1991 FIFA Women's World Cup

The 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup was the inaugural FIFA Women's World Cup, the world championship for women's national association football teams. It took place in Guangdong, China from 16 to 30 November 1991. FIFA, football's international governing body selected China as host nation as Guangdong had hosted a prototype world championship three years earlier, the 1988 FIFA Women's Invitation Tournament. Matches were played in the state capital, Guangzhou, as well as in Foshan, Jiangmen and Zhongshan. The competition was sponsored by Mars, Incorporated. With FIFA still reluctant to bestow their "World Cup" brand, the tournament was officially known as the 1st FIFA World Championship for Women's Football for the M&M's Cup.[1]

It was won by the United States,[2] whose captain April Heinrichs formed a forward line dubbed the "triple–edged sword" with Carin Jennings and Michelle Akers-Stahl. Jennings was named player of the tournament while Akers-Stahl's ten goals won the Golden Shoe.[3] The United States defeated Norway 2–1 in the final in front of a crowd of 65,000 people at Guangzhou's Tianhe Stadium.[4] Total attendance for the tournament was 510,000, an average per match of 19,615. In the opening match at the same stadium, Norway was defeated 4–0 by hosts China. Chinese defender Ma Li scored the first goal in Women's World Cup history, while goalkeeper Zhong Honglian, also of China, posted the first official "clean sheet" in the tournament.

The 12 qualified teams were divided into three groups of four (A to C). The top two teams and the two best third-place finishers from the three groups advanced to the knockout round of eight teams. For only the first edition of the Women's World Cup, all matches lasted only 80 minutes, instead of the typical 90, and two points were awarded for a win (both of which would change in 1995).[5]

1991 FIFA Women's World Cup
1st FIFA World Championship for Women's Football for the M&Ms Cup
1991 FIFA Women's World Cup
Official logo
Tournament details
Host countryChina
Dates16–30 November
Teams12 (from 6 confederations)
Venue(s)6 (in 4 host cities)
Final positions
Champions United States (1st title)
Runners-up Norway
Third place Sweden
Fourth place Germany
Tournament statistics
Matches played26
Goals scored99 (3.81 per match)
Attendance510,000 (19,615 per match)
Top scorer(s)United States Michelle Akers-Stahl (10 goals)
Best player(s)United States Carin Jennings
Fair play award Germany

Venues

Yuexiu, Guangzhou Tianhe, Guangzhou Panyu, Guangzhou
Guangdong Provincial Stadium Tianhe Stadium Ying Tung Stadium
Capacity: 25,000 Capacity: 60,000 Capacity: 15,000
Guangdong Provincial People's Stadium Tianhe Stadium
Foshan Jiangmen Zhongshan
New Plaza Stadium Jiangmen Stadium Zhongshan Stadium
Capacity: 14,000 Capacity: 13,000 Capacity: 12,000
Zhongshan Sports Center Stadium -02

Teams

Twelve teams qualified for the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup final tournament. Each of the six FIFA confederations had at least one representative.

Squads

For a list of the squads that contended for the final tournament, see 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup squads.

Match officials

For the first time in FIFA competition, six female officials were included. All functioned as assistant referees, except for Cláudia Vasconcelos who took charge of the third place play–off; becoming the first woman to referee a match sanctioned by FIFA.[6][7]

Africa
Asia
North, Central America and Caribbean
South America
Europe
Oceania

Tournament review

FIFA's technical report demonstrates that, after the tournament, players and officials were undecided whether to persist with 80 minute matches, or to change to 90 minutes in line with men's football. Opinion was also divided about the suitability of using a size five football. Some teams reported difficulty in sourcing good quality equipment in the correct size.[8]

The tournament was considered a major success in the quality of play and attendances at the games. FIFA president João Havelange wrote that:[9]

As president of FIFA it was a special pleasure for me to watch these young ladies playing with such flair and such elegance, and according to the reports of the many media representatives present, making the game truly into a celebration ... women's football is now well and truly established.

The perceived success of the tournament was a significant factor in the subsequent inclusion of women's football in the 1996 Summer Olympics.[10] Sue Lopez reported that although attendances were very high, many tickets were complimentary. The "novelty factor" of women from foreign lands playing football also encouraged local people to attend.[11]

Group stage

FIFA Womens World Cup 1991
Countries and result

Teams were awarded two points for a win, one point for a draw, and none for a defeat.[5]

Group A

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts
1  China PR (H) 3 2 1 0 10 3 7 5
2  Norway 3 2 0 1 6 5 1 4
3  Denmark 3 1 1 1 6 4 2 3
4  New Zealand 3 0 0 3 1 11 −10 0

(H): Host.

China PR 4–0 Norway
Ma Goal 22'
Liu Goal 45'50'
Sun Q. Goal 75'
Report
Denmark 3–0 New Zealand
Jensen Goal 15'40'
MacKensie Goal 42'
Report
Norway 4–0 New Zealand
Campbell Goal 30' (o.g.)
Medalen Goal 32'38'
Riise Goal 49'
Report
China PR 2–2 Denmark
Sun W. Goal 37'
Wei Goal 76'
Report Kolding Goal 24'
Nissen Goal 55'
China PR 4–1 New Zealand
Zhou Goal 20'
Liu Goal 22'60'
Wu Goal 24'
Report Nye Goal 65'
Norway 2–1 Denmark
Svensson Goal 14' (pen.)
Medalen Goal 56'
Report Thychosen Goal 54' (pen.)

Group B

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts
1  United States 3 3 0 0 11 2 9 6
2  Sweden 3 2 0 1 12 3 9 4
3  Brazil 3 1 0 2 1 7 −6 2
4  Japan 3 0 0 3 0 12 −12 0
Japan 0–1 Brazil
Report Elane Goal 4'
Sweden 2–3 United States
Videkull Goal 65'
I. Johansson Goal 71'
Report Jennings Goal 40'49'
Hamm Goal 62'
Japan 0–8 Sweden
Report Videkull Goal 1'11'
Andelen Goal 15'60'
Lundgren Goal 25'
Nilsson Goal 27'
Sundhage Goal 35'
Yamaguchi Goal 70' (o.g.)
Brazil 0–5 United States
Report Heinrichs Goal 23'35'
Jennings Goal 38'
Akers-Stahl Goal 39'
Hamm Goal 63'
Japan 0–3 United States
Report Akers-Stahl Goal 20'37'
Gebauer Goal 39'
Brazil 0–2 Sweden
Report Sundhage Goal 42' (pen.)
Hedberg Goal 56'

Group C

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts
1  Germany 3 3 0 0 9 0 9 6
2  Italy 3 2 0 1 6 2 4 4
3  Chinese Taipei 3 1 0 2 2 8 −6 2
4  Nigeria 3 0 0 3 0 7 −7 0
Germany 4–0 Nigeria
Neid Goal 16'
Mohr Goal 32'34'
Gottschlich Goal 57'
Report
Chinese Taipei Former Chinese Taipei Football Flag.svg0–5 Italy
Report Ferraguzzi Goal 15'
Marsiletti Goal 29'
Morace Goal 37'52'66'
Italy 1–0 Nigeria
Morace Goal 68' Report
Chinese Taipei Former Chinese Taipei Football Flag.svg0–3 Germany
Report Wiegmann Goal 10' (pen.)
Mohr Goal 21'50'
Chinese Taipei 2–0 Nigeria
Lin Goal 38'
Chou Goal 55'
Report
Italy 0–2 Germany
Report Mohr Goal 67'
Unsleber Goal 79'

Ranking of third-placed teams

Pos Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts
1  Denmark 3 1 1 1 6 4 2 3
2  Chinese Taipei 3 1 0 2 2 8 −6 2
3  Brazil 3 1 0 2 1 7 −6 2

Knockout stage

Bracket

 
Quarter-finalsSemi-finalsFinal
 
          
 
24 November — Foshan
 
 
 United States 7
 
27 November — Guangzhou
 
 Chinese Taipei 0
 
 United States 5
 
24 November — Zhongshan
 
 Germany 2
 
 Germany 2
 
30 November — Guangzhou
 
 Denmark 1
 
 United States 2
 
24 November — Guangzhou
 
 Norway 1
 
 China PR 0
 
27 November — Panyu
 
 Sweden 1
 
 Sweden 1
 
24 November — Jiangmen
 
 Norway 4 Third place
 
 Norway 3
 
29 November — Guangzhou
 
 Italy 2
 
 Sweden 4
 
 
 Germany 0
 

Quarter-finals

Germany 2–1
(a.e.t.)
 Denmark
Wiegmann Goal 17' (pen.)
Mohr Goal 98'
Report MacKensie Goal 25' (pen.)
China PR 0–1 Sweden
Report Sundhage Goal 3'
Norway 3–2
(a.e.t.)
 Italy
Hegstad Goal 22'
Carlsen Goal 67'
Svensson Goal 96' (pen.)
Report Salmaso Goal 31'
Guarino Goal 80'
United States 7–0 Chinese Taipei
Akers-Stahl Goal 8'29'33'44' (pen.)48'
Foudy Goal 38'
Biefield Goal 79'
Report

Semi-finals

Sweden 1–4 Norway
Videkull Goal 6' Report Svensson Goal 39' (pen.)
Medalen Goal 41'77'
Carlsen Goal 67'
United States 5–2 Germany
Jennings Goal 10'22'33'
Heinrichs Goal 54'75'
Report Mohr Goal 34'
Wiegmann Goal 63'

Third place play-off

Sweden 4–0 Germany
Andelen Goal 7'
Sundhage Goal 11'
Videkull Goal 29'
Nilsson Goal 43'
Report

Final

United States 2–1 Norway
Akers-Stahl Goal 20'78' Report Medalen Goal 29'

Statistics

Goalscorers

There were 99 goals scored in 26 matches, for an average of 3.81 goals per match. Michelle Akers-Stahl of the United States won the Golden Shoe award for scoring ten goals.

10 goals

7 goals

6 goals

5 goals

4 goals

3 goals

2 goals

1 goal

1 own goal

Assists

4 assists

3 assists

2 assists

1 assist

Source: FIFA Technical Report[12]

Awards

The following awards were given at the conclusion of the tournament:[13]

Golden Ball Silver Ball Bronze Ball
United States Carin Jennings United States Michelle Akers-Stahl Norway Linda Medalen
Golden Shoe Silver Shoe Bronze Shoe
United States Michelle Akers-Stahl Germany Heidi Mohr Norway Linda Medalen
United States Carin Jennings
10 goals 7 goals 6 goals
FIFA Fair Play Award
 Germany

Tournament ranking

Per statistical convention in football, matches decided in extra time are counted as wins and losses, while matches decided by penalty shoot-outs are counted as draws.

Pos Grp Team Pld W D L GF GA GD Pts Final result
1 B  United States 6 6 0 0 25 5 +20 12 Champions
2 A  Norway 6 4 0 2 14 10 +4 8 Runners-up
3 B  Sweden 6 4 0 2 18 7 +11 8 Third place
4 C  Germany 6 4 0 2 13 10 +3 8 Fourth place
5 A  China PR 4 2 1 1 10 4 +6 5 Eliminated in
quarter-finals
6 C  Italy 4 2 0 2 8 5 +3 4
7 A  Denmark 4 1 1 2 7 6 +1 3
8 C  Chinese Taipei 4 1 0 3 2 15 −13 2
9 B  Brazil 3 1 0 2 1 7 −6 2 Eliminated in
group stage
10 C  Nigeria 3 0 0 3 0 7 −7 0
11 A  New Zealand 3 0 0 3 1 11 −10 0
12 B  Japan 3 0 0 3 0 12 −12 0

References

  1. ^ Mattei, Al. "WUSA opening a feast for the eyes – and ears". TopOfTheCircle.com. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
  2. ^ Ciapala, Derek (18 June 2012). "History of the FIFA Women's World Cup, 1991–present – World Soccer – Yahoo! Sports". Sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  3. ^ "CNN/SI – Women's World Cup – Women's World Cup History – Thursday February 11, 1999 06:04 PM". Sportsillustrated.cnn.com. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  4. ^ Basler, Barbara (1 December 1991). "U.S. Women Beat Norway To Capture World Cup". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  5. ^ a b Williams, Jean (1 November 2007). A Beautiful Game: International Perspectives on Women's Football. Berg Publishers. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-84788-345-2. Some of the terms and conditions had been changed this time: 90 minutes of play instead of 80 in China, a full group of 20 players instead of 18, three points for a win, and the experiment with time out.
  6. ^ Lopez 1997, p. 195
  7. ^ "FIFA Women's World Cup – China PR 1991". FIFA. Archived from the original on 11 March 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2013. In keeping with the true spirit of the celebration, six female referees or assistant referees were appointed among match officials for the first time in FIFA history. Claudia de Vasconcelos of Brazil, the referee for the 3rd-place match, became the first woman to officiate at this level for FIFA.
  8. ^ "FIFA Women's World Cup China '91 – Technical Report & Statistics" (PDF). FIFA. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
  9. ^ Lopez 1997, p. 173
  10. ^ Lopez 1997, p. 175
  11. ^ Lopez 1997, p. 207
  12. ^ "FIFA Technical Report" (PDF). FIFA.
  13. ^ Awards 1991
  14. ^ "FIFA Women's World Cup 1991 – Technical Report, Part 2: Final ranking" (PDF). FIFA.com. Fédération Internationale de Football Association. p. 93 (32 of PDF). Retrieved 1 July 2019.
General references
  • Lisi, Clemente Angelo (2010). The U.S. Women's Soccer Team: An American Success Story. Plymouth, England: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-7415-6.
  • Lopez, Sue (1997). Women on the Ball: A Guide to Women's Football. London, England: Scarlet Press. ISBN 1-85727-016-9.

External links

1991 AFC Women's Championship

The 1991 AFC Women's Championship was a women's football tournament held in Fukuoka, Japan from 26 May to 8 June 1991. It was the 8th staging of the AFC Women's Championship.

The 1991 AFC Women's Championship, consisting of nine teams, served as the AFC's qualifying tournament for the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup. Asia's three berths were given to the two finalists - China and Japan - and the winner of the third place play-off, Chinese Taipei.

1991 FIFA Women's World Cup Final

The 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup Final was a football match that took place on 30 November 1991 at Tianhe Stadium in Guangzhou, China. It was played between Norway and the United States to determine the winner of the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup. The United States beat Norway 2–1, with two goals from Michelle Akers-Stahl, to become winners of the first ever FIFA Women's World Cup.

1991 FIFA Women's World Cup qualification

The 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup qualification process saw 48 teams from the six FIFA confederations compete for the 12 places in the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup finals. The places were divided as follows:

Africa - represented by CAF: 1 berth

Asia - AFC: 3 (one of those was eventual host China, who did not qualify automatically)

Europe - UEFA: 5

North, Central America & the Caribbean - CONCACAF: 1

Oceania - OFC: 1

South America - CONMEBOL: 1All of the confederations used their regional championship tournament to determine qualification. Hosts China PR also entered the qualifying process.

The first qualification match was played on 9 September 1989 and the qualification concluded on 14 July 1991. A total of 445 goals were scored in the 111 qualifying matches (an average of 4.01 per match).

Four teams withdrew during the qualification without playing a match: Congo, Senegal, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, all of which are African teams.

1991 FIFA Women's World Cup squads

Below are the rosters for the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup tournament in China.

Ann Chiejine

Ann Chiejine (born 2 February 1974) is a Nigerian football goalkeeper who played for the Nigeria women's national football team at the inaugural 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup and 2000 Summer Olympics. She is an assistant coach for the U17 Nigerian women's team.

Carin Jennings-Gabarra

Carin Leslie Jennings-Gabarra (born January 9, 1965), née Carin Jennings, is an American retired soccer forward. She earned 117 caps with the United States women's national soccer team from 1987 to 1996 and was awarded the Golden Ball Award as the best player at the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup. In 2000, she was inducted into the National Soccer Hall of Fame. She currently coaches women's soccer at the United States Naval Academy.

Elke Walther

Elke Walther (born 1 April 1971) is a German women's international footballer who plays as a goalkeeper. She is a member of the Germany women's national football team. She was part of the team at the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup. On club level she plays for VfL Sindelfingen in Germany.

Federica D'Astolfo

Federica D'Astolfo (born 27 October 1966) is an Italian former international footballer who played as a midfielder. She played for Italy at the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup and 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup.

Giorgia Brenzan

Giorgia Brenzan (born 21 August 1967) is an Italian former international footballer who played as a goalkeeper. She played for Italy at the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup and 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup.

Gudrun Gottschlich

Gudrun Gottschlich (born 23 May 1970) is a German women's international footballer who plays as a forward. She is a member of the Germany women's national football team. She was part of the team at the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup. On club level she plays for KBC Duisburg in Germany.

Malin Lundgren

Malin Lundgren (born 9 March 1967) is a Swedish footballer who played as a defender for the Sweden women's national football team. She was part of the team at the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup and 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup. At the club level she played for Malmö in Sweden.

Mavis Ogun

Mavis Ogun (born 24 August 1973) is a Nigerian footballer who played as a defender for the Nigeria women's national football team. She was part of the team at the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup, 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup and 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup.

Nalvinha

Nalvinha (born 14 July 1965) is a Brazilian footballer who played as a forward for the Brazil women's national football team. She was part of the team at the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup and 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup.

Niu Lijie

Niu Lijie (born (1969 -04-12)12 April 1969) is a Chinese former football player who played for the China women's national football team. She represented China at the 1996 Summer Olympics and the inaugural 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup.

Rikke Holm

Rikke Holm Brink (born (1972-03-22)22 March 1972) was a female Danish footballer who played as a defender and midfielder.

She played 60 matches and scored 9 goals for the Denmark women's national football team.

She competed at the 1996 Summer Olympics, playing 3 matches.

She competed at the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup, and 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup.

Shannon Higgins-Cirovski

Shannon Danise Higgins-Cirovski (born Kent, Washington) is a former U.S. soccer midfielder who earned fifty-one caps with the United States between 1987 and 1991. She was a member of the U.S. team at the 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup and is a member of the National Soccer Hall of Fame.

Silvia Fiorini

Silvia Fiorini (born 24 December 1969) is an Italian footballer who played as a midfielder for the Italy women's national football team. She was part of the team at the inaugural 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup, UEFA Women's Euro 1997 and 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup.

UEFA Women's Euro 1991

The 1991 UEFA Women's Championship took place in Denmark. It was won by Germany in a final against Norway in a repeat of the previous edition's final. Eighteen teams entered qualifying, which was enough to make the competition the first fully official one, so the name was changed to the UEFA Women's Championship.The tournament served as the European qualifying round for the FIFA Women's World Cup 1991.

Zhou Yang (footballer)

Zhou Yang (born 2 January 1971) is a Chinese footballer who played as a midfielder for the China women's national football team. She was part of the team at the inaugural 1991 FIFA Women's World Cup and 1995 FIFA Women's World Cup.

1991 FIFA Women's World Cup
Stages
General information
1991 FIFA Women's World Cup finalists
Champions
Runner-up
Third Place
Fourth Place
Quarter-finals
Group stage
Tournaments
Qualification
Finals
Squads
Miscellaneous
Predecessors
1991 FIFA Women's World Cup stadiums

Languages

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