The 1991 Bangladesh cyclone (IMD designation: BOB 01, JTWC designation: 02B) was among the deadliest tropical cyclones on record. On the night of April 29, 1991, it struck the Chittagong district of southeastern Bangladesh with winds of around 250 km/h (155 mph). The storm forced a 6-metre (20 ft) storm surge inland over a wide area, killing at least 138,866 people and leaving as many as 10 million homeless.
|Super Cyclonic Storm BOB 01|
|Super cyclonic storm (IMD scale)|
|Category 5 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)|
Visible satellite image of the intensifying cyclone on April 29, 1991, southwest of Bangladesh
|Formed||April 24, 1991|
|Dissipated||April 30, 1991|
|Highest winds||3-minute sustained: 235 km/h (145 mph) |
1-minute sustained: 260 km/h (160 mph)
|Lowest pressure||918 hPa (mbar); 27.11 inHg|
(Fifth-deadliest tropical cyclone on record)
|Damage||$1.7 billion (1991 USD)|
|Areas affected||Bangladesh, Northeastern India, Myanmar, Yunnan|
|Part of the 1991 North Indian Ocean cyclone season|
During April 22, 1991, a circulation formed in the southern Bay of Bengal from a persistent area of convection, or thunderstorms, near the equator in the eastern Indian Ocean. Within two days, the cloud mass encompassed most of the Bay of Bengal, focused on an area west of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. On April 24, the India Meteorological Department (IMD)[nb 1] designated the system as a depression, and the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC)[nb 2] labeled the system as Tropical Cyclone 02B. Ships in the region reported winds of around 55 km/h (35 mph) around this time.
From its genesis, the storm moved northwestward, and early forecasts from the JTWC anticipated that trajectory would continue toward Andhra Pradesh in southeastern India, due to a westward-moving ridge over India. The cyclone gradually strengthened, amplified by a wind surge from the south. The IMD upgraded the depression to a cyclonic storm on April 25, and to a severe cyclonic storm on the following day. By April 26, wind shear had decreased to near zero as an anticyclone developed aloft the hurricane. Around this time, the cyclone rounded the western periphery of a large subtropical ridge over Thailand, and the storm turned northward between the ridge to the northeast and northwest. The IMD upgraded the system to a very severe cyclonic storm on April 27, estimating winds of 142 km/h (89 mph). By this time, the JTWC anticipated a future track toward the Ganges Delta region of eastern India and Bangladesh.
On April 28, the flow of the southwesterlies caused the cyclone to accelerate to the north-northeast. This flow also amplified the storm's outflow, and the cyclone intensified further. By 12:00 UTC on April 28, or about 31 hours before landfall, the JTWC was correctly forecasting a landfall in southeastern Bangladesh. Early on April 29, the IMD upgraded the system to a super cyclonic storm – the highest category – and estimated peak winds of 240 km/h (150 mph). The JTWC estimated peak winds of 160 mph (260 km/h), the equivalent to a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale or a super typhoon. The IMD also estimated a minimum barometric pressure of 918 mbar (27.1 inHg), while the JTWC estimated a minimum pressure of 898 mbar (26.5 inHg). The cyclone's high winds and low pressure, a rarity for the Bay of Bengal, ranked it among the most intense cyclones in the basin. At 19:00 UTC on April 29, the cyclone made landfall about 55 km (35 mi) south of Chittagong in southeastern Bangladesh while slightly below its peak strength. Moving through the mountainous terrain of the Chittagong Hill Tracts, the cyclone quickly weakened and crossed into northeast India, where it degenerated into a remnant low-pressure area.
Until 2004, tropical cyclones were not named in the north Indian Ocean. Through its role as Regional Specialized Meteorological Center, the IMD issued warnings on the storm, designating it Super Cyclonic Storm BoB 1. The agency tracked the storm using satellite imagery, radar, and other meteorological stations. The JTWC, providing warnings and support to American military interests, designated the storm as Tropical Cyclone 02B, and also referred to it as a "super cyclone". Although the cyclone was officially unnamed, documents from the United States Agency for International Development and the United States Army referred to the storm as Cyclone Marian. Time magazine referred to the storm as Cyclone Gorky.
The Bay of Bengal is prone to large storm surges, which is the rise in sea water accompanying a cyclone landfall. The low-lying coast of Bangladesh along the Bay of Bengal is heavily populated, with at least 120 million people. In 1970, a cyclone struck Bangladesh and killed at least 300,000 people.
Before the cyclone moved ashore, an estimated 2–3 million people evacuated the Bangladeshi coast. In a survey by the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the main reason more people did not evacuate was underestimating the severity of the cyclone. The JTWC maintained contact with the American embassy in Bangladesh's capital Dhaka, assuring that it would not have to be evacuated due to a projected track farther southeast.
The cyclone made landfall in southeastern Bangladesh around the time of high tide, which was already 5.5 m (18 ft) above normal; in addition, the cyclone produced a 6.1 m (20 ft) storm surge that inundated the coastline. The storm also brought winds of around 240 km/h (150 mph). Winds exceeding 220 km/h (137 mph) lashed a populated region of the coast for about 12 hours, as well as 12 offshore islands.
An estimated 138,000 people were killed by the cyclone. More than 20,000 people died on Kutubdia Upazila, an island offshore Chittagong where 80–90% of homes were destroyed, and all livestock were killed. Some smaller offshore islands lost their entire populations. There were around 25,000 dead in Chittagong, 40,000 dead in Banshkali. About 13.4 million people were affected. Around 1 million homes were destroyed, leaving 10 million people homeless. The storm surge caused whole villages to be swept away.
The storm caused an estimated $1.5 billion (1991 US dollars) in damage. The high velocity wind and the storm surge devastated the coastline. Although a concrete levee was in place near the mouth of the Karnaphuli River in Patenga, it was washed away by the storm surge. The cyclone uprooted a 100-ton crane from the Port of Chittagong, and smashed it on the Karnaphuli River Bridge, effectively breaking it into two parts. A large number of boats and smaller ships ran aground. The Bangladesh Navy and Bangladesh Air Force, both of which had bases in Chittagong, were also heavily hit. The Isha Khan Naval Base at Patenga was flooded, with heavy damages to the ships. Most of the fighter planes belonging to the air force were damaged. The extensive damage caused the price of building materials to greatly increase. For an additional three to four weeks after the storm had dissipated, mass land erosion resulted in more and more farmers losing their land, and therefore, the number of unemployed rose.  In several areas up to 90 percent of crops had been washed away. The shrimp farms and salt industry were left devastated.
The JTWC tracked the cyclone as moving northeastward from Bangladesh into northern Myanmar, dissipating in western China over Yunnan province. In Northeast India, continuous rainfall and gusty winds affected Tripura and Mizoram states, causing "some loss of life" according to the IMD. Many houses in the two states were destroyed, and telecommunications were disrupted.
In the days after the storm, homeless Bangladeshis overcrowded shelters, and many storm victims were unable to find shelter.
On the island of Sonodia its inhabitants were suffering from diarrhea from drinking contaminated water, respiratory and urinary infections, scabies and various injuries with only rice for food. Out of the ten wells on the island only 5 were functional of which only one providing pure water with the rest contaminated by sea water.
The United States amphibious task-force, consisting of 15 ships and 2,500 men, returning to the US after the Gulf War was diverted to the Bay of Bengal to provide relief to an estimated 1.7 million survivors. This was part of Operation Sea Angel, one of the largest military disaster relief efforts ever carried out, with the United Kingdom, China, India, Pakistan and Japan also participating.
Operation Sea Angel began on May 10, 1991, when President Bush directed the US military to provide humanitarian assistance. A Contingency Joint Task Force under the command of Lieutenant General Henry C. Stackpole, consisting of over 400 Marines and 3,000 sailors, was subsequently sent to Bangladesh to provide food, water, and medical care to nearly two million people. The efforts of U.S. troops, which included 3,300 tons of supplies, are credited with having saved as many as 200,000 lives. The relief was delivered to the hard-hit coastal areas and low-lying islands in the Bay of Bengal by helicopter, boat and amphibious craft.
The US military also provided medical and engineering teams to work with their Bangladeshi counterparts and international relief organisation to treat survivors and contain an outbreak of diarrhea, caused by contaminated drinking water. Water purification plants were built and prevalence of diarrhea amongst the population was reduced to lower than pre-cyclone levels.
After the departure of the task force, 500 military personal, two C-130 cargo planes, five Blackhawk helicopters and four small landing craft from the task force remained to help finish off relief operations in outlying districts and rebuild warehouses. The amphibious landing ship USS St. Louis (LKA-116) delivered large quantities of intravenous solution from Japan to aid in the treatment of cyclone survivors.
The 1970 Bhola cyclone was a devastating tropical cyclone that struck East Pakistan and India's West Bengal on November 12, 1970. It remains the deadliest tropical cyclone ever recorded and one of the deadliest natural disasters. At least 500,000 people lost their lives in the storm, primarily as a result of the storm surge that flooded much of the low-lying islands of the Ganges Delta. This cyclone was the sixth cyclonic storm of the 1970 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, and also the season's strongest.The cyclone formed over the central Bay of Bengal on November 8, and traveled northward, intensifying as it did so. It reached its peak with winds of 185 km/h (115 mph) on November 11, and made landfall on the coast of East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) the following afternoon. The storm surge devastated many of the offshore islands, wiping out villages and destroying crops throughout the region. In the most severely affected Upazila, Tazumuddin, over 45% of the population of 167,000 was killed by the storm.
The Pakistani government, led by junta leader General Yahya Khan, was criticized for its delayed handling of the relief operations following the storm, both by local political leaders in East Pakistan and in the international media. During the election that took place a month later, the opposition Awami League gained a landslide victory in the province, and continuing unrest between East Pakistan and the central government triggered the Bangladesh Liberation War, which led to widespread atrocities and eventually concluded with the creation of the country of Bangladesh. This storm as well as the Bangladesh Liberation War and 1971 Bangladesh genocide and the subsequent refugees led ex-Beatle George Harrison and Bengali musician Ravi Shankar to organize The Concert for Bangladesh in 1971 in Madison Square Garden, New York City.1990s in Bangladesh
The 1990s (pronounced "nineteen-nineties", commonly shortened as the "'90s", pronounced "nineties") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1990, and ended on December 31, 1999. For Bangladesh this decade was characterized by transition to democracy, rapid urbanisation and globalization and struggle for free and fair elections. The newly earned democracy influenced the cultural activities in the decade.1991 in Bangladesh
was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1991st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 991st year of the 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1990s decade.
The year 1991 was the 20th year after the independence of Bangladesh. It was also the first year of the first term of the Government of Khaleda Zia.1994 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
The 1994 North Indian Ocean cyclone season was the period in which tropical cyclones formed within the north Indian Ocean. The season has no official bounds but cyclones tend to form within this basin between April and December. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean — the Bay of Bengal to the east of the Indian subcontinent and the Arabian Sea to the west of India. The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center releases unofficial advisories. An average of four to six storms form in the North Indian Ocean every season with peaks in May and November. Cyclones occurring between the meridians 45°E and 100°E are included in the season by the IMD.Air Force Special Operations Command
Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC), headquartered at Hurlburt Field, Florida, is the special operations component of the United States Air Force. An Air Force major command (MAJCOM), AFSOC is also the U.S. Air Force component command to United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), a unified combatant command located at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. AFSOC provides all Air Force Special Operations Forces (SOF) for worldwide deployment and assignment to regional unified combatant commands.
Before 1983, Air Force special operations forces were primarily assigned to the Tactical Air Command (TAC) and were generally deployed under the control of U.S. Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) or, as had been the case during the Vietnam War, Pacific Air Forces (PACAF). Just as it had relinquished control of the C-130 theater airlift fleet to Military Airlift Command (MAC) in 1975, TAC relinquished control of Air Force SOF to MAC in December 1982.
AFSOC was initially established on 10 February 1983 as Twenty-Third Air Force (23 AF), a subordinate numbered air force of MAC, with 23 AF headquarters initially established at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois. On 1 August 1987, 23 AF headquarters moved to Hurlburt Field, Florida.Bangladesh–United States relations
Bangladesh–United States relations are the current and historical relations between Bangladesh and the United States. Bangladesh has an embassy in Washington D.C. and consulates in New York City and Los Angeles. The United States has an embassy in Dhaka, with information centers in Chittagong, Jessore, Rajshahi and Sylhet. The U.S. Embassy in Bangladesh also operates the Archer K Blood American Library and the Edward M Kennedy Centre in Dhaka. Both countries are members of the United Nations.
In 2014, 76% of Bangladeshis expressed a favorable view of the United States, one of the highest ratings for the countries surveyed in South Asia.Chittagong
Chittagong (), officially known as Chattogram, is a major coastal city and financial centre in southeastern Bangladesh. The city has a population of more than 2.5 million while the metropolitan area had a population of 4,009,423 in 2011, making it the second-largest city in the country. It is the capital of an eponymous District and Division. The city is located on the banks of the Karnaphuli River between the Chittagong Hill Tracts and the Bay of Bengal. Much of Chittagong Division is located within the ecological Indo-Burma zone on the boundary of the India Plate and Burma Plate. This makes Chittagong the crossroads of the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
The natural harbour of Chittagong is an ancient gateway to the region of Bengal. It was noted as one of the largest Eastern ports by the Roman geographer Ptolemy in the 1st century. As part of the rich seafaring tradition of the Bengali people, coastal Chittagong was settled and ruled by different regional kingdoms. Arab traders saw well-developed currency, banking and shipping in Chittagong during the 9th century. Early cosmopolitan Muslims established dominance over the port as an entrepôt of maritime trade, while Arakan, Bengal and Tripura competed for control of the wider hinterland. Muslim conquest took place in the 14th century. Chittagong became the principal port of the Bengal Sultanate. It was used by several leading medieval global explorers, including Ibn Battuta and Niccolò de' Conti. Later, Mrauk U, with assistance from Portuguese trading posts, gained control of the area. The Mughal conquest of Chittagong reestablished Bengali control and ushered an era of stability and trade. The city was renamed as Islamabad. This diverse history is reflected in the rural Chittagonian dialect of Bengali, which has a nearly 50% Arabic-origin vocabulary, as well as Persian and Portuguese loanwords.Ceded to the British East India Company in 1760, Chittagong became the chief port of Eastern Bengal and Assam under the British Raj, as well as a hub of railways. A notable anti-colonial uprising took place in 1930. It was an important base for Allied forces during the Burma Campaign in World War II. Rapid industrialization followed the war, as Chittagong became part of East Pakistan. During the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, Chittagong was site of the country's declaration of independence.
Modern Chittagong is an important economic hub in South Asia. It is home to the Chittagong Stock Exchange and many of Bangladesh's oldest and largest companies. The Port of Chittagong is the largest international seaport on the Bay of Bengal. It is the largest base of the Bangladesh Navy. Chittagong is reputed as a relatively clean city, but still confronts substantial logistical and socioeconomic problems. The mountainous hinterland of Chittagong is the most biodiverse region in Bangladesh, with 2000 endemic plants and various critically endangered wildlife.Cyclone Nargis
Extremely Severe Cyclonic Storm Nargis (نرگس [ˈnərɡɪs]) caused the worst natural disaster in the recorded history of Myanmar during early May 2008. The cyclone made landfall in Myanmar on Friday, 2 May 2008, sending a storm surge 40 kilometres up the densely populated Irrawaddy delta, causing catastrophic destruction and at least 138,373 fatalities. The Labutta Township alone was reported to have 80,000 dead, with about 10,000 more deaths in Bogale. There were around 55,000 people missing and many other deaths were found in other towns and areas, although the Myanmar government's official death toll may have been under-reported, and there have been allegations that government officials stopped updating the death toll after 138,000 to minimize political fallout. The feared 'second wave' of fatalities from disease and lack of relief efforts never materialized. Damage was estimated at over K62,988,000,000 (US$10 billion), which made it the most damaging cyclone ever recorded in this basin.The first named storm of the 2008 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, Nargis developed on 27 April in the central area of Bay of Bengal. Initially, the storm tracked slowly northwestward, and encountering favourable conditions, it quickly strengthened. Dry air weakened the cyclone on 29 April, though after beginning a steady eastward motion, Nargis rapidly intensified to attain peak winds of at least 165 km/h (105 mph) on 2 May, according to IMD observations; the JTWC assessed peak winds of 215 km/h (130 mph), making it a weak Category 4 cyclone on the SSHS. The cyclone moved ashore in the Ayeyarwady Division of Myanmar at peak intensity and, after passing near the major city of Yangon (Rangoon), the storm gradually weakened until dissipating near the border of Myanmar and Thailand.
Nargis is the deadliest named cyclone in the North Indian Ocean Basin, as well as the second-deadliest named cyclone of all time, behind Typhoon Nina of 1975. Including unnamed storms like the 1970 Bhola cyclone, Nargis is the sixth-deadliest cyclone of all time, but an uncertainty between the deaths caused by Nargis and those caused by other cyclones (like the 1991 Bangladesh cyclone), could put Nargis as fifth-deadliest or higher, because the exact death toll is uncertain. Nargis was the first tropical cyclone to strike the country since Cyclone Mala made landfall in 2006, which was slightly stronger, but had a significantly lower impact. According to reports, Indian authorities had warned Myanmar about the danger that Cyclone Nargis posed 48 hours before it hit the country's coast.
Relief efforts were slowed for political reasons as Myanmar's military rulers initially resisted large-scale international aid. US President George W. Bush said that an angry world should condemn the way Myanmar's military rulers were handling the aftermath of such a catastrophic cyclone. Myanmar's military junta finally accepted aid a few days after India's request was accepted.Hampering the relief efforts, only ten days after the cyclone, nearby central China was hit by a massive earthquake, known as the Sichuan earthquake which measured 7.9 in magnitude and it alone had taken 87,476 lives, and caused US$150 billion in damage, making it the costliest disaster in Chinese history and third-costliest disaster ever known. Furthermore, some donated aid items were found to be available in the country's black market, and Myanmar's junta warned on 15 May that legal action would be taken against people who traded or hoarded international aid.Disaster Management Bureau
Disaster Management Bureau is a government bureau that manages government responses to natural disasters in Bangladesh and is located in Dhaka, Bangladesh.Floods in Bangladesh
Bangladesh is prone to flooding due to being situated on the Ganges Delta and the many distributaries flowing into the Bay of Bengal. Coastal flooding, combined with the bursting of river banks is common, and severely affects the landscape and society of Bangladesh. 80% of Bangladesh is floodplain, and it has an extensive sea coastline, rendering the nation very much at risk of periodic widespread damage. Whilst more permanent defences, strengthened with reinforced concrete, are being built, many embankments are composed purely of soil and turf and made by local farmers. Flooding normally occurs during the monsoon season from June to September. The convectional rainfall of the monsoon is added to by relief rainfall caused by the Himalayas. Meltwater from the Himalayas is also a significant input.
Each year in Bangladesh about 26,000 km2 (around 18% of the country) is flooded, killing over 5,000 people and destroying more than seven million homes. During severe floods the affected area may exceed 75% of the country, as was seen in 1998. This volume is 95% of the total annual inflow. By comparison, only about 187,000 million m3 of streamflow is generated by rainfall inside the country during the same period. The floods have caused devastation in Bangladesh throughout history, especially in 1966, 1987, 1988 and 1998. The 2007 South Asian floods also affected a large portion of Bangladesh.HC-1
Helicopter Combat Support Squadron 1 (HC-1) was a helicopter squadron of the United States Navy operating several helicopter types in support of United States Pacific Fleet ships and other units. The squadron was established on 1 April 1948 and disestablished on 29 April 1994. It was nicknamed "Pacific Fleet Angels" or just "Angels".List of Bangladesh tropical cyclones
Present day Bangladesh, due to its unique geographic location, suffers from devastating tropical cyclones frequently. The funnel-shaped northern portion of the Bay of Bengal amplifies the storm surge of landfalling tropical cyclones, affecting thousands of people. Some of the most devastating natural disasters in recorded history with high casualties were tropical cyclones that hit the region now comprising present-day Bangladesh. Among them, the 1970 Bhola cyclone alone claimed approximately 300,000 to 500,000 lives, making it the deadliest tropical cyclone on record.
Tropical cyclones affecting Bangladesh have killed about 1.54 million people.List of active Bangladesh military aircraft
Active Bangladesh military aircraft is a list of military aircraft that are used by the Bangladesh Armed Forces. For aircraft no longer in-service see List of historic Bangladesh military aircraft.
Approximately 80 aircraft and five Mil Mi-17 were destroyed by the devastating 1991 Bangladesh cyclone.List of natural disasters by death toll
A natural disaster is a sudden event that causes widespread destruction, major collateral damage or loss of life, brought about by forces other than the acts of human beings. A natural disaster might be caused by earthquakes, flooding, volcanic eruption, landslide, hurricanes etc. In order to be classified as a disaster, it will have profound environmental effect and/or human loss and frequently incurs financial loss.May 1997 Bangladesh cyclone
The May 1997 Bangladesh cyclone was a powerful storm that caused widespread damage and loss of life throughout Bangladesh. Originating from a near-equatorial trough on May 15, 1997, the cyclone tracked in a general northward direction throughout its existence. The system gradually intensified over the following days, reaching the equivalent of a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale by May 17. The following day, the storm attained its peak intensity with winds of 215 km/h (135 mph) according to the JTWC and 165 km/h (105 mph) according to the IMD along with a barometric pressure of 964 mbar (hPa; 28.47 inHg). On May 19, the cyclone made landfall near Chittagong, Bangladesh before rapidly dissipating the next day.
Prior to the storm's landfall, official in Bangladesh prompted more than 500,000 residents to evacuate from coastal areas and seek shelter. Despite the large-scale evacuation, more than 1,000 people perished as a result of the cyclone, most of which took place offshore. Numerous structures were damaged or destroyed throughout the affected region and electricity was lost for millions of people. In some areas, entire villages were leveled by the cyclone's storm surge. In the wake of the storm, water-borne diseases began to spread due to standing water and bodies being left out in the open. In response to the disaster, funds from across the globe were sent into Bangladesh to help the country recover.Natural disasters in India
Natural disasters in India, many of them related to the climate of India, cause massive losses of life and property. Droughts, flash floods, cyclones, avalanches, landslides brought on by torrential rains, and snowstorms pose the greatest threats. A natural disaster might be caused by earthquakes, flooding, volcanic eruption, landslides, hurricanes etc. In order to be classified as a disaster it will have profound environmental effect and/or human loss and frequently incurs financial loss. Other dangers include frequent summer dust storms, which usually track from north to south; they cause extensive property damage in North India and deposit large amounts of dust from arid regions. Hail is also common in parts of India, causing severe damage to standing crops such as rice and wheat and many more crops.Timeline of Bangladeshi history
This is a timeline of Bangladeshi history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Bangladesh and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Bangladesh. See also the list of Presidents of Bangladesh and list of Prime Ministers of Bangladesh, and the list of years in Bangladesh.Yao Airport
Yao Airport (八尾空港, Yao Kūkō, ICAO: RJOY) is a general aviation airport in Yao, Osaka Prefecture, Japan. Located 8.1 NM (15.0 km; 9.3 mi) southeast of Ōsaka Station, it is also an airbase for the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force.
Several small carriers offer sightseeing and charter flights from Yao, including Asahi Airlines and Hankyu Airlines.
Yao is the only second class airport in Japan that does not have scheduled airline services.