1986 enlargement of the European Communities

The 1986 enlargement of the European Communities was the third enlargement of what is now the European Union, then the European Communities (EC). Spain and Portugal acceded to the EC on 1 January 1986. It is considered a part of the Mediterranean enlargement.

EC12-1986 European Community map enlargement
EEC-10 + Spain and Portugal

See also

1973 enlargement of the European Communities

The 1973 enlargement of the European Communities was the first enlargement of the European Communities (EC), now the European Union (EU). Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom (UK) acceded to the EC on 1 January 1973. Gibraltar and Greenland also joined the EC as part of the United Kingdom and Denmark respectively, but the Faroe Islands, the British Overseas Territories and the Crown dependencies of the United Kingdom did not join the EC.

Ireland and Denmark both held referenda in 1972 in May and October respectively, and the UK held a referendum in 1975, on membership of the EC, all which approved membership of the EC. Norway planned to accede, but this was rejected in a referendum held in September 1972. Norway later reapplied to join, but voters again rejected the proposal in a 1994 referendum.

Greenland later withdrew from the EC on 1 January 1985 after a referendum in 1982. This was followed by the UK holding a referendum in 2016 on membership which resulted in the United Kingdom voting to leave the now EU.

1981 enlargement of the European Communities

The 1981 enlargement of the European Communities was the second enlargement of what is now the European Union, then the European Communities (EC). Greece acceded to the EEC on 1 January 1981. It is considered a part of the Mediterranean enlargement.

Yugoslavia and the European Economic Community

From the establishment of the European Economic Community (later expanded into the European Union) in 1957 until the breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990’s, thus during the Cold War period, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was the only communist country in Eastern Europe which developed close relations with the organisation. Notwithstanding occasional and informal proposals coming from both sides, Yugoslavia never became a full member state of the EEC.

Mutual interactions between the two sides have intensified in the late 1980’s and early 1990’s but all agreements were cut off at 25 November 1991 due to the War in Slovenia and Croatia. Prior to the cut off, Yugoslavia was the EEC's second largest trade partner in the Mediterranean area, just after Algeria, with 90% of industrial imports from Yugoslavia to the EEC not subject to any duty.The former Yugoslav constituent republics of Slovenia (2004) and Croatia (2013) have joined the European Union as independent states, Serbia and Montenegro are negotiating their accession since 2012 and 2010 respectively, North Macedonia is a candidate country since 2005, Bosnia and Herzegovina applied in 2016, and partially recognised Kosovo is recognised as a potential candidate for membership within the Western Balkans enlargement agenda of the EU. Numerous politicians, academics and public persons commented on alleged missed opportunity of Yugoslav EEC membership including Stjepan Mesić, Kiro Gligorov, Milorad Dodik,, Tvrtko Jakovina, Claudio Gerardini, , Vuk Drašković, Vladislav Jovanović, Cornelius Adebahr...

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