The following are the Pulitzer Prizes for 1977.
Beautiful Swimmers: Watermen, Crabs and the Chesapeake Bay (1976) is a Pulitzer Prize non-fiction book by William W. Warner about the Chesapeake Bay, blue crabs and watermen. The book takes its name from the generic name of the blue crab, Callinectes, which is Greek for "beautiful swimmer." It won the 1977 Pulitzer Prize for non-fiction.Carl Sagan
Carl Edward Sagan (; November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences. He is best known for his work as a science popularizer and communicator. His best known scientific contribution is research on extraterrestrial life, including experimental demonstration of the production of amino acids from basic chemicals by radiation. Sagan assembled the first physical messages sent into space: the Pioneer plaque and the Voyager Golden Record, universal messages that could potentially be understood by any extraterrestrial intelligence that might find them. Sagan argued the now accepted hypothesis that the high surface temperatures of Venus can be attributed to and calculated using the greenhouse effect.Sagan published more than 600 scientific papers and articles and was author, co-author or editor of more than 20 books. He wrote many popular science books, such as The Dragons of Eden, Broca's Brain and Pale Blue Dot, and narrated and co-wrote the award-winning 1980 television series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage. The most widely watched series in the history of American public television, Cosmos has been seen by at least 500 million people across 60 different countries. The book Cosmos was published to accompany the series. He also wrote the science fiction novel Contact, the basis for a 1997 film of the same name. His papers, containing 595,000 items, are archived at The Library of Congress.Sagan advocated scientific skeptical inquiry and the scientific method, pioneered exobiology and promoted the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI). He spent most of his career as a professor of astronomy at Cornell University, where he directed the Laboratory for Planetary Studies. Sagan and his works received numerous awards and honors, including the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal, the National Academy of Sciences Public Welfare Medal, the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction for his book The Dragons of Eden, and, regarding Cosmos: A Personal Voyage, two Emmy Awards, the Peabody Award, and the Hugo Award. He married three times and had five children. After suffering from myelodysplasia, Sagan died of pneumonia at the age of 62, on December 20, 1996.David M. Potter
David Morris Potter (December 6, 1910 in Augusta, Georgia – February 18, 1971) was an American historian of the South. Born in Georgia, he graduated from the Academy of Richmond County, then from Emory University in 1932. Potter entered graduate school at Yale the same year, but he left four years later without finishing his dissertation. He taught at the University of Mississippi for two years, then taught at Rice University for another two before completing his dissertation in 1940 under Ulrich Bonnell Phillips.In 1942 Yale published his dissertation as Lincoln and His Party in the Secession Crisis and hired him as an assistant professor. As professor of history at Yale University in 1942–1961 and Coe Professor of American History at Stanford University in 1961–1971 he directed numerous dissertations and served on numerous editorial and professional boards. He also held the Walgreen Lectureship at the University of Chicago, and the Commonwealth Fund Lectureship at the University of London. Potter held the Harold Vyvyan Harmsworth Professor of American History at Oxford University in 1947. He was a pioneer in sponsoring the study of Women's history.
Potter posthumously won the 1977 Pulitzer Prize for History for The Impending Crisis, 1848-1861 (1976), an in-depth narrative and analysis of the causes of the American Civil War. His main achievement was to put the history of the South in national perspective. He rejected the conflict model of Charles A. Beard and emphasized the depth of consensus on American values. He considered himself a conservative and was a prominent exponent of Consensus history.George Will
George Frederick Will (born May 4, 1941) is an American political commentator. George Will writes regular columns for The Washington Post and provides commentary for NBC News and MSNBC. In 1986, The Wall Street Journal called him "perhaps the most powerful journalist in America," in a league with Walter Lippmann (1889–1974). His numerous awards include the Pulitzer Prize for commentary in 1977.Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication
The Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication is a constituent college of the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia, United States. Established in 1915, Grady College offers undergraduate degrees in journalism, advertising, public relations, and entertainment and media studies, along with master’s and doctoral programs of study. Grady has consistently been ranked among the top schools of journalism education and research in the U.S. It is home to several prominent centers and institutes, including the Peabody Awards, recognized as one of the most prestigious awards in electronic journalism, the James M. Cox Jr. Center for International Mass Communication Training and Research, New Media Institute and National Press Photographers Association.James Merrill
For the South Carolina politician see James Merrill (politician).James Ingram Merrill (March 3, 1926 – February 6, 1995) was an American poet. He was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for poetry in 1977 for Divine Comedies. His poetry falls into two distinct bodies of work: the polished and formalist lyric poetry of his early career, and the epic narrative of occult communication with spirits and angels, titled The Changing Light at Sandover (published in three volumes from 1976 to 1980), which dominated his later career. Although most of his published work was poetry, he also wrote essays, fiction, and plays. He also made a cameo in the 1992 film Lorenzo's Oil in a symposium scene where he played a questioning doctor, due to filmmakers' wanting to emphasize the "everyman" storyline.Lowell family
The Lowell family is one of the Boston Brahmin families of New England, known for both intellectual and commercial achievements. They originally settled on the North Shore at Cape Ann after they arrived in Boston on June 23, 1639. The patriarch, Percival Lowle (1571–1665), described as a "solid citizen of Bristol", determined at the age of 68 that the future was in the New World. By the 19th and 20th centuries, the Lowells descended from John Lowell (1743–1802) were widely considered to be one of America's most accomplished families.Massachusetts Bay Colony Governor John Winthrop needed solid, dependable people to settle the North Shore area as a buffer against the French from Canada and urged that the Lowells relocate to Newburyport on the Merrimack River, at the border of the failing Province of Maine.Merritt Roe Smith
Merritt Roe Smith (1940) is an American historian. He is the Leverett and William Cutten Professor of the History of Technology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Neal Ulevich
Neal Hirsh Ulevich (born June 18, 1946) is an American photographer. He won a Pulitzer Prize in 1977 for "photographs of disorder and brutality in the streets of Bangkok".Pulitzer Prize Special Citations and Awards
The Pulitzer Prize jury has the option of awarding special citations and awards where they consider necessary. Since 1918, forty-four such special citations and awards have been given. The awards are sixteen journalism awards, twelve letters awards, fourteen music awards, and five service awards. Prizes for the award vary. The Pulitzer Foundation has stated that the Special Citations given to George Gershwin, Thelonious Monk, John Coltrane and Duke Ellington were in response to criticism for the failure of the Foundation to cite the four.Richard Eberhart
Richard Ghormley Eberhart (April 5, 1904 – June 9, 2005) was an American poet who published more than a dozen books of poetry and approximately twenty works in total. "Richard Eberhart emerged out of the 1930s as a modern stylist with romantic sensibilities." He won the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for Selected Poems, 1930–1965 and the 1977 National Book Award for Poetry for Collected Poems, 1930–1976. He is the grandfather of former Red Sox general manager Ben Cherington.Richard Wernick
Richard Wernick (born January 16, 1934) in Boston, Massachusetts is an American composer. He is best known for his chamber and vocal works. His composition Visions of Terror and Wonder won the 1977 Pulitzer Prize for Music.Steve Pieczenik
Steve R. Pieczenik (; born Havana, Cuba, December 7, 1943) is an American writer, former United States Department of State official, psychiatrist, and publisher.Ted Landsmark
Theodore "Ted" Carlisle Landsmark (born May 17, 1946; Theodore Augustus Burrell) is an educator, attorney and architect. He is Director of the Kitty & Michael Dukakis Center for Urban and Regional Policy at Northeastern University. He served as the President of Boston Architectural College (BAC) from 1997 to 2014, as Chief Academic Officer at the American College of the Building Arts in 2015 - 2017, and was previously the Dean of Graduate and Continuing Education at the Massachusetts College of Art. He also served as the Director of Boston's Office of Community Partnerships.
Landsmark has received fellowships from the Museum of Early Southern Decorative Arts and the National Science Foundation, and he served on the editorial board for Architecture Boston. Landsmark has also served as a trustee to numerous arts-related organizations including Boston's Museum of Fine Arts, the Fund for the Arts at the New England Foundation for the Arts, Historic New England, and the Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston. He has undertaken research into early African American artisanry. He is widely recognized as an important advocate of diversity and of the African American cause in schools of architecture. He is a Senior Fellow of the Design Futures Council, and also serves on the organization's Executive Board.Landsmark earned B.A., M.E.D. and J.D. degrees from Yale University and a Ph.D. from Boston University.In 2006 he received the Whitney M. Young Jr. Award from the American Institute of Architects in recognition for his efforts as a social activist.In 2014, Landsmark was named to the Board of Directors of the Boston Redevelopment Authority [Boston Planning and Development Agency] by Mayor Marty Walsh.The Daily Cardinal
The Daily Cardinal is a student newspaper that serves the University of Wisconsin–Madison community. One of the oldest student newspapers in the country, it began publishing on Monday, April 4, 1892. The newspaper is financially and editorially independent of the university. Sammy Gibbons is the newspaper's current editor-in-chief.
The Cardinal's motto, printed at the bottom of every front page and taken from an 1894 declaration by the university's board of regents, is "...the great state University of Wisconsin should ever encourage that continual and fearless sifting and winnowing by which alone the truth can be found."The Shadow Box
The Shadow Box is a play written by actor Michael Cristofer. The play made its Broadway debut on March 31, 1977. It is the winner of the 1977 Pulitzer Prize for Drama and Tony Award for Best Play. The play was made into a telefilm, directed by Paul Newman in 1980.The Soiling of Old Glory
The Soiling of Old Glory is a Pulitzer Prize-winning photograph taken by Stanley Forman during the Boston busing crisis in 1976. It depicts a white teenager, Joseph Rakes, assaulting a black man—lawyer and civil rights activist Ted Landsmark—with a flagpole bearing the American flag (also known as Old Glory).
The image was taken for the Boston Herald American in Boston, Massachusetts on April 5, 1976, during one in a series of protests against court-ordered desegregation busing. It ran on the front page of the Herald American the next day, and also appeared in several newspapers across the country. It won the 1977 Pulitzer Prize for Spot Photography.Landsmark was active in trying to get more minority contractors in the construction industry, but he hadn't been paying attention to the busing protests. According to Landsmark, "I had difficulty finding a parking space in downtown Boston, and I was running a few minutes late for the meeting in city hall. So I was in a hurry and perhaps not paying as much attention as I might have as I approached a corner, where the young demonstrators were coming in the other direction. I did not see them until both they and I were at that corner."Rakes was swinging the flag and trying to hit him, not trying to spear him as it appears in the photo, and he narrowly missed. Landsmark was bloodied during the incident. An examination of all the photographs in the roll Forman shot reveals that Rakes missed Landsmark with the flag. Although anti-busing activist Jim Kelly appears to pin Landsmark's arms behind him, he is actually helping Landsmark to his feet. Kelly later positions himself between Landsmark and the other protestors to protect the lawyer. Landsmark had already been knocked to the ground, losing his glasses and suffering a broken nose, by the time the famous picture was taken.Rakes was convicted of assault with a deadly weapon and sentenced to two years' imprisonment and two years' probation. The jail sentence was suspended. In 1983 the Boston police issued a warrant alleging that Rakes had beaten to death the brother of his girlfriend. He fled prosecution, but returned in 1988 after the murder charge was dropped. Rakes carried the stigma of being known as "the flag kid", but eventually married and had children while laboring as a construction worker and later in hazardous waste.William W. Warner
William W. Warner (April 2, 1920 – April 18, 2008) was an American biologist and writer. He was awarded the 1977 Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction for his first book Beautiful Swimmers: Watermen, Crabs and the Chesapeake Bay, which was based on his experiences living and working among crab fishermen on the Chesapeake.
Warner was a 1943 graduate of Princeton University. During World War II, Warner served in the Pacific Theater of operations as an aerial photograph analyst with a Marine air group.