The 1976 Republican National Convention was a United States political convention of the Republican Party that met from August 16 to August 19, 1976, to select the party's nominee for President. Held in Kemper Arena in Kansas City, Missouri, the convention nominated President Gerald Ford for a full term, but only after narrowly defeating a strong challenge from former California Governor Ronald Reagan. The convention also nominated Senator Robert J. Dole of Kansas for Vice President, instead of Vice President Nelson Rockefeller. The keynote address was delivered by Tennessee Senator Howard Baker. Other notable speakers included Minnesota Representative Al Quie, retired Lieutenant Colonel and former Vietnam prisoner of war Raymond Schrump, former Texas Governor John Connally, Providence, Rhode Island mayor Vincent Cianci and Michigan Senator Robert P. Griffin. It is the last national convention by either of the two major parties to feature a seriously contested nomination between candidates.
|1976 Republican National Convention|
|1976 presidential election|
Ford and Dole
|Date(s)||August 16–19, 1976|
|City||Kansas City, Missouri|
|Presidential nominee||Gerald Ford of Michigan|
|Vice Presidential nominee||Bob Dole of Kansas|
Kansas City had not hosted a major party convention since the 1928 Republican National Convention that nominated Herbert Hoover. Its premier venue, Kemper Arena, was diminutive by national standards but it was new, and the city aggressively courted the convention planners of both parties. The Democrats demurred early on, citing a lack of hotel accommodations, but Republicans were more receptive because the city had a reliably enthusiastic base of the party, and "fit the Midwestern image of Jerry Ford".
Going into the convention, Ford had won more primary delegates than Reagan, as well as a plurality in popular vote. However, Ford did not have enough delegates to secure the nomination (1,130 delegates were needed to win the presidential nomination), and as the convention opened both candidates were seen as still having a chance to win. Because of this, both Ford and Reagan arrived in Kansas City before the convention opened to woo the remaining uncommitted delegates in an effort to secure the nomination.
Reagan benefited from his highly committed delegates, notably "Reagan's Raiders" of the Texas delegation. They and other conservative Western and Southern delegates particularly faulted the Ford Administration's foreign policy of détente towards the Soviet Union, criticizing his signing of the Helsinki Accords and indirectly blaming him for the April 1975 Fall of Saigon.
The pro-Reagan Texas delegates worked hard to persuade delegates from other states to support Reagan.
Ford, meanwhile, used all of the perks and patronage of the presidency to win over wavering delegates, including trips aboard Air Force One and personal meetings with Ford himself. White House Chief of Staff Dick Cheney proved to be an important figure in working to build support among those state delegations on the fence between Ford and Reagan, including the Mississippi delegation. White House political advisor Harry Dent also played a central role in helping President Ford work with the state delegations, who met with Ford and his aides in a Presidential office set up on-site at the convention in Kansas City.
Headlines during the Republican convention in Kansas City hinted at the still-simmering debates within the rank-and-file of the Republicans as to whether or not a new party might be formed out of the weaknesses of the Republicans. "Conservatives Seek a New Party if Reagan Loses," The Chicago Tribune's Wednesday, August 18, 1976 headlines told readers during the Kansas City convention, which quoted both White House aides as well as critics in the Republican Party who debated the possibility of a new party emerging out of that year's division in the Republican ranks.
Newspaper headlines also told the story of the uncommitted delegates whose "wavering" at the convention made them the focus of both the Ford and the Reagan camps. "New 'Stars' Stealing GOP Show," The Chicago Tribune's Wednesday, August 18, 1976 headlines told readers. Estimates ranged from 93 to as many as 115 delegates uncommitted at the time of the convention. The largest block of uncommitted delegates were from Mississippi and another block were from Illinois' delegation.
Wednesday, August 18, 1976 saw the uncommitted delegates break on the 1st ballot for President Gerald Ford, who won the nomination on the 1st roll call of delegates by a vote of 1,187-1,070.
Reagan had promised, if nominated, to name Senator Richard Schweiker of Pennsylvania as his running mate, in a bid to attract liberals and centrists in the party. This move backfired, however, as many conservatives (such as Senator Jesse Helms) were infuriated by Reagan's choice of the "liberal" Schweiker, while few moderate delegates switched to Reagan. Helms promptly began a movement to draft Conservative Senator James L. Buckley of New York as the presidential nominee.
The key vote of the convention occurred when Reagan's managers proposed a rules change that would have required Ford to publicly announce his running mate before the presidential balloting.(it was a controversial move, as NBC alone of the major TV networks, interrupted the soap opera Somerset, and 350 people in Washington, D.C., alone called in to complain.) Reagan's managers hoped that when Ford announced his choice for vice-president, it would anger one of the two factions of the party and thus help Reagan. Ford's supporters derisively described the proposed rules change as the "misery loves company" amendment. The proposed rules change was defeated by a vote of 1180 to 1069, and Ford gained the momentum he needed to win the nomination. The balloting for president was still close, however, as Ford won the nomination with 1187 votes to 1070 votes for Reagan (and one for Elliot L. Richardson of Massachusetts).
Conservatives succeeded in inserting several key planks into the party platform, some of which were implicitly critical of the President's own policies. Reagan and North Carolina Senator Jesse Helms successfully had a "moral foreign policy" plank inserted. In light of the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision, the 1976 Republican platform became the first to advocate a Human Life Amendment to the Constitution, despite the fact the Roe v. Wade was a 7-2 decision, and 5 of the 7 (Burger, Stewart, Brennan, Blackmun, and Powell) had been appointed to the Supreme Court by Republican presidents.
Reagan's Schweiker gambit having failed, his supporters proposed a modification to Rule 16C, which would have required Ford to announce his choice for Vice President prior to the roll call vote on the presidential nomination. Dubbed the "misery loves company" amendment, it was defeated by the delegates.
Both Ford and Reagan's names were put into nomination.
With the outcome not a foregone conclusion, the balloting would be the most exciting it would be for the rest of the 20th century and into the 21st.
|Republican National Convention Presidential nominee vote, 1976|
|President Gerald Ford||1,187||52.57%|
While desperately trying to secure enough delegates to be nominated, the President's campaign did not neglect the selection of a running mate, especially with Reagan's Schweiker ploy. Among the many people considered were;
Ford selected Kansas Senator Robert J. Dole as his running-mate in preference to Vice President Nelson Rockefeller; Rockefeller had announced that he did not wish to be a candidate for Vice President in 1976 the previous fall, in no small part because it was believed that Rockefeller was too far to the left to be acceptable to the G.O.P. base.
Some of the Reagan delegates, angry with the loss of their candidate, decided to scatter their votes among over 30 people. Jesse Helms' name was put into nomination.
There was no scheduled time slot for the runner-up to deliver a formal concession speech; however, when Ford and Reagan met on the days after Ford's acceptance speech, the president insisted that the governor accompany him to the podium to deliver a few remarks.
Reagan gave an eloquent and stirring speech that overshadowed Ford's own acceptance address, despite being little more than five minutes long. Some delegates later stated that they left the convention wondering if they had voted for the wrong candidate. A contemporary media account stated that if a motion to reconsider the nomination had been in order, it might have passed.
The 1976 Republican National Convention was the last major party convention, as of 2019, where the party's nominee was not decided before the primary process concluded.
Miami Beach, Florida
|Republican National Conventions||Succeeded by|
The 1976 Democratic National Convention met at Madison Square Garden in New York City, from July 12 to July 15, 1976. The assembled United States Democratic Party delegates at the convention nominated former Governor Jimmy Carter of Georgia for President and Senator Walter Mondale of Minnesota for Vice President. John Glenn and Barbara Jordan gave the keynote addresses. Jordan's keynote address made her the first African-American woman to deliver the keynote address at a Democratic National Convention. It was listed as #5 in American Rhetoric's Top 100 Speeches of the 20th Century (listed by rank). The convention was the first in New York City since the 103-ballot 1924 convention.
By the time the convention opened Carter already had more than enough delegates to clinch the nomination, and so the major emphasis at the convention was to create an appearance of party unity, which had been lacking in the 1968 and 1972 Democratic Conventions. Carter easily won the nomination on the first ballot. He then chose Mondale, a liberal and a protégé of Hubert Humphrey, as his running mate.
The Carter-Mondale ticket went on to win the 1976 presidential election on November 2.
The convention is also notable for the fact that congresswoman Lindy Boggs, who presided over it, thus became the first woman to preside over a national political convention.1976 Republican Party presidential primaries
The 1976 Republican presidential primaries were a series of contests held to elect delegates to the 1976 Republican National Convention, held to nominate a candidate for President of the United States in the 1976 election.
Incumbent President Gerald Ford was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1976 Republican National Convention held from August 16 to August 19, 1976, in Kansas City, Missouri. The 1976 election marks the first time that Republican primaries or caucuses were held in every state; the Democrats had previously done so in 1972. This also marks the last election in which the Republican nominee was undetermined at the start of the party's National Convention.1976 Republican Party vice presidential candidate selection
This article lists those who were potential candidates for the Republican nomination for Vice President of the United States in the 1976 election. At the 1976 Republican National Convention, incumbent President Gerald Ford narrowly won the presidential nomination over former California Governor Ronald Reagan. Ford had decided not to pick Vice President Nelson Rockefeller as his running mate, due to Rockefeller's unpopularity with the right wing of the Republican Party. Ford chose Kansas Senator Bob Dole as his running mate, instead. Dole was acceptable to the conservative wing of the party, and Ford hoped that Dole would help the ticket win the western states and the agricultural vote. The Ford-Dole ticket lost the general election to the Carter-Mondale ticket. Though he did not win the nomination, Reagan announced before the convention that he would pick Senator Richard Schweiker of Pennsylvania as his running mate.Arthur A. Vogel
Arthur Anton Vogel (February 24, 1924 – March 6, 2012) was fifth bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of West Missouri. Born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, he was educated at Nashotah House Theological Seminary, the University of Chicago, and Harvard University. After ordination, he was rector of St. John Chrysostom Church (Delafield, Wisconsin) from 1953 to 1957. Concurrent with this position, he was Professor of Philosophical and Systematic Theology at Nashotah House from 1952 to 1971. He served as diocesan bishop of West Missouri from 1973 to 1989.
On August 16, 1976, Vogel offered the invocation at the opening of the 1976 Republican National Convention in Kansas City, Missouri.Clarke Reed
Clarke Thomas Reed (born 1928) is a businessman and investor from Greenville, Mississippi, who was from 1966 to 1976 the state chairman of the Mississippi Republican Party. Reed was instrumental in the nomination of U.S. President Gerald R. Ford, Jr., at the 1976 Republican National Convention held in Kansas City, Missouri.Electoral history of Bob Dole
Electoral history of Bob Dole, United States Senator from Kansas (1969–1996), Senate Majority Leader (1985–1987, 1995–1996), Senate Minority Leader (1987–1995), 1976 Republican Party Vice Presidential nominee and 1996 Presidential nominee.
He has been involved in many elections on regional, statewide and nationwide stage, from 1950 to 1996.
NOTE: Dole was an incumbent in abolished 6th district and Breeding in 1st district, which became merged into one.
1976 Republican National Convention (Vice Presidential tally):
Bob Dole - 1,921 (85.04%)
Abstaining - 103 (4.56%)
Jesse Helms - 103 (4.56%)
Ronald Reagan - 27 (1.20%)
Phil Crane - 23 (1.02%)
John Grady - 19 (0.84%)
Louis Frey - 9 (0.40%)
Anne Armstrong - 6 (0.27%)
Howard Baker - 6 (0.27%)
William F. Buckley - 4 (0.18%)
John B. Connally - 4 (0.18%)
David C. Treen - 4 (0.18%)
Alan Steelman - 3 (0.13%)
Edmund Bauman - 2 (0.09%)
Bill Brock - 2 (0.09%)
Paul Laxalt - 2 (0.09%)
Elliot Richardson - 2 (0.09%)
Richard Schweiker - 2 (0.09%)
William E. Simon - 2 (0.09%)
Jack Wellborn - 2 (0.09%)
James Allen - 1 (0.04%)
Ray Barnhardt - 1 (0.04%)
George H. W. Bush - 1 (0.04%)
Pete Domenici - 1 (0.04%)
James B. Edwards - 1 (0.04%)
Frank S. Glenn - 1 (0.04%)
David Keane - 1 (0.04%)
James McClure - 1 (0.04%)
Nancy Palm - 1 (0.04%)
Donald Rumsfeld - 1 (0.04%)
John W. Sears - 1 (0.04%)
Roger Staubach - 1 (0.04%)
Steve Symms - 1 (0.04%)
NOTE: One Faithless Elector voted for Reagan.
1980 Republican presidential primaries:
Ronald Reagan - 7,709,793 (59.79%)
George H. W. Bush - 3,070,033 (23.81%)
John B. Anderson - 1,572,174 (12.19%)
Howard Baker - 181,153 (1.41%)
Phil Crane - 97,793 (0.76%)
John B. Connally - 82,625 (0.64%)
Unpledged - 68,155 (0.53%)
Ben Fernandez - 68,155 (0.53%)
Harold Stassen - 25,425 (0.20%)
Gerald Ford - 10,557 (0.08%)
Bob Dole - 7,204 (0.06%)
Senate Majority Leader, 1984:Final fourth ballot:
Bob Dole - 28
Ted Stevens - 25Other defeated candidates: Pete Domenici, Dick Lugar, Jim McClure
Iowa Republican presidential Straw Poll, 1987:
Pat Robertson - 1,293 (33.65%)
Bob Dole - 958 (24.93%)
George H. W. Bush - 864 (22.48%)
Jack Kemp - 520 (13.53%)
Pierre S. du Pont, IV - 160 (4.16%)
Ben Fernandez - 23 (0.60%)
Kate Heslop - 13 (0.34%)
Alexander Haig - 12 (0.31%)
1988 Republican presidential primaries:
George H. W. Bush - 8,258,512 (67.91%)
Bob Dole - 2,333,375 (19.19%)
Pat Robertson - 1,097,446 (9.02%)
Jack Kemp - 331,333 (2.72%)
Unpledged - 56,990 (0.47%)
Pierre S. du Pont, IV - 49,783 (0.41%)
Alexander Haig - 26,619 (0.22%)
Harold Stassen - 2,682 (0.02%)
Iowa Republican presidential Straw Poll, 1995:
Bob Dole - 2,582 (24.38%)
Phil Gramm - 2,582 (24.38%)
Pat Buchanan - 1,922 (18.15%)
Lamar Alexander - 1,156 (10.91%)
Alan Keyes - 804 (7.59%)
Morry Taylor - 803 (7.58%)
Richard Lugar - 466 (4.40%)
Pete Wilson - 123 (1.16%)
Bob Dornan - 87 (0.82%)
Arlen Specter - 67 (0.63%)1996 New Hampshire Republican Vice Presidential primary:All candidates were running as write-in
Colin Powell - 6,414 (25.80%)
Alan Keres - 4,200 (16.90%)
Scattering - 2,631 (10.58%)
Lamar Alexander - 2,113 (8.50%)
Richard Lugar - 1,881 (7.57%)
Phil Gramm - 1,314 (5.29%)
Steve Forbes - 1,220 (4.91%)
Pat Buchanan - 1,115 (4.49%)
Jack Kemp - 970 (3.90%)
Bob Dole - 930 (3.74%)
Morry Taylor - 710 (2.86%)
Al Gore (inc.) - 654 (2.63%)
Bob Dornan - 401 (1.61%)
Ross Perot - 108 (0.43%)
Bill Clinton - 70 (0.28%)
Ralph Nader - 69 (0.28%)
Richard P. Bosa - 60 (0.24%)Washington Presidential primary for independent voters, 1996:
Bill Clinton (D) (inc.) - 227,120 (51.08%)
Bob Dole (R) - 125,154 (28.15%)
Pat Buchanan (R) - 44,027 (9.90%)
Steve Forbes (R) - 28,618 (6.44%)
Alan Keyes (R) - 6,631 (1.49%)
Lamar Alexander (R) - 5,181 (1.17%)
Lyndon LaRouche (D) - 3,160 (0.71%)
Richard Lugar (R) - 2,009 (0.45%)
Phil Gramm (R) - 1,665 (0.37%)
Bob Dornan (R) - 1,054 (0.24%)1996 Republican presidential primaries
Bob Dole - 9,024,742 (58.82%)
Pat Buchanan - 3,184,943 (20.76%)
Steve Forbes - 1,751,187 (11.41%)
Lamar Alexander - 495,590 (3.23%)
Alan Keyes - 471,716 (3.08%)
Richard Lugar - 127,111 (0.83%)
Unpledged delegates - 123,278 (0.80%)
Phil Gramm - 71,456 (0.47%)
Bob Dornan - 42,140 (0.28%)
Morry Taylor - 21,180 (0.14%)
Others - 18,261 (0.12%)1996 Republican National Convention (Presidential tally):
Bob Dole - 1,928 (97.62%)
Pat Buchanan - 43 (2.18%)
Phil Gramm - 2 (0.10%)
Robert Bork - 1 (0.05%)
Alan Keyes - 1 (0.05%)Electoral history of Donald Rumsfeld
This is a list of the electoral history of Donald Rumsfeld.Electoral history of Jesse Helms
The electoral history of Jesse Helms begins with his election to Raleigh City Council. However, most of the elections in which he was involved were to the United States Senate. Five consecutive victories gave Senator Helms a thirty-year Senate career.Elizabeth Chittick
Elizabeth Chittick (November 11, 1908 – April 16, 2009) was an American feminist who served as president of the National Woman's Party.
Chittick was chairman and president of the National Woman's Party and a leader in the women's movement and for the Equal Rights Amendment. From 1971 to 1975 she was chairman of the NWP and subsequently served as president from 1975 to 1989.
A Republican, Chittick participated in politics helping to convince the 1976 Republican National Convention to reaffirm their support for the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). In 1977, after the death of suffragist and Equal Rights Amendment author Alice Paul, the founder of the National Woman's Party, Chittick organized and led the Alice Paul Memorial March up Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C.. The march drew an approximate 5,000 marchers including former suffragists. During her leadership of the NWP Chittick authored "Answers to Questions About the Equal Rights Amendment" and appeared on television and radio to support the amendment. In 1978 Chittick became the first woman to address the Oklahoma House of Representatives, a state that had not ratified the ERA. In 1975, Chittick was a delegate to the International Women's Year conference in Mexico and, in 1985, the U.S. representative to the Commission on the Status of Women at the World Woman's Conference in Nairobi, Kenya.Chittick also efforts to save the Sewall-Belmont House, which had been the headquarters of the National Woman's Party since the 1910s, through the movements for women's suffrage and later legal equality. Sewall-Belmont was subsequently placed on the National Register of Historic Places and is used as an educational facility for women's equal rights and a gathering place for social events. Eleanor Smeal, president of the Feminist Majority Foundation and former president of the National Organization for Women credited Chittick with virtually single-handedly saving the landmark.Chittick was the first woman civilian administrator of the U.S. Naval Air Stations in Seattle, Washington and Banana River, Florida, the first woman to be a registered representative of the New York Stock Exchange, and the first female revenue collections officer with the Internal Revenue Service.Chittick died on April 16, 2009 at age 100.Hy-Vee Arena
The Hy-Vee Arena, previously known as Kemper Arena, is an indoor arena located in Kansas City, Missouri. Prior to conversion to a youth sports facility, Kemper Arena was previously a 19,500-seat professional sports arena. It has hosted NCAA Final Four basketball games, professional basketball and hockey teams, professional wrestling events, the 1976 Republican National Convention, concerts, and is the ongoing host of the American Royal livestock show.
It was originally named for R. Crosby Kemper Sr., a member of the powerful Kemper financial clan and who donated $3.2 million from his estate for the arena. In 2016, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in recognition of its revolutionary design by Helmut Jahn.James L. Buckley
James Lane Buckley (born March 9, 1923) is an American jurist, politician, civil servant, attorney, businessman, and author.
In 1970, Buckley was elected to the U.S. Senate as the nominee of the Conservative Party of New York; he won 39 percent of the vote and served from 1971 until 1977. As of 2018 he is the only member of the Conservative Party to be elected to the US Senate. During the first Reagan administration, Buckley served as Undersecretary of State for International Security Affairs. He was also President of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty from 1982 to 1985.
Buckley was nominated by President Ronald Reagan to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit on October 16, 1985. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 17, 1985 and received commission on December 17, 1985. Buckley assumed senior status on August 31, 1996.John W. Sears
John Winthrop Sears (December 18, 1930 – November 4, 2014) was an American lawyer, historian and politician. His great-great-grandfather was David Sears II. He is the grandson of seven time National tennis champion Richard Dudley Sears and the first cousin once removed of Eleonora Sears. Sears is an alumnus of St. Mark's School, Harvard College during which he spent a year as a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford University, and Harvard Law School.He served as a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1965–1968, Sheriff of Suffolk County, Massachusetts from 1968–1969. He was Metropolitan District Commissioner from 1970–1975, He was Chairman of the Massachusetts Republican Party from 1975–1976. He ran for municipal office and served as a Boston City Councilor from 1980–1981. He was a candidate for Mayor of Boston in 1967, Secretary of the Commonwealth in 1978. He was the Republican candidate for Governor of Massachusetts in 1982. Sears received one vote for the Vice Presidential nomination at the 1976 Republican National Convention.
In 2012 the longtime party activist defined himself as "an old-fashioned, center-fielding Republican." He died at his home in Boston on November 4, 2014.Melvin H. Evans
Melvin Herbert Evans (August 7, 1917 – November 27, 1984) was a U.S. Virgin Islander politician, who served as the appointive, and the first elected Governor of the United States Virgin Islands, serving from 1969 to 1975. After serving as governor he was delegate from the United States Virgin Islands to the United States House of Representatives from 1979 to 1981.
Evans was born in Christiansted in Saint Croix, and attended Howard University, Washington, D.C. and the University of California, Berkeley. He was the Virgin Islands Health Commissioner, and appointed Governor of the United States Virgin Islands, serving from 1969 until 1971. He was the first elected Governor in 1970 and served from 1971 until 1975. Evans was a Republican National Committeeman and served as a delegate to the 1972 Republican National Convention and 1976 Republican National Convention.
On November 7, 1978, Evans was elected Delegate to the United States House of Representatives from U.S. Virgin Islands as a Republican. He defeated Democrat Janet Watlington, an aide to outgoing Del. Ron de Lugo, with 10,458 votes, or 52% of the vote. Watlington placed second 9,588 votes, equaling 48% of the total votes cast. Evans served as Delegate in the House from January 3, 1979 to January 3, 1981. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1980, losing to former Delegate Ron de Lugo.
Evans was appointed United States Ambassador to Trinidad and Tobago, and served until his death. He is interred in Christiansted Cemetery in Saint Croix.Nancy Palm
Nancy Palm is a longtime Republican Party activist, primarily known as the chairwoman of the Harris County, Texas Republican Party during the 1970s, and who also received one vote favoring her as a candidate for Vice President of the United States.
In 1972 she was a delegate to the Republican National Convention ; at the following 1976 Republican National Convention Palm became one of just three women to have received an unsuccessful nomination for Vice President within the Republican Party. She is credited with helping to create the Republican Party of Texas. She was one of the electors from Texas for the 2000 presidential election. In 2002 she was an honoree of the League of Women Voters of Houston, Texas and the county government designated a day in her favor, along with her counterpart Billie Carr.Ody J. Fish
Ody J. Fish was Chairman of the Republican Party of Wisconsin.Republican National Coalition for Life
The Republican National Coalition for Life (RNCL), often stylized as RNC/Life, is an organization formed to maintain the commitment of the Republican Party of the United States to pro-life principles. Its current executive director is Colleen Parro.Republican National Convention
The Republican National Convention (RNC) is a series of presidential nominating conventions of the United States Republican Party since 1856. Administered by the Republican National Committee, the stated purpose of the convocation is to nominate an official candidate in an upcoming U.S. presidential election, and to adopt the party platform and rules for the election cycle.
Like the Democratic National Convention, it signifies the end of a presidential primary season and the start of campaigning for a general election. In recent years, the nominee has been known well before the convention.
Some 2,472 delegates have attended the 2016 Republican National Convention in Cleveland, Ohio, July 18–21 to select the presidential nominee. The winner must carry 1,237—half of the total, plus one. If no single candidate has secured a majority of delegates after the first ballot, a brokered convention results. It has not happened since the 1976 Republican National Convention.
Historically, the convention was the final determinant of the nomination, and often contentious as various factions of party insiders maneuvered to advance their candidates. Since the almost universal adoption of the primary election for selecting delegates in the last quarter of the 20th century, however, the convention's significance has diminished. The national party focuses on the convention as a unity point to bring together a party platform and state parties by having delegates vote on issues, which the nominee can then incorporate into his presidential campaign.
In case of a brokered convention, Rule 40(b) of the 2016 convention rules states that a candidate must have the support of a majority of the delegates of at least eight delegations in order to get the nomination. On the first ballot, delegates from all states and territories except Colorado, Wyoming, North Dakota, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam and a few from Louisiana must vote for the candidate who won their support on the day of their state's primary or caucus. On the second ballot, 55 percent of the delegates are free to vote for whomever they want. By the third ballot, 85 percent of the delegates are free.Robert E. Littell
This article describes Robert Littell the politician. For other persons named Robert Littell, please see Robert Littell (disambiguation).Robert Eugene Littell (January 9, 1936 – November 14, 2014) was an American Republican Party politician, who served as a member of the New Jersey State Senate from 1992 to 2008. He represented the 15th Legislative District until 1982 and the 24th Legislative District thereafter. Before entering the Senate he served in the New Jersey General Assembly from 1968 to 1992 and the Franklin Borough Council from 1963 to 1965. He was a Delegate to the 1976 Republican National Convention.After nearly 40 years in the New Jersey Legislature — making him the longest-serving legislator in state history — Littell announced on March 6, 2007, that he would not seek reelection as senator and would retire from office at the end of 2007. Freeholder Steve Oroho and Assemblyman Guy R. Gregg both announced that they would pursue the Republican nomination for Littell's Senate seat in the June 2007 primary. Oroho defeated Gregg in the primary and went on to win the seat in the general election.West Bottoms
The West Bottoms is an industrial area immediately to the west of downtown Kansas City, Missouri, at the confluence of the Missouri River and the Kansas River. The area is one of the oldest areas of the city.
While the West Bottoms is still home to several industrial buildings today, its antique shops and haunted houses are very popular. Additionally, there are several art galleries and restaurants located in the West Bottoms, and a few companies have offices in the area.
The Kansas River, which runs nearby, is used for rowing, canoeing, and kayaking.
of the RNC
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