yunya left Luzon as a minimal tropical storm at Lingayen Gulf. It turned northward due to a break in the ridge, and dissipated on the 17th near southern Taiwan due to the vertical shear.

Yunya would likely have been an uneventful cyclone had it not struck Luzon on the same day as the climactic eruption of Mount Pinatubo. The ash cloud that normally would have been dispersed across the oceans was redistributed over Luzon by the cyclonic winds of the typhoon, greatly exacerbating the damage caused by the eruption. The water-laden ash fell over the evacuated Clark Air Base, as well as the rest of Luzon, resulting in downed power lines and the collapse of flat-roofed buildings. In some areas it was practically raining mud.

Yunya exited Luzon through the Lingayen Gulf as a weak tropical storm and then turned north toward a break in the subtropical ridge. The system continued to weaken due to the strong vertical wind shear. It then brushed the southern coast of Taiwan as a tropical depression and finally dissipated before it could complete full recurvature into the mid-latitude westerlies. Yunya directly caused one death from the flooding and heavy rainfall it left.[2]

Typhoon Zeke (Etang)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
Zeke jul 9 1991 0552Z
Zeke 1991 track
DurationJuly 9 – July 15
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  970 hPa (mbar)

At least 23 people were killed by Zeke on Hainan Island.[3]

Typhoon Amy (Gening)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
Amy jul 18 1991 0551Z
Amy 1991 track
DurationJuly 14 – July 20
Peak intensity175 km/h (110 mph) (10-min)  930 hPa (mbar)

145 mph Typhoon Amy, having developed on July 12 over the open Western Pacific, brushed southern Taiwan on the 18th. Its outflow became restricted, and Amy hit southern China on the 19th as a 120 mph typhoon. It caused heavy flooding, resulting in 99 casualties, 5000 people injured, and 15,000 people homeless. In addition, Amy caused the sinking of the freighter in a river, resulting in an additional 31 deaths.

Severe Tropical Storm Brendan (Helming)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
Brendan Jul 22 1991 0645Z
Brendan 1991 track
DurationJuly 19 – July 25
Peak intensity110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  980 hPa (mbar)

Brendan hit China.

Typhoon Caitlin (Ising)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
Caitlin Jul 28 1991 0539Z
Caitlin 1991 track
DurationJuly 21 – July 30
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  940 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Caitlin developed from a disturbance in the eastern Caroline Islands. A tropical depression formed on July 23 as the system moved towards the northwest. Tropical Storm Caitlin was named the on the 24th and was upgraded to a typhoon the next day. Typhoon Caitlin though several hundred miles away increased the monsoonal flow over the Philippines. Heavy rains caused landslides in the Mt. Pinatubo region killing 16 people. As Caitlin turned to the north the storm passed 60 miles (97 km) to the west of Kadena AB, Okinawa at peak intensity of 110 mph. The heavy rains from Caitlin helped to relieve the ongoing drought on the island, one death was reported. Typhoon Caitlin then began to accelerate northwards and passed through the Korea Strait before turning extratropical in the Sea of Japan. Heavy flooding in South Korea killed 2 people and caused $4 million in damage.[4]

Tropical Depression Enrique

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Enrique Jul 31 1991 2004Z
Enrique 1991 track
DurationJuly 31 (Entered basin) – August 1
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (1-min)  1016 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Storm Enrique formed in the eastern Pacific basin, where it reached its peak intensity as a category 1 Hurricane, becoming Hurricane Enrique. Enrique lasted for several days drifting north of the Hawaiian Islands as a weak system.[5][6][7] As Enrique approached the International Dateline, the system started to redevelop. Shortly after crossing the dateline, Enrique became a tropical storm again on August 1. It lasted for less than 24 hours before strong upper-level wind shear dissipated its convection, exposing the cyclone's circulation.[8] No damages or casualties were caused by Enrique.[7][8][9] It is one of only seven tropical cyclones to exist in all three tropical cyclone basins in the Pacific Ocean.[8] The others are 1986's Georgette,[10] 1994's Li and John, 1999's Dora, 2014's Genevieve and 2018's Hector.

Tropical Depression Doug

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Doug Aug 9 1991 2106Z
Doug 1991 track
DurationAugust 7 – August 10
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (1-min)  1000 hPa (mbar)

Doug was a tropical storm according to the JTWC.

Typhoon Ellie (Mameng)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
Ellie 1991 Aug 13 2142Z
Ellie 1991 track
DurationAugust 10 – August 19
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  960 hPa (mbar)

Ellie hit Taiwan.

Typhoon Fred (Luding)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
Fred 1991 Aug 16 0007Z
Fred 1991 track
DurationAugust 11 – August 18
Peak intensity140 km/h (85 mph) (10-min)  960 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Fred organized from a monsoon trough situated to the east of the Central Philippines, a depression formed on August 11. The depression moved across northern Luzon Island, upon entering the South China Sea the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Fred. Fred reached typhoon intensity on August 14 as the storm moved south of Hong Kong. Typhoon Fred reached peak intensity of 110 mph (180 km/h) shortly before moving across Hainan Island. Fred then turned to the southwest across the Gulf of Tonkin and made a final landfall in northern Vietnam before dissipating. As Typhoon Fred moved south of Hong Kong the oil rig support barge DB29 sank with 195 people on board;[11] 22 people on board the ship were killed. On Hainan Island heavy flooding and landslides from Fred's rains killed 16 people.[12]

Tropical Depression 13W

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
13W 1991 Aug 12 0423Z
13-W 1991 track
DurationAugust 11 – August 13
Peak intensity45 km/h (30 mph) (1-min)  1002 hPa (mbar)

13W lasted two days.

Severe Tropical Storm Gladys

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
Gladys 1991 Aug 21 0604Z
Gladys 1991 track
DurationAugust 15 – August 24
Peak intensity110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  965 hPa (mbar)

Minimal typhoon Gladys brushed by southern Japan on August 22. It moved to the northwest, and hit the Korean Peninsula on the 23rd. It caused more than 20 million yen of damage in Japan, more than 270 million won of damage in South Korea, and in South Korea, it left 103 dead or missing and more than 20,000 homeless.

Tropical Storm 15W

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
15-W 1991 Aug 27 2254Z
15-W 1991 track
DurationAugust 26 – August 30
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  992 hPa (mbar)

15W was a long-lived depression that moved northwest.

Tropical Storm Harry

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Harry 1991 Aug 30 2210Z
Harry 1991 track
DurationAugust 28 – August 31
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  992 hPa (mbar)

Harry hit Japan.

Typhoon Ivy

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
Ivy 1991 Sept 6 2220Z
Ivy 1991 track
DurationSeptember 2 – September 10
Peak intensity175 km/h (110 mph) (10-min)  935 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Ivy formed from a broad monsoon trough situated near Kosrae in the eastern Caroline Islands. A tropical depression formed on September 2 as the system moved towards the northwest, the next day the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Ivy. Ivy began to rapidly intensify and reached typhoon strength as the storm passed 130 miles (210 km) east of Tinian and Saipan in the Northern Mariana Islands. On Saipan one drowning death was reported, but only minor damage was reported in the Northern Marianas. Typhoon Ivy continued on a northwesterly path and reached peak strength of 130 mph (210 km/h) on September 7 prior to recurving to the northeast. Ivy paralleled the southeastern Japan coastline and turned extratropical 600 miles (970 km) to the east of Tokyo. As Typhoon Ivy made its closest approach to Honshū, Tokyo and surrounding areas were buffeted by high winds and heavy rains. Over 200 landslides were reported and one person was killed with 4 others missing. [13]

Tropical Storm Joel

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Joel 1991 Sept 6 0620Z
Joel 1991 track
DurationSeptember 3 – September 8
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

Joel hit southern China.

Typhoon Kinna (Neneng)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
Kinna 1991 Sept 13 0600Z
Kinna 1991 track
DurationSeptember 10 – September 14
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  955 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Kinna formed in a monsoon trough in the western Caroline Islands. A tropical depression began to organize on September 10 to the west of Guam, Tropical Storm Kinna was named later the same day. As Kinna moved towards the northwest the storm began to gather strength and reached typhoon intensity on September 12 just prior to turning north threatening Japan. On the 12th Typhoon Kinna made a direct landfall on southern Okinawa Island at peak strength of 105 mph (169 km/h). Kinna maintained peak intensity after recurving to the north-northeast and making landfall on Kyūshū Island. Typhoon Kinna's eyewall passed directly over Nagasaki and Sasebo cities on September 13, both cities reported wind gusts of 115 mph (185 km/h). Kinna continued moving across Japan and became extratropical near the northern coast of Honshū Island. On Okinawa Kinna dropped more than 8 inches (200 mm) of rain, in Japan most of the damage occurred near Nagasaki. Throughout Japan and Okinawa 9 deaths were attributable to Typhoon Kinna's passage.[13]

Typhoon Mireille (Rosing)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Typhoon Mireille 22 sept 1991 2236Z
Mireille 1991 track
DurationSeptember 13 – September 28
Peak intensity185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  925 hPa (mbar)

On September 13, Tropical Depression 21W developed over the open Western Pacific. It tracked westward under the influence of the Subtropical Ridge, slowly organizing until becoming a tropical storm on the 15th. A small storm, Mireille rapidly became a typhoon on the 16th, but larger Tropical Storm Luke to its north and Typhoon Nat to its west kept Mireille a minimal typhoon. When the other two storms were far enough away, Mireille rapidly intensified, reaching super typhoon strength on the 22nd with a peak of 150 mph (240 km/h) winds. The storm recurved to the northeast, where it slowly weakened until hitting southwestern Japan on the 27th as a 105 mph (169 km/h) typhoon. Mireille continued to the northeast, and became extratropical later that day, after causing 52 casualties and heavy crop damage amounting to $3 billion (1991 USD). The name Mireille was retired after this season and was replaced by Melissa. The Panama flagged vessel MV "Darshan" loaded with cement clinker from Ube, Japan and intended to bound for Kuching, East Malaysia has grounded in the Eastern part of Hime-shima island "Princess Island".

Severe Tropical Storm Luke (Pepang)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Luke 1991 Sept 18 0542Z
Luke 1991 track
DurationSeptember 14 – September 19
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  980 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Storm Luke formed from a disturbance that moved through the Northern Marianas and became a tropical depression on September 14 just to the west of the islands. The depression began to slowly intensify as it moved towards the west-northwest and Tropical Storm Luke was named on September 15. Luke reached peak intensity of 60 mph (97 km/h) prior to recurving to the northeast and weakening due to increased shear. Tropical Storm Luke then paralleled the southeastern Japan coastline, dropping heavy rains. The resulting flooding and landslides killed 8 people and left 10 others missing prior to Luke turning extratropical east of central Honshū Island.[13]

Typhoon Nat (Oniang)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 3 typhoon (SSHWS)
Nat 1991 Sept 22 0635Z
Nat 1991 track
DurationSeptember 14 – October 3
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  950 hPa (mbar)

Nat took an erratic track for over two weeks.

Typhoon Orchid (Sendang)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
Orchid 1991 Oct 7 0521Z
Orchid 1991 track
DurationOctober 3 – October 14
Peak intensity175 km/h (110 mph) (10-min)  930 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Orchid formed from a broad monsoon trough that moved through the Northern Marianas and became a tropical depression on October 4 to the west of the islands. The depression moved on a westerly path and strengthened into Tropical Storm Orchid later the same day. Orchid then began to rapidly intensify and reach peak strength on 130 mph (210 km/h) on October 7 prior to turning to the northeast and accelerating. Typhoon Orchid paralleled the southeast coast of Shikoku and Honshū Islands. As Orchid brushed the islands 96 landslides and heavy flooding were reported in and around the Tokyo region, one person was reported killed due to flooding. Though a great distance away the waves from Orchid and Typhoon Pat combined to produce tremendous waves resulting in the deaths of 2 people on Guam.[13]

Typhoon Pat

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
Pat 1991 Oct 9 2142Z
Pat 1991 track
DurationOctober 4 – October 13
Peak intensity175 km/h (110 mph) (10-min)  925 hPa (mbar)

Pat stayed at sea.

Typhoon Ruth (Trining)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Ruth 1991 Oct 24 0523Z
Ruth 1991 track
DurationOctober 19 – October 31
Peak intensity215 km/h (130 mph) (10-min)  895 hPa (mbar)

Super Typhoon Ruth formed from a tropical disturbance the originated between Chuuk and Pohnpei, as the disturbance moved on a westerly path, a tropical depression formed on October 20. Tropical Storm Ruth was named on the 21st as the storm moved to the southwest of Guam and began to steadily intensity. Ruth reached typhoon strength on October 22 and became a super typhoon on the 24th as the storm reached peak intensity of 165 mph (266 km/h). Super Typhoon Ruth began to slowly decline in strength as it neared the northern Philippines. Typhoon Ruth made landfall on October 27 on northern Luzon Island with winds of 115 mph (185 km/h) before weakening to a tropical storm. Heavy flooding and numerous landslides were reported on Luzon Island as a result 12 people were killed. After departing Luzon Island Tropical Storm Ruth recurved south of Taiwan and dissipated. Heavy seas caused the freighter Tung Lung to sink west of Taiwan, all 18 aboard were killed.[13]

Typhoon Seth (Warling)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 super typhoon (SSHWS)
SETH nov 4 1991 0455Z
Seth 1991 track
DurationNovember 1 – November 15
Peak intensity185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  925 hPa (mbar)

A Category 4 Super Typhoon that affected the northern part of the Philippines. During most of Seth's early life, Seth remained a Tropical Storm, until it encountered warmer waters, where it began to reach its peak intensity on November 5. Seth peaked as a strong category 4 storm, but considerably weakened under typhoon strength when it made landfall in the Philippines as a Tropical Storm. After crossing through the Philippines near the end of its life, Seth stalled and dissipated about halfway between the Philippines and mainland Asia. Seth did feature a well defined eye, and struck the same area of the Philippines right after Super Typhoon Ruth did.

Tropical Storm Thelma (Uring)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
TS Thelma 04 nov 1991 0511Z
Thelma 1991 track
DurationNovember 1 – November 8
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  992 hPa (mbar)

50 mph (80 km/h) Tropical Storm Thelma hit the central Philippines on November 4. It slowly tracked across the Archipelago, bringing heavy flooding across the islands. Vertical shear weakened it as it continued westward, and it dissipated on November 8 just after hitting southern Vietnam. Thelma, though a weak storm, caused dam failures, landslides, and flash flooding, resulting in a horrendous death toll of 6,000 people. Due to the massive casualties, the name Thelma was retired and replaced with Teresa.

Severe Tropical Storm Verne

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
VERNE nov 9 1991 2237Z
Verne 1991 track
DurationNovember 5 – November 12
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  980 hPa (mbar)

Verne curved away from land.

Tropical Storm Wilda (Yayang)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone north
Wilda 1991 track
DurationNovember 14 – November 20
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  992 hPa (mbar)

Wilda hit the Philippines.

Typhoon Yuri

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Typhoon Yuri 26 Nov 1991 2124z
Yuri 1991 track
DurationNovember 22 – December 1
Peak intensity220 km/h (140 mph) (10-min)  895 hPa (mbar)

Super Typhoon Yuri was the most powerful storm during the season, with winds reaching up to 120 knots (220 km/h), and a minimum recorded pressure of 895 mbar. This made Yuri the third most intense tropical cyclone on record at the end of 1991. Yuri caused $3 million (1991 USD) in damage to Pohnpei, including the loss of a radio tower. In Guam, the storm caused extensive beach erosion and destroyed between 60 and 350 buildings. There, damage totaled to $33 million (1991 USD).[14] It is one of the most closely observed storms ever, Its eye was studied for research.

Severe Tropical Storm Zelda

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
ZELDA nov 29 1991 2040Z
Zelda 1991 track
DurationNovember 27 – December 5
Peak intensity110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  975 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Storm Zelda was the last storm of the 1991 Pacific typhoon season.

Storm names

During the season 29 named tropical cyclones developed in the Western Pacific and were named by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, when it was determined that they had become tropical storms. These names were contributed to a revised list from mid-1989.

Sharon Tim Vanessa Walt Yunya Zeke Amy Brendan Caitlin Doug Ellie Fred Gladys Harry Ivy
Joel Kinna Luke Mireille Nat Orchid Pat Ruth Seth Thelma Verne Wilda Yuri Zelda


Auring Beben Karing Diding Etang
Gening Helming Ising Luding Mameng
Neneng Oniang Pepang Rening Sendang
Trining Uring Warling Yayang
Auxiliary list
Ading (unused)
Barang (unused) Krising (unused) Dadang (unused) Erling (unused) Goying (unused)

The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration uses its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones in their area of responsibility. PAGASA assigns names to tropical depressions that form within their area of responsibility and any tropical cyclone that might move into their area of responsibility. Should the list of names for a given year prove to be insufficient, names are taken from an auxiliary list, the first 10 of which are published each year before the season starts. Names not retired from this list will be used again in the 1995 season. This is the same list used for the 1987 season. PAGASA uses its own naming scheme that starts in the Filipino alphabet, with names of Filipino female names ending with "ng" (A, B, K, D, etc.). Names that were not assigned/going to use are marked in gray.


Due to extensive damage and a high death toll, the JTWC retired the names Mireille and Thelma, which were replaced by Melissa and Teresa. Both names were first used in the 1994 season. PAGASA also retired the name Uring with similar reasons and was replaced by Ulding for the 1995 season.

Season effects

This table summarizes all the systems that developed within or moved into the North Pacific Ocean, to the west of the International Date Line during 1991. The tables also provide an overview of a systems intensity, duration, land areas affected and any deaths or damages associated with the system.

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
Deaths Refs
Sharon (Auring) March 5 – 16 Severe tropical storm 95 km/h (60 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) Caroline Islands, Philippines None None
Tim March 20 – 27 Typhoon 165 km/h (105 mph) 940 hPa (27.76 inHg) Philippines, Japan None None
Vanessa (Bebeng) April 23 – 28 Tropical storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 994 hPa (29.35 inHg) Philippines, Vietnam, China None None
Walt (Karing) May 5 – 17 Typhoon 185 km/h (115 mph) 915 hPa (27.02 inHg) Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands None None
TD May 20 Tropical depression Not specified 1010 hPa (29.83 inHg) None None None
Yunya (Diding) June 12 – 17 Typhoon 150 km/h (90 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg) Philippines None 7
TD June 14 – 19 Tropical depression Not specified 1002 hPa (29.59 inHg) Caroline Islands None None
TD June 18 – 19 Tropical depression Not specified 1006 hPa (29.59 inHg) Mariana Islands None None
Zeke (Etang) July 9 – 15 Typhoon 120 km/h (75 mph) 970 hPa (28.79 inHg) Philippines, South China None 23
Amy (Gening) July 14 – 20 Typhoon 175 km/h (110 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) Philippines, Taiwan, China Unknown 130
TD July 14 – 18 Tropical depression Not specified 1002 hPa (29.59 inHg) Philippines None None
Brendan (Helming) July 19 – 25 Severe tropical storm 110 km/h (70 mph) 980 hPa (28.94 inHg) Philippines, Taiwan, South China None None
Caitlin (Ising) July 21 – 30 Typhoon 150 km/h (90 mph) 940 hPa (27.76 inHg) Philippines, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea $4 million 19
Enrique July 31 – August 1 Tropical depression 65 km/h (40 mph) 1016 hPa (30.01 inHg) None None None
TD August 2 Tropical depression Not specified 1002 hPa (29.59 inHg) None None None
Doug August 7 – 10 Tropical depression 65 km/h (40 mph) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) None None None
Ellie (Mameng) August 10 – 19 Typhoon 130 km/h (80 mph) 960 hPa (28.35 inHg) Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, East China None None
Fred (Luding) August 11 – 18 Typhoon 150 km/h (90 mph) 1000 hPa (27.53 inHg) Philippines, South China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand Unknown 38
13W August 11 – 13 Tropical depression 45 km/h (30 mph) 1002 hPa (29.59 inHg) None None None
Gladys August 15 – 24 Severe tropical storm 110 km/h (70 mph) 965 hPa (28.65 inHg) Japan, Korean Peninsula, Northeast China $420 thousand 103
TD August 19 – 24 Tropical depression Not specified 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) None None None
15W August 26 – 30 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg) Japan, South Korea None None
Harry August 28 – 31 Tropical storm 75 km/h (45 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg) Japan, South Korea None None
Ivy September 2 – 10 Typhoon 175 km/h (110 mph) 935 hPa (27.61 inHg) Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands, Japan Unknown 1
Joel September 3 – 31 Tropical storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) Philippines, China, Taiwan None None
Kinna (Neneng) September 10 – 14 Typhoon 150 km/h (90 mph) 955 hPa (28.20 inHg) Japan, Korean Peninsula Unknown 9
Mireille (Rosing) September 13 – 28 Typhoon 185 km/h (115 mph) 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) Marshall Islands, Mariana Islands, Japan, Korean Peninsula, Russia Far East $10 billion 64
Luke (Pepang) September 14 – 19 Severe tropical storm 100 km/h (65 mph) 980 hPa (28.94 inHg) Mariana Islands, Japan None 8
Nat (Oniang) September 14 – October 3 Typhoon 150 km/h (90 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg) Philippines, Taiwan, China Unknown None
Orchid (Sendang) October 3 – 14 Typhoon 175 km/h (110 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) Guam, Japan None None
Pat October 4 – 13 Typhoon 150 km/h (90 mph) 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) Mariana Islands None None
Ruth (Trining) October 19 – 31 Typhoon 215 km/h (130 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg) Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands, Philippines Unknown 30
Seth (Warling) November 1 – 15 Typhoon 185 km/h (115 mph) 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) Marshall Islands, Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands, Philippines Unknown None
Thelma (Uring) November 1 – 8 Tropical storm 75 km/h (45 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg) Philippines, Vietnam $27.7 million 5,081
Verne November 5 – 12 Severe tropical storm 100 km/h (65 mph) 980 hPa (28.94 inHg) Marshall Islands, Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands None None
Wilda (Yayang) November 14 – 31 Tropical storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg) Philippines None None
Yuri November 22 – December 1 Typhoon 220 km/h (140 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg) Marshall Islands, Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands $36 million None
Zelda November 27 – December 5 Severe tropical storm 110 km/h (70 mph) 975 hPa (28.79 inHg) Marshall Islands None None
Season aggregates
38 systems March 5 – December 5 220 km/h (140 mph) 895 hPa (26.43 inHg) >$10.1 billion ~5,505

See also


  1. ^ Gary Padgett. May 2003 Tropical Cyclone Summary. Archived 2010-11-30 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved August 26, 2006.
  2. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Typhoon Yunya. Retrieved on January 10, 2006.
  3. ^ https://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/thestar/access/465634551.html?dids=465634551:465634551&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Jul+20%2C+1991&author=Steve+Newman&pub=Toronto+Star&desc=Earthweek%3A+A+Diary+Of+The+Planet+For+the+week+ending+July+19%2F1991&pqatl=google
  4. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 7, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2007.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) Retrieved on December 26, 2007.
  5. ^ Central Pacific Hurricane Center. "CPHC Rebest 1966-2003" (XLS). Retrieved August 15, 2016.
  6. ^ Edward Rappaport (1991). "Preliminary Report Hurricane Enrique" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. p. 1. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
  7. ^ a b Edward Rappaport (1991). "Preliminary Report Hurricane Enrique" (GIF). National Hurricane Center. p. 2. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
  8. ^ a b c "Tropical Storm Enrique (06E)" (PDF). 1991 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. pp. 70–1. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 7, 2011. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
  9. ^ "The 1991 Central Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season". Central Pacific Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on December 11, 2006. Retrieved December 22, 2006.
  10. ^ Steve J. Fatjo. "Typhoons Georgette (11E) and Tip (10W)" (PDF). 1986 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report. Joint Typhoon Warning Center. pp. 58–66. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 7, 2011. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
  11. ^ "No. 52931". The London Gazette (Supplement). May 22, 1992. p. 8939.
  12. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. [1] Retrieved on December 26, 2007.
  13. ^ a b c d e Joint Typhoon Warning Center. [2] Retrieved on December 27, 2007.
  14. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Super Typhoon Yuri. Archived June 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on May 18, 2007.

External links

1991 Atlantic hurricane season

The 1991 Atlantic hurricane season was the first season since 1984 in which no hurricanes developed from tropical waves, which are the source for most North Atlantic tropical cyclones. The hurricane season officially began on June 1, and ended on November 30. It was the least active in four years due to higher than usual wind shear across the Atlantic Ocean. The first storm, Ana, developed on July 2 off the southeast United States and dissipated without causing significant effects. Two other tropical storms in the season – Danny and Erika – did not significantly affect land. Danny dissipated east of the Lesser Antilles, and Erika passed through the Azores before becoming extratropical. In addition, there were four non-developing tropical depressions. The second depression of the season struck Mexico with significant accompanying rains.

The most significant storm of the season was Hurricane Bob, which at the time was among the ten costliest United States hurricanes. After brushing the Outer Banks of North Carolina and Long Island in New York, the hurricane made landfall on Rhode Island. It caused $1.5 billion in damage (1991 USD), mostly in Massachusetts, and 17 fatalities. The strongest hurricane of the season was Claudette, which reached peak winds of 130 mph (215 km/h) near Bermuda. It passed near the island but did not cause any damage. Fabian was the only tropical storm to move over or near Cuba or Florida, producing heavy rainfall but no damage. Hurricane Grace, the final named storm of the season, provided the energy that led to the development of a powerful nor'easter known as the Perfect Storm. Originating from an extratropical storm, the Perfect Storm intensified while moving westward toward New England, leaving $200 million in damage and causing coastal damage from Puerto Rico to Florida and northward through Canada. It later transitioned into a hurricane over the Gulf Stream, finally dissipating over Nova Scotia on November 2.

1991 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 1991 North Indian Ocean Cyclone season was an extremely deadly and destructive season causing the deaths of more than 138,000 people and over $1.5 billion in damages. It was the period in which tropical cyclones formed to the north of the equator in the Indian Ocean. During the season tropical cyclones were monitored by the India Meteorological Department (IMD) and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The IMD assigned all depressions that it monitored with BOB followed by a number in numerical order. The JTWC also assigned a number and either the letter A or B depending on where the depression was when the first advisory was issued.

During the year there were eight depressions that were monitored by the IMD while the JTWC monitored four during the year of which one was not monitored by the IMD. The first cyclone of the year formed on January 17 and had little effect on ships that were moving through the Arabian sea to take part in the Gulf War. The deadliest cyclone during the year was Super Cyclonic Storm BOB 01, which killed over 138,000 people.

1991 Pacific hurricane season

The 1991 Pacific hurricane season was a near-average Pacific hurricane season. The worst storm this year was Tropical Storm Ignacio, which killed ten people in Mexico. Elsewhere, Tropical Storm Ignacio injured forty people in Mexico, and Hurricane Fefa caused flooding in Hawaii. Hurricane Kevin was the strongest system of the season and became the then longest-lasting hurricane in the eastern north Pacific basin. Hurricane Nora was the strongest November storm at that time.

The season officially started on May 15, 1991, in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1991, in the central Pacific. It lasted until November 30, 1991, in both basins. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

Tropical Storm Gladys (1991)

Tropical Storm Gladys in August 1991 was a large tropical cyclone that affected Japan and South Korea. An area of disturbed weather first formed within the Western Pacific monsoon trough on August 15. Slowly organizing, the disturbance developed into a tropical depression on August 15. Heading northwest, Gladys became a tropical storm the following day. Despite forecasts of significant strengthening, its large size only enabled slow intensification. After turning west, Gladys attained peak intensity on August 21 near Okinawa. After turning north and bypassing Kyushu, Gladys began to encounter significant wind shear, which caused weakening. Gladys veered west, interacting with land. Gladys weakened to a tropical depression on August 24, and dissipated the next day.

Affecting the Philippines weeks after a volcanic eruption, the storm forced 67,000 people to evacuate but there were no deaths. Across southern Japan, the storm dropped heavy rains, with rainfall totals in some areas exceeding 710 mm (28 in). Overall, 23 fatalities were reported and 11 others sustained injuries. Nearly 200,000 train passengers were stranded. A total 53 houses were destroyed while 4,162 others were flooded. According to the National Police Agency, torrential rains caused 92 landslides, damaged 48 roads, and washed away four bridges. Four ships as well as 4,142 ha (10,235 acres) of farmland were damaged. Monetary damage totaled ¥11.9 billion ($88.4 million USD). The storm's unusually large wind field resulted in extremely heavy precipitation across South Korea, where at least 90 people were killed while 62 others were injured. About 6,700 houses were flooded and over 1,500 houses were damaged, which resulted in 40,000 homeless. Over 100 ha (245 acres) of farmland were inundated. Damage there was estimated at $164 million USD.

Tropical Storm Luke (1991)

Tropical Storm Luke, known in the Philippines as Tropical Storm Pepang, was a short-lived tropical storm that brushed Japan during September 1991. Tropical Storm Luke formed from a disturbance that moved through the Northern Marianas and became a tropical depression on September 14 just to the west of the islands. The depression began to slowly intensify as it moved towards the west-northwest and Tropical Storm Luke was named on September 15. Luke reached peak intensity prior to recurving to the northeast and weakening due to increased shear. Tropical Storm Luke then paralleled the southeastern Japan coastline before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone. Overall, 12 people were killed and 23 others were injured. A total of 225 houses were destroyed while 52,662 others were flooded. There were reports of 644 landslides and roads were damaged at 418 locations. Rivers crested at 18 spots and six bridges were washed away. Greater than 40 domestic flights were cancelled. A total of 103 bullet trains were cancelled and 160 others delayed between Tokyo and Osaka, which left 315,000 people stranded. Additionally, 11,999 trains were halted in eastern and northern Japan, stranding 750,000 passengers. Two ships as well as 4,973 ha (12,290 acres) of farmland were damaged. Monetary damage totaled ¥24.2 billion yen (US$179 million).

Tropical Storm Thelma

Tropical Storm Thelma, known in the Philippines as Tropical Storm Uring, was one of the deadliest tropical cyclones in Philippine history, killing at least 5,081 people. Forming out of a tropical disturbance on November 1, 1991, several hundred kilometers north-northeast of Palau, the depression that would become Thelma tracked generally westward. After turning southwestward in response to a cold front, the system intensified into a tropical storm on November 4 as it approached the Philippines. Hours before moving over the Visayas, Thelma attained its peak intensity with estimated ten-minute sustained winds of 75 km/h (45 mph) and a barometric pressure of 992 mbar (hPa; 29.29 inHg). Despite moving over land, the system weakened only slightly, emerging over the South China Sea on November 6 while retaining gale-force winds. Thelma ultimately succumbed to wind shear and degraded to a tropical depression. On November 8, the depression made landfall in Southern Vietnam before dissipating hours later.

While passing over the Philippines, Thelma's interaction with the high terrain of some of the islands resulted in torrential rainfall. Through the process of orographic lift, much of the Visayas received 150 mm (6 in) of rain; however, on Leyte Island there was a localized downpour that brought totals to 580.5 mm (22.85 in). With the majority of this falling in a three-hour span, an unprecedented flash flood took place on the island. Much of the land had been deforestated or poorly cultivated and was unable to absorb most of the rain, creating a large runoff. This water overwhelmed the Anilao–Malbasag watershed and rushed downstream. Ormoc City, located past where the Anilao and Malbasag rivers converge, suffered the brunt of the flood. In just three hours, the city was devastated with thousands of homes damaged or destroyed. A total of 4,922 people were killed in the city alone, with 2,300 perishing along the riverbank.

Outside of Ormoc City, 159 people were killed across Leyte and Negros Occidental. Throughout the country, at least 5,081 people lost their lives while another 1,941–3,084 were missing and presumed dead. This made Thelma the deadliest tropical cyclone in Philippine history, surpassing a storm in 1867 that killed 1,800, until later surpassed by Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) in 2013 which killed at least 6,300 people. A total of 4,446 homes were destroyed while another 22,229 were damaged. Total losses amounted to $27.67 million. Initially, it took over 24 hours for word of the disaster to reach officials due to a crippled communication network around Ormoc City. Within a few days, emergency supply centers were established and aid from various agencies under the United Nations and several countries flowed into the country. A total of $5.8 million worth of grants and materials was provided collectively in the international relief effort.

Tropical Storm Zelda (1991)

Severe Tropical Storm Zelda was the last storm of the 1991 Pacific typhoon season. A disturbance formed near the International Date Line, and strengthened into a tropical depression on November 27. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) reported that the depression had reached tropical storm intensity, thus naming it Zelda. The storm quickly strengthened into a Category 1 typhoon on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale near the Marshall Islands on November 29. It reached peak of 110 km/h (70 mph), with a barometric pressure of 975 mbar (28.8 inHg). The tropical storm traveled northwestward, and later northeastward. Zelda soon weakened into a tropical storm, and then a tropical depression. The JTWC discontinued warnings on December 4, while the Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) continued to track the storm until it crossed the International Date Line again on December 7.

Zelda caused significant damage to the Marshall Islands. Operations at Kwajalein Missile Range were disrupted severely. About 60 percent of homes were destroyed in Ebeye, leaving 6,000 people without residence. Nearly all crops on the islands were destroyed, and food and other supplies were contaminated by salt. No deaths or injuries were reported. Later in December, President George H. W. Bush declared the storm to be a major disaster, allowing the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to assist. The Marshall Islands also requested funds from other countries.

Typhoon Caitlin (1991)

Typhoon Caitlin, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Ising, contributed to major drought relief in Okinawa. A tropical disturbance formed in the middle of July 1991 in the eastern portion of the Western Pacific monsoon trough, and while tracking to the west-northwest, was designated a tropical depression on July 21. Thunderstorm activity associated with the depression increased markedly on July 22, and two days later, the depression was upgraded into Tropical Storm Caitlin. The storm turned northward as it rounded a subtropical ridge while gradually intensifing. Caitlin became a typhoon on July 25 and peaked in intensity on July 27 near Okinawa. The typhoon began to weaken as it turned northeast over the Korea Strait. On July 30, Catlin transitioned into an extratropical cyclone as it entered the Sea of Japan.

Across the Philippines, heavy rains triggered mudslides that claimed 16 lives and forced over 20,000 others to be evacuated. Due to the storm, reservoir levels in Okinawa on the island rose from only 35% to over 80% of its capacity and crop damage amounted to $7.4 million USD. On Kagoshima Prefecture, 72 homes were damaged and five million people were left without power. Twenty-three people suffered injuries in Nagasaki Prefecture while 116 ships were damaged offshore. On the Goto Islands, 32 people were rendered homeless. Throughout Japan, six fatalities were reported and thirty-nine others sustained injuries. A total of 64 houses were destroyed while 1,472 others were flooded. Moreover, 120 ships and 263 ha (650 acres) of farmland were destroyed. Damages totaled ¥10.1 billion ($75 million USD). In South Korea, two people were killed and another two were listed as missing. Heavy rains caused flooding across residential areas and destroyed farmland. Around 30 ships were destroyed or damaged. Damage throughout the country was estimated at $6.3 million USD.

Typhoon Kinna (1991)

Typhoon Kinna, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Neneng, was a mid-season typhoon that struck Japan during 1991. An area of disturbed weather formed within the Western Pacific monsoon trough during early September 1991. The disturbance was upgraded into a tropical depression on September 10 after an increase in organization. Tracking northwest due to a weak subtropical ridge to its north, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm at 00:00 UTC on September 11. Later that day, Kinna was upgraded into a severe tropical storm. Following the development of a poorly defined eye, Kinna was upgraded into a typhoon on September 12. The cyclone turned north in response to a trough and passed through Okinawa as a minimal typhoon. Typhoon Kinna obtained peak intensity on September 13, but thereafter, Kinna accelerated north-northeastward toward Kyushu, passing over the island that day at peak intensity. Typhoon Kinna rapidly transitioned into an extratropical low as it tracked along the northern coast of Honshu. Its extratropical remnants were last noted on the evening of September 16. Even though most of the damage occurred on Kyushu and on western Honshu, the typhoon was the most destructive tropical cyclone to strike Okinawa since 1987, and was also the first of typhoon intensity to pass directly over the island since Typhoon Vera in 1986. Nationwide, 11 people were killed and 94 others suffered injuries. Nearly 50,000 customers lost power. Close to 150 domestic flights were cancelled, which left 26,000 travelers stranded. A total of 382 houses were destroyed while 2,586 others were flooded. There were 213 landslides and 9 bridges were washed out. Nearly 70 ships along with 47 roads and 875 ha (2,160 acres) of farmland were damaged. In all, damage was estimated at ¥51.1 billion (1991 US$383 million).

Typhoon Mireille

Typhoon Mireille, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Rosing, was the costliest typhoon on record, striking Japan in September 1991. The 20th named storm of the 1991 Pacific typhoon season, Mireille formed on September 13 from the monsoon trough near the Marshall Islands. It moved westward for several days as a small system, steered by the subtropical ridge to the north. The storm rapidly intensified to typhoon status on September 16, and several days later passed north of Saipan in the Northern Marianas Islands. Mireille intensified further after deleterious effects from a nearby tropical storm subsided. On September 22, the American-based Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) estimated maximum 1‑minute sustained winds of 240 km/h (150 mph), and on the next day, the official Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) estimated 10‑minute sustained winds of 185 km/h (115 mph). The typhoon weakened slightly while turning northward, passing just east of Miyako-jima and later to the west of Okinawa. On September 27, Mireille made landfall near Nagasaki in southwestern Japan with winds of 175 km/h (110 mph), the strongest since Typhoon Nancy in 1961. The storm accelerated to the northeast through the Sea of Japan, moving over Hokkaido before becoming extratropical on September 28. The remnants of Mireille continued to the east, passing through the Aleutian Islands of Alaska on October 1.

The typhoon first threatened Guam, although it passed well to the north of the island, bringing damaging winds to northern Saipan. The first part of Japan affected was Miyako-jima, where heavy rainfall and high winds damaged crops. Mireille lashed Okinawa with strong waves, while strong winds up to 189 km/h (118 mph) damaged power lines and trees. The typhoon ultimately caused damage in 41 of 47 prefectures of Japan, with overall damage estimated at $10 billion (USD), making it the costliest typhoon on record as of 2017. Mireille produced record wind gusts at 26 locations, with a peak gust of 218 km/h (136 mph) in western Honshu. The winds caused record power outages across Japan that affected 7.36 million people, or about 13% of total customers. Mireille also left extensive crop damage totaling $3 billion, mostly to the apple industry, after 345,000 tons of apples fell to the ground and another 43,000 were damaged on the trees. The storm damaged over 670,000 houses, of which 1,058 were destroyed, and another 22,965 were flooded. Throughout Japan, Mireille killed 66 people and injured another 2,862 people, including ten deaths on a capsized freighter. Elsewhere, the typhoon killed two people in South Korea, and its remnants brought strong winds to Alaska.

Typhoon Orchid (1991)

Typhoon Orchid, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Sendang, was a long-lived typhoon that brushed Japan during October 1991. An area of disturbed weather formed near the Caroline Islands in early October. A mid-latitude cyclone weakened a subtropical ridge to its north, allowing the disturbance to slowly gain latitude, and on October 3, the system organized into a tropical depression. On the next day, the depression intensified into Tropical Storm Orchid. Continuing to intensify, the cyclone strengthened into a typhoon on the morning of October 6. Typhoon Orchid tracked due westward south of subtropical ridge while rapidly intensifying, and on October 7, Orchid reached its peak intensity. Shortly after its peak, the typhoon began to recurve north as the ridge receded. After interacting with Typhoon Pat, Orchid weakened below typhoon intensity on October 12. After accelerating to the northwest while gradually weakening, Orchid transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on October 14.

In conjunction with Pat, high waves claimed two lives on Guam. Because of the storm's slow movement as it tracked south of Japan, Typhoon Orchid dropped heavy precipitation across most of Japan. One person was killed and twenty-people people were injured across Japan. A total of 17 flights were cancelled while 1,072 trains were halted, stranding 342,000 passengers. In addition, 18 ferries were cancelled. The storm inflicted 249 landslides, flooded over 675 homes, and was accountable for extensive road damage in Japan. In all, damage was estimated at ¥2.15 billion (US$15.8 million).

Typhoon Yunya (1991)

Typhoon Yunya, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Diding, was a strong tropical cyclone that weakened before impacting the Philippines at the time of the colossal eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. A small tropical cyclone, Yunya rapidly developed from a tropical disturbance near East Samar on June 11. By June 13 the storm had reached typhoon status as it moved west-northwest near the Philippines. Yunya attained its peak intensity the following day with estimated winds of 195 km/h (120 mph); however, strong wind shear soon impacted the typhoon and caused it to rapidly decay. The storm struck southern Luzon early on June 15 as a minimal typhoon before moving over the South China Sea later that day. After turning north and weakening to a tropical depression, the system brushed the southern tip of Taiwan on June 16 before dissipating the following day.

Across the Philippines, Yunya produced heavy rains that triggered significant flooding. Hundreds of homes and several bridges were washed away by swollen rivers. Four people were killed as a direct result of the storm and three others were listed as missing. Although the storm itself caused significant damage, the worst effects were related to the system's heavy rains mixing with volcanic ash from Pinatubo. The combined effects of both natural disasters created numerous large lahars that killed 250–300 people.

Typhoon Yuri (1991)

Super Typhoon Yuri was the most intense tropical cyclone in 1991 In terms of minimum central pressure. The nineteenth typhoon and final super typhoon of the 1991 Pacific typhoon season, Yuri was a tropical disturbance that strengthened into a tropical depression on November 22 in the Philippine Sea. Moving rather slowly at first, the system continued to intensify, and was given the name Yuri. It had become a severe tropical storm about 1,480 kilometers east of Truk Island and took on a west-northwestward track at 22 km/h. Typhoon intensity was attained that night when Yuri was 1,050 km. Yuri turned more to the west on 26 November and reached peak intensity the following morning packing winds of over 220 km/h near its centre. Moving northwestwards at 30 km/h, Yuri passed 140 km to the south-southwest of Guam on the evening of November 27. After recurving November 29, Yuri accelerated northeastwards on November 30 and weakened to a severe tropical storm that night. By the morning of December 1, it had degenerated into a tropical storm about a few hundred kilometers east-northeast of Iwo Jima. Extratropical transition was completed soon afterward, and the storm's remnants persisted until December 3.Although Yuri never directly made landfall, it still had managed to cause $3 million (1991 USD) in damage to Pohnpei, including the loss of a radio tower. In Guam, the storm caused extensive beach erosion and destroyed between 60 and 350 buildings. There, damage totaled $33 million (1991 USD). It is one of the most closely observed storms ever; its eye was studied for research.

Tropical cyclones of the 1991 Pacific typhoon season


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