The 1988 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at The Omni in Atlanta, Georgia, from July 18–July 21, 1988, to select candidates for the 1988 presidential election. At the convention Governor Michael Dukakis of Massachusetts was nominated for President and Senator Lloyd Bentsen of Texas for Vice President. The chair of the convention was Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives Jim Wright.
|1988 Democratic National Convention|
|1988 presidential election|
Dukakis and Bentsen
|Date(s)||July 18–21, 1988|
|Keynote speaker||Ann Richards|
|Notable speakers||Ted Kennedy|
|Presidential nominee||Michael Dukakis of Massachusetts|
|Vice Presidential nominee||Lloyd Bentsen of Texas|
|Votes needed for nomination||2,054|
|Results (President)||Dukakis (MA): 2,877 (70.09%)|
Jackson (DC): 1,219 (29.70%)
Stallings (ID): 3 (0.07%)
Biden (DE): 2 (0.05%)
Gephardt (MO): 2 (0.05%)
Bentsen (TX): 1 (0.02%)
Hart (CO): 1 (0.02%)
Speakers at the convention included Texas State Treasurer Ann Richards, who gave a keynote speech that put her in the public spotlight and included the line that George H.W. Bush was "born with a silver foot in his mouth". This speech was listed as #38 in American Rhetoric's Top 100 Speeches of the 20th Century. Arkansas governor Bill Clinton gave a widely jeered nomination speech on the opening night that some predicted would ruin his political career, a source of much satisfaction to him 4 years later when he was elected the 42nd President of the United States. Massachusetts senator Ted Kennedy's remarks contained the iteration "Where was George?", and Texas Agriculture Commissioner Jim Hightower called Bush "a toothache of a man."
In one of the subsequent presidential debates, when questioned about the general alleged "negativity" of the campaign, Bush cited the ad hominem attacks against him at the Convention as the root cause.
The organizers for the convention chose pastel colors as a background in the belief that they would appear better on television. They were patterned after the colors of the American flag in salmon, azure, and eggshell. Republicans mocked the choice and used it to buttress their case that the Democrats were "soft" on the issues. New Jersey governor Thomas Kean claimed at the Republican Convention that "The Dukakis Democrats will try to talk tough, but don't be fooled. They may try to talk like Dirty Harry, but they will still act like Pee Wee Herman." Kean continued that Democrats and Republicans alike "have no use for pastel patriotism... The liberal Democrats are trying to hide more than the colors in our flag; they are trying to hide their true colors."
The theme song for the convention was composed and performed by longtime supporter and folksinger Carly Simon. Entitled Turn of the Tide, this B-side of the hit single Let the River Run from the 20th Century Fox motion picture Working Girl was subsequently used a few weeks later in the U.S./Russian co-production of Marlo Thomas' and Tatiana Vedeneyeva's Emmy-award winning ABC television special Free to Be... a Family and was subsequently released on the best selling soundtrack album.
A number of candidates withdrew from the race at the start of the convention as the rules stated that delegates won by withdrawn candidates could be replaced. The final contest for the nomination was between Michael Dukakis and Jesse Jackson.
|Democratic National Convention presidential vote, 1988|
With Jackson's supporters demanding that he receive the vice presidential nomination as his reward for coming in second, the Dukakis campaign decided to nominate Senator Bentsen by voice vote, rather than a roll call.
San Francisco, California
|Democratic National Conventions||Succeeded by|
New York, New York
The 1987 Libertarian National Convention was held at the Sheraton Hotel in Seattle, Washington, from September 4 to September 6, 1987. Ron Paul of Texas was chosen as the Libertarian Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 1988 election.Libertarians hold a National Convention every two years to vote on party bylaws, platform and resolutions and elect national party officers and a judicial committee. Every four years it nominates presidential and vice presidential candidates.1988 Democratic Party presidential primaries
The 1988 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1988 U.S. presidential election. Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1988 Democratic National Convention held from July 18 to July 21, 1988, in Atlanta, Georgia. This is also the last time Illinois, Missouri, Virginia, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana chose delegates for a candidate who did not win the nomination.1988 Republican National Convention
The 1988 Republican National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held in the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans, Louisiana from August 15 to August 18, 1988. It was the second time that a major party held its convention in one of the five states known as the Deep South, coming on the heels of the 1988 Democratic National Convention, which was held in Atlanta, Georgia. Much of the impetus for holding the convention in the Superdome came from the Louisiana Republican National Committeewoman Virginia Martinez of New Orleans, who lobbied on behalf of her adopted home city as the convention site as a member of the RNC Executive Committee.
The convention nominated Vice President George H. W. Bush for President, as expected. The second spot on the ticket was not publicly known before the convention; James Danforth "Dan" Quayle, U.S. Senator of Indiana, was selected as Bush's vice-presidential running mate. The revelation of Quayle's selection as running mate did not come until the second day of the convention, when NBC News broke the story.
The convention featured speeches by Joe Paterno, Pat Robertson, a keynote address by New Jersey Governor Thomas Kean, and the music of the Jimmy Maxwell Orchestra. Actress Helen Hayes attended the conference at age 88.1990 Washington, D.C. mayoral election
The 1990 Washington, D.C. mayoral election occurred on Tuesday, November 6, 1990, with Democratic candidate Sharon Pratt Dixon defeating Republican Maurice Turner.
Sharon Pratt Dixon announced at the 1988 Democratic National Convention that she would challenge incumbent mayor Marion Barry in the 1990 election. Pratt was the only candidate to have officially announced her plans to run for mayor when Barry was arrested on drug charges and dropped out of the race in early 1990. Shortly thereafter, the race was joined by longtime councilmembers John Ray, Charlene Drew Jarvis and David Clarke. Pratt criticized her three main opponents, referring to them as the "three blind mice" who "saw nothing, said nothing and did nothing as the city rapidly decayed." She was the only candidate who called on Barry to resign from office, and ran specifically as an outsider to his political machine with the campaign slogan of "Clean House."
Following a series of televised debates during the last few weeks of the campaign, Pratt received the endorsement of the Washington Post. The day the endorsement appeared, her poll numbers skyrocketed, with many political observers attributing the rise specifically to the Post's backing. On the eve of the election, polls showed Councilmember John Ray holding the lead, but Pratt gaining ground fast and a large margin of undecided voters remaining. However, even with the smallest campaign staff and least money, Pratt won the election, defeating second-place Ray by 10%. As Washington is a heavily Democratic city, Dixon's victory over Republican former police chief Maurice T. Turner, Jr., in the November 6 general election was a foregone conclusion.Ann Richards
Dorothy Ann Willis Richards (September 1, 1933 – September 13, 2006) was an American politician and 45th Governor of Texas (1991–95). A Democrat, she first came to national attention as the Texas State Treasurer, when she delivered the keynote address at the 1988 Democratic National Convention. Richards was the second female governor of Texas and was frequently noted in the media for her outspoken feminism and her one-liners.Born in McLennan County, Texas, Ann Richards became a schoolteacher after graduating from Baylor University. She won election to the Travis County Commissioners' Court in 1976 and took office as Texas State Treasurer in 1983. She delivered a nominating speech for Walter Mondale at the 1984 Democratic National Convention and the keynote address at the 1988 Democratic National Convention.
Richards won the 1990 Texas gubernatorial election, defeating Texas Attorney General Jim Mattox in a Democratic primary run-off election and businessman Clayton Williams in the general election. She was defeated in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election by George W. Bush. She remained active in public life until her death in 2006.
To date, Richards remains the last Democrat to serve as Governor of Texas.Anne Rand
Anne M. Rand (born July 27, 1946) is an American politician from Maine. She served in the Maine House of Representatives and the Maine State Senate for 10 terms between 1986 and 2008.Rand was born in Portland, Maine and raised in the city's Munjoy Hill neighborhood. She graduated from the Maine School of Practical Nursing in Waterville, Maine in 1970. She worked as a nurse at Mercy Hospital for 15 years prior to entering politics. She was first elected to the Maine House of Representatives in 1986, where she served until giving up her seat to run for Maine State Senate in 1994. She was replaced in the House of Representatives by J. Elizabeth Mitchell (not to be confused with Libby Mitchell).
In 1988, Rand was a delegate to the 1988 Democratic National Convention, where she supported Jesse Jackson.In 1995, Rand made headlines for sponsoring a bill to make marijuana legal for patients with HIV-AIDS.She was elected to the State Senate in 1994 and served until 2002, when she was unable to run for re-election due to term-limits. She ran and won her old seat on Munjoy Hill in 2006. She sought her old seat on the Maine Senate in 2008, but lost in the Democratic primary to Justin Alfond.
In 1980, Rand and her husband Dale opened Dale Rand Printing on Washington Avenue at the base of Munjoy Hill.Cathy Hudgins
Catherine M. "Cathy" Hudgins (born 1944) is a Democratic member of the Fairfax County Board of Supervisors; representing the Hunter Mill district, which includes the town of Reston and town of Vienna. In 1984 she was Virginia's National Committeewoman on the Democratic National Committee; as well as the leader of Virginia's delegation to the 1988 Democratic National Convention.She worked twelve years in the private sector for AT&T as a programmer, consultant, and analyst.Hudgins was elected to the Board of Supervisors in November 1999, defeating incumbent Republican supervisor Robert B. Dix, Jr.In April 2013, Hudgins was diagnosed with noninvasive breast cancer.Donald Fowler
Donald L. "Don" Fowler (born September 12, 1935) is an American political scientist, professor and political operative who served as National Chair of the Democratic National Committee from 1995 to 1997, alongside Christopher J. Dodd as General Chairman during this same period.Fowler is a political science professor and businessman from South Carolina who has spent most of his adult life in various Democratic Party roles, including state party executive director, state party chair, and CEO of the 1988 Democratic National Convention in Atlanta.Electoral history of Lloyd Bentsen
Electoral history of Lloyd Bentsen, United States Senator from Texas (1971-1993), United States Representative (1948-1955), United States Secretary of the Treasury (1993-1994), Democratic Party nominee for Vice President of the United States in 1988 and a candidate for 1976 Democratic presidential nomination
Texas's 15th congressional district, 1948 (regular):
Lloyd Bentsen (D) - 27,402 (100.00%)Texas's 15th congressional district, 1948 (special):
Lloyd Bentsen (D) - 2,396 (100.00%)Texas's 15th congressional district, 1950:
Lloyd Bentsen (D) (inc.) - 18,524 (100.00%)Texas's 15th congressional district, 1952:
Lloyd Bentsen (D) (inc.) - 63,723 (100.00%)Democratic primary for the United States Senate (Class 1 seat) from Texas, 1970:
Lloyd Bentsen - 841,316 (53.66%)
Ralph Yarborough (inc.) - 726,477 (46.34%)United States Senate election in Texas, 1970:
Lloyd Bentsen (D) - 1,194,069 (53.55%)
George H. W. Bush (R) - 1,035,794 (46.45%)Democratic primary for the United States Senate (Class 1 seat) from Texas, 1976:
Lloyd Bentsen (inc.) - 970,983 (63.66%)
Phil Gramm - 427,597 (28.04%)
Hugh Wilson - 107,150 (7.03%)
Leon Dugi - 19,455 (1.28%)Texas Democratic presidential primary, 1976:
Jimmy Carter - 736,161 (47.65%)
Lloyd Bentsen - 343,032 (22.20%)
George Wallace - 270,798 (17.53%)
Uncommitted - 129,478 (8.38%)
Fred R. Harris - 31,379 (2.03%)
Sargent Shriver - 28,520 (1.85%)
Ellen McCormack - 5,700 (0.37%)United States Senate election in Texas, 1976:
Lloyd Bentsen (D) (inc.) - 2,199,956 (56.78%)
Alan Steelman (R) - 1,636,370 (42.24%)
Pedro Vasquez (Socialist Workers) - 20,549 (0.53%)
Marjorie P. Gallion (American Independent) - 17,355 (0.45%)Democratic primary for the United States Senate (Class 1 seat) from Texas, 1982:
Lloyd Bentsen (inc.) - 987,153 (78.13%)
Joe Sullivan - 276,314 (21.87%)United States Senate election in Texas, 1982:
Lloyd Bentsen (D) (inc.) - 1,818,223 (58.59%)
James Collins (R) - 1,256,759 (40.50%)
John E. Ford (LBT) - 23,494 (0.76%)
Lineaus Hooper Lorette (Citizens) - 4,564 (0.15%)
Write-in - 127 (0.00%)Democratic primary for the United States Senate (Class 1 seat) from Texas, 1988:
Lloyd Bentsen (inc.) - 1,365,736 (84.80%)
Joe Sullivan - 244,805 (15.20%)1988 Democratic National Convention (presidential tally):
Michael Dukakis - 2,877 (70.09%)
Jesse Jackson - 1,219 (29.70%)
Richard H. Stallings - 3 (0.07%)
Joe Biden - 2 (0.05%)
Dick Gephardt - 2 (0.05%)
Lloyd Bentsen - 1 (0.02%)
Gary Hart - 1 (0.02%)1988 Democratic National Convention (vice presidential tally):
Lloyd Bentsen - 4,148 (100.00%)United States Senate election in Texas, 1988:
Lloyd Bentsen (D) (inc.) - 3,149,806 (59.17%)
Beau Boulter (R) - 2,129,228 (40.00%)
Jeff Daiell (LBT) - 43,989 (0.83%)
Write-in - 583 (0.01%)United States presidential election, 1988:
George H. W. Bush/Dan Quayle (R) - 48,886,597 (53.4%) and 426 electoral votes (40 states carried)
Michael Dukakis/Lloyd Bentsen (D) - 41,809,476 (45.6%) and 111 electoral votes (10 states and D.C. carried)
Lloyd Bentsen/Michael Dukakis (D) - 1 electoral vote (West Virginia faithless elector)
Ron Paul/Andre Marrou (LBT) - 431,750 (0.5%)
Lenora Fulani (New Alliance) - 217,221 (0.2%)
Others - 249,642 (0.4%)Ginger Rogers
Ginger Rogers (born Virginia Katherine McMath; July 16, 1911 – April 25, 1995) was an American actress, dancer, and singer. She is known for her starring role in Kitty Foyle (1940), but is best remembered for performing in RKO's musical films (partnered with Fred Astaire) on stage, radio and television, throughout much of the 20th century.
Born in Independence, Missouri, and raised in Kansas City, Rogers and her family moved to Fort Worth, Texas, when she was nine years old. After winning a 1925 Charleston dance contest that launched a successful vaudeville career, she gained recognition as a Broadway actress for her debut stage role in Girl Crazy. This success led to a contract with Paramount Pictures, which ended after five films. Rogers had her first successful film role as a supporting actress in 42nd Street (1933). Throughout the 1930s, Rogers made nine films with Astaire, among which were some of her biggest successes, such as Swing Time (1936) and Top Hat (1935). After two commercial failures with Astaire, Rogers began to branch out into dramatic films and comedies. Her acting was well received by critics and audiences, and she became one of the biggest box-office draws of the 1940s. Her performance in Kitty Foyle (1940) won her the Academy Award for Best Actress.Rogers remained successful throughout the 1940s and at one point was Hollywood's highest-paid actress, but her popularity had peaked by the end of the decade. She reunited with Astaire in 1949 in the commercially successful The Barkleys of Broadway. After an unsuccessful period through the 1950s, Rogers made a successful return to Broadway in 1965, playing the lead role in Hello, Dolly!. More lead roles on Broadway followed, along with her stage directorial debut in 1985 on an off-Broadway production of Babes in Arms. Rogers also made television acting appearances until 1987. In 1992, Rogers was recognized at the Kennedy Center Honors. She died of a heart attack in 1995, at the age of 83.
Rogers is associated with the phrase "backwards and in high heels", the title of her memoir, attributed to Bob Thaves' Frank and Ernest 1982 cartoon with the caption "Sure he [Astaire] was great, but don't forget that Ginger Rogers did everything he did...backwards and in high heels". This phrase is sometimes incorrectly attributed to Ann Richards, who used it in her keynote address to the 1988 Democratic National Convention.A Republican and a devout Christian Scientist, Rogers was married five times, with all of her marriages ending in divorce; she had no children. During her long career, Rogers made 73 films, and her musical films with Fred Astaire are credited with revolutionizing the genre. Rogers was a major movie star during the Golden Age of Hollywood, and is often considered an American icon. She ranks number 14 on the AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars list of female stars of classic American cinema.Grattan Kerans
Grattan Kerans (born January 2, 1941) is an American politician from Oregon. He was a member of the Oregon Legislative Assembly in the House of Representatives from 1974 through 1984, and in the Oregon State Senate from 1986 to 1993. He held the position of Speaker of the House during the 1983 legislative session.Lorena, Texas
Lorena is a small city in McLennan County, Texas, United States. The population was 1,662 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Waco Metropolitan Statistical Area.Michael Dukakis
Michael Stanley Dukakis (; born November 3, 1933) is a retired American politician who served as the 65th Governor of Massachusetts, from 1975 to 1979 and again from 1983 to 1991. He is the longest-serving governor in Massachusetts history and only the second Greek-American governor in U.S. history, after Spiro Agnew. He was nominated by the Democratic Party for president in the 1988 election, losing to the Republican candidate, Vice President George H. W. Bush.
Born in Brookline, Massachusetts to Greek and Aromanian Greek immigrants, Dukakis attended Swarthmore College before enlisting in the United States Army. After graduating from Harvard Law School, he won election to the Massachusetts House of Representatives, serving from
1963 to 1971. He won the 1974 Massachusetts gubernatorial election but lost his 1978 bid for re-nomination to Edward J. King. He defeated King in the 1982 gubernatorial primary and served as governor from 1983 to 1991, presiding over a period of economic growth known as the "Massachusetts Miracle".
Building on his popularity as governor, Dukakis sought the Democratic presidential nomination for the 1988 presidential election. He prevailed in the Democratic primaries and was formally nominated at the 1988 Democratic National Convention. Dukakis chose Senator Lloyd Bentsen of Texas as his running mate, while the Republicans nominated a ticket consisting of George H. W. Bush and Senator Dan Quayle. Dukakis lost the election, carrying only ten states and Washington, D.C., but he improved on the Democratic performance in the previous two elections. After the election, Dukakis announced that he would not seek another term as governor, and he left office in 1991.
Since leaving office, Dukakis has served on the board of directors for Amtrak and has taught political science at Northeastern University and UCLA. He was mentioned as a potential appointee to the Senate in 2009 to fill the vacancy caused by Ted Kennedy's death, but Governor Deval Patrick chose Paul G. Kirk. In 2012, Dukakis backed the successful Senate campaign of Elizabeth Warren.Michael Dukakis 1988 presidential campaign
The 1988 presidential campaign of Michael Dukakis began when he announced his candidacy for the Democratic Party's 1988 presidential nomination on March 16, 1987, in a speech in Boston. After winning the nomination, he was formally crowned the Democratic Party's nominee at the party's convention in Atlanta, Georgia on July 21, 1988. He lost the 1988 election to his Republican opponent George H. W. Bush, who was the sitting Vice President at the time. Dukakis won 10 states and the District of Columbia, receiving a total of 112 electoral votes compared to Bush's 426. Dukakis received 46% of the popular vote to Bush's 54%. Many commentators blamed Dukakis' loss on the embarrassing photograph of him in a tank taken on September 13, 1988, which subsequently formed the basis of a successful Republican attack ad. Much of the blame was also laid on Dukakis' campaign, which was criticized for being poorly managed despite being well funded.Olympia Dukakis
Olympia Dukakis (born June 20, 1931) is a Greek American actress. She started her career in theater, and won an Obie Award for Best Actress in 1963 for her Off-Broadway performance in Bertolt Brecht's Man Equals Man. She later transitioned to film acting, and in 1987, she won an Academy Award, a Golden Globe, and a BAFTA nomination for her performance in Moonstruck. She received another Golden Globe nomination for Sinatra, and Emmy Award nominations for Lucky Day, More Tales of the City, and Joan of Arc.Omni Coliseum
Omni Coliseum (often called The Omni) was an indoor arena in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. Completed in 1972, the arena seated 16,378 for basketball and 15,278 for hockey. It was part of the Omni Complex, now known as the CNN Center.
It was the home arena for the Atlanta Hawks of the National Basketball Association from 1972 until the arena's closure in 1997 and the Atlanta Flames of the National Hockey League from their inception in 1972 until 1980, when the franchise was sold and relocated to Calgary, Alberta. It also hosted the 1977 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament, the 1988 Democratic National Convention, and the 1996 Summer Olympics indoor volleyball.
The Omni was closed and demolished in 1997. Its successor, State Farm Arena, was constructed within the Omni's footprint and opened in 1999.Robert A. George
Robert A. George is an editorial writer for the New York Daily News (and formerly for the New York Post) and a conservative/libertarian blogger and pundit. He was born in Trinidad and lived in the United Kingdom before moving to the United States. A 1985 graduate of St. John's College in Annapolis, Maryland, George worked for the Republican National Committee and, following the 1994 midterm elections, Speaker of the House of Representatives Newt Gingrich.
In an article for the New York Daily News, January 31, 2018, he wrote these autobiographical comments regarding his work for the GOP:
"Nearly 30 years ago, a recent college graduate noticed that it was a presidential election year. He had always been interested in politics, and, while his ideological compass was all over the map, wouldn't it be interesting to see the process upclose? How about attending a political convention. Heck, let's be really crazy/dumb, why not try going to both conventions, see everything really intimately, interact with politically aware folks of my own age, learn from them?
Well, if a youngish black immigrant with few connections — and less experience — in politics, what does he do? Well, he realized, he did have some connections.
On the one hand, a professor — or tutor, as faculty at his alma mater, St. John's College in Annapolis, are called — was married to a member of a prominent Democratic family. He asked the tutor if he could inquire with his wife about any possible volunteer positions at the 1988 Democratic National Convention in Atlanta. The tutor said he'd look into it.
And, a few months before, the graduate had befriended a couple who had just moved in next door. The husband was the fund-raising director at the Republican National Committee. The graduate asked his neighbor about volunteering for the '88 GOP convention in New Orleans.
After allowing a reasonable amount of time to pass, the graduate circled back. The GOP neighbor said, "Yes, we'd love to have you!" Conversely, the tutor said his wife had said, alas, that the DNC volunteer slots were assigned months before and, well ... sorry.
Who knows? Many years later, that graduate may still have become an editorial writer for two metropolitan newspapers, but the road would likely have been vastly different if Kathleen Kennedy Townsend — aunt to Joe Kennedy III — had managed to find a volunteer spot at the 1988 Democratic National Convention." In addition to his newspaper work, George also has appeared on MSNBC, CNN, Fox and regularly appears on other political affairs programs. George has written for the conservative National Review, the libertarian Reason and the Huffington Post. He also sponsors his own group political/cultural blog, Ragged Thots. In addition, George occasionally moonlights as a stand-up comic and improviser.Tanner on Tanner
Tanner on Tanner is a 2004 comedy film. It is the sequel to the 1988 Robert Altman-directed and Garry Trudeau-written miniseries about a failed presidential candidate, Tanner '88. The sequel focuses mostly on Alex Tanner (Cynthia Nixon), a struggling filmmaker and the daughter of onetime presidential candidate Jack Tanner (Michael Murphy).