1990 Dushanbe riots

The 1990 Dushanbe riots were an anti-government unrest in Dushanbe, the capital of Tajikistan, from February 12–14, 1990.

1990 Dushanbe riots
Part of Revolutions of 1989, Dissolution of the Soviet Union and the Cold War
RIAN archive 699865 Dushanbe riots, February 1990
BMPs in the Lenin prospect in Dushanbe, 14 February 1990.
Location Dushanbe, Tajikistan, Soviet Union
DateFebruary 12–14, 1990
TargetArmenian, Russian & Tajik civilians
Attack type
anti-Armenian riots
Non-fatal injuries
PerpetratorsTajik nationalist & Islamist activists


In 1988, in the aftermath of the Sumgait pogrom and anti-Armenian riots in Azerbaijan, 39 Armenian refugees were temporarily resettled from Azerbaijan to Dushanbe.[1] In 1990, the Armenian influx became a subject of the rumour that triggered riots in Dushanbe.[2] The rumour inflated the number of refugees to 2,500–5,000.[1] According to rumour Armenians allegedly were being resettled in new housing in Dushanbe,[1] which was experiencing an acute housing shortage at that time.[1][3] Despite the fact that Armenian refugees resettled not in public housing but with their relatives, and by 1990 already left Tajikistan for Armenia,[1] official denouncement of the rumours was not able to stop the protests. Assurances by Communist Party First Secretary Ghagar Makhkamov that no resettlement of Armenians was taking place were rejected by the demonstrators.[4]

Soon, demonstrations sponsored by the nationalist Rastokhez movement turned violent.[4] Radical economical and political reforms were demanded by the protesters.[4] Government buildings, shops and other businesses were attacked and looted. Armenians, Russians,[5] and other ethnic minorities were targeted. Abuse of Tajik women wearing European clothes in public also took place. The riots were put down by Soviet troops that were called into Dushanbe [6] by Ghagar Makhkamov. However Makhamov's over reliance on military force was criticized by Buri Karimov, a deputy chair of Council of Ministers, who called for the resignation of the leadership of the Tajik Communist Party. On February 14, 1990 Makhamov and Prime Minister of Tajikistan Ezatolloh Khayeyev submitted their resignations, but they were not accepted by the Central Committee of the Tajik Communist Party.[4]

During the Dushanbe riots, a period lasting a couple of days, 26 people were killed and 565 were injured.[4] Among the Tajik youth activists convicted for participation in the riots was a future minister of the interior of Tajikistan Yakub Salimov.[7] Smaller scale anti-Armenian incidents were also recorded in another Soviet Central Asian Republic, Turkmenistan.[8]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Horowitz, Donald L. (2002). The Deadly Ethnic Riot. University of California Press. p. 74. ISBN 0-520-23642-4. Retrieved 2008-10-23.
  2. ^ Michael Waller; Bruno Coppieters; Alekseĭ Vsevolodovich Malashenko, eds. (1998). Conflicting Loyalties and the State in Post-Soviet Russia and Eurasia. Routledge. pp. 169–170. ISBN 0-7146-4882-5.
  3. ^ Payin, Emil. "Settlement of ethnic conflicts in post-Soviet society". United Nations University Press. Retrieved 2008-10-23.
  4. ^ a b c d e Takeyh, Ray; Nikolas K. Gvosdev (2004). The Receding Shadow of the Prophet. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-97629-7.
  5. ^ Kolstø, Pål; Andrei Edemsky (1995). Russians in the Former Soviet Republics. Indiana University Press. p. 213. ISBN 0-253-32917-5.
  6. ^ Collins, Kathleen (2006). Clan politics and regime transition in Central Asia. Cambridge University Press. p. 155. ISBN 0-521-83950-5. Retrieved 2008-10-23.
  7. ^ ГАФАРЛЫ, МЕХМАН (2004-02-25). "Archived copy" На родину в наручниках Россия экстрадировала в Душанбе бывшего главу МВД Таджикистана Якуба Салимова (in Russian). Novye Izvestiya. Archived from the original on 2010-03-13. Retrieved 2008-10-23.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ Allworth, Edward (1994). Central Asia, 130 Years of Russian Dominance. Duke University Press. pp. 586–587. ISBN 0-8223-1521-1. Retrieved 2008-10-23.
Armenians in Central Asia

Armenians in Central Asian states: Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan, were mainly settled there during the Soviet era for various reasons.

Armenia–Tajikistan relations

Armenian-Tajik relations refers to the bilateral diplomatic relations between the Republic of Armenia and the Republic of Tajikistan. Diplomatic relations were established on October 12, 1992. The 2 countries are in a number of international and regional organizations, such as the United Nations, OSCE, CSTO, and the EEA. Armenia is represented in Tajikistan through its embassy in Ashgabat, Turkmenistan and has a honorary consulate in Dushanbe. Tajikistan is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow, Russia.

Davlat Khudonazarov

Davlat Khudonazarov, (Tajik: Давлат Худоназаров, Persian: دولت خدای‌نظرف‎) (1944-) is a Pamiri, Tajik filmmaker, politician and human rights activist. Davlat was born 13 March 1944 in Khorugh, Tajikistan.

Qahhor Mahkamov

Qahhor Mahkamov (Tajik: Қаҳҳор Маҳкамов; alternative spelling Kahar Mahkamov; April 16, 1932 – June 8, 2016) was a Tajik politician who served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of Tajikistan and was the first President of Tajikistan.

Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, also commonly known as Soviet Tajikistan and Tajik SSR, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union which existed from 1929 to 1991 located in Central Asia.

The Tajik Republic was created on 5 December 1929 as a national entity for the Tajik people within the Soviet Union. It succeeded the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik ASSR), which had been created on 14 October 1924 as a part of the predominantly Turkic Uzbek SSR in the process of national delimitation in Soviet Central Asia. On 24 August 1990, the Tajik SSR declared sovereignty in its borders. The republic was renamed to the Republic of Tajikistan on 31 August 1991 and declared its independence from the Soviet Union on 9 September 1991.

Geographically, at 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi), it was bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kirghizia to the north, and China to the east. Pakistan was to the south, separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor.

Vladimir Bortko

Vladimir Vladimirovich Bortko PAR (Russian: Владимир Владимирович Бортко; born May 7, 1946 in Moscow), is a Russian film director, screenwriter, producer and politician of Ukranian origin. Member of the State Duma since 2011.

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