The 1972 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held from August 21 to August 23, 1972, at the Miami Beach Convention Center in Miami Beach, Florida. It nominated President Richard M. Nixon and Vice President Spiro T. Agnew for reelection. The convention was chaired by then-U.S. House Minority Leader and future Nixon successor Gerald Ford of Michigan. It was the fifth time Nixon had been nominated on the Republican ticket as either its vice-presidential (1952 and 1956) or presidential candidate (1960 and 1968). Hence, Nixon's five appearances on his party's ticket matched the major-party American standard of Franklin D. Roosevelt, a Democrat who had been nominated for Vice President once (in 1920) and President four times (in 1932, 1936, 1940 and 1944).
|1972 Republican National Convention|
|1972 presidential election|
Nixon and Agnew
|Date(s)||August 21–23, 1972|
|City||Miami Beach, Florida|
|Venue||Miami Beach Convention Center|
|Keynote speaker||Anne Armstrong|
|Presidential nominee||Richard M. Nixon of California|
|Vice Presidential nominee||Spiro T. Agnew of Maryland|
San Diego, California, had originally been selected as host city for the convention. Columnist Jack Anderson, however, discovered a memo written by Dita Beard, a lobbyist for the International Telephone and Telegraph Corp., suggesting the company pledge $400,000 toward the San Diego bid in return for the U.S. Department of Justice settling its antitrust case against ITT. Fearing scandal, and citing labor and cost concerns, the GOP transferred the event—scarcely three months before it was to begin—to Miami Beach, which was also hosting the Democratic National Convention. It was the sixth and, to date, last time both the Republican and Democratic national party conventions were held in the same city; Chicago had hosted double conventions in 1884, 1932, 1944, and 1952, and Philadelphia in 1948. The RNC did not return to San Diego until 1996.
The convention set a new standard, as it was scripted as a media event to an unprecedented degree.
First Lady Pat Nixon became the first Republican First Lady, and the first First Lady in over 25 years, to address a party's national convention. Her speech set the standard for future convention speeches by political spouses. First Ladies Nancy Reagan, Barbara Bush, Laura Bush and Melania Trump, among others, have all followed in this tradition.
Nixon easily turned back primary challenges from the right, in the person of U.S. Representative John M. Ashbrook of Ohio and, from the left, Representative Pete McCloskey of California. However, under New Mexico state law, McCloskey had earned one delegate, which the convention refused to seat, fearing that the delegate might put McCloskey's name in nomination and give an anti-war speech. U.S. Representative (and delegate) Manuel Lujan of New Mexico, a staunch Nixon supporter, decided to honor state law by voting for McCloskey himself. The final result was that Nixon received 1,347 votes to one for McCloskey and none for Ashbrook. Throughout the precisely scripted convention, delegates chanted "Four more years! Four more years!"
Spiro Agnew was re-nominated for vice president with 1,345 votes, against one vote for television journalist David Brinkley and two abstentions. The NBC network, for which Brinkley worked, had some "Brinkley for Vice President" buttons made, which the news team wore as a joke.
The convention was targeted for widespread protests, particularly against the Vietnam War, and the Nixon administration made efforts to suppress it. This tension was captured by Top Value Television in the independent documentary Four More Years, which juxtaposes shots of the protests outside the convention with the internal politics of the convention.
In 2005, files released under a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit showed that the Federal Bureau of Investigation even monitored former Beatle John Lennon after he was invited to play for Yippie protests. The monitoring of Lennon later concluded that he was not a dangerous revolutionary, being "constantly under the influence of narcotics." The U.S. Justice Department indicted Scott Camil, John Kniffen, Alton Foss, Donald Perdue, William Patterson, Stan Michelsen, Peter Mahoney and John Briggs—collectively known as the Gainesville Eight—on charges of conspiracy to disrupt the Convention. All were exonerated.
Oliver Stone's film Born on the Fourth of July, based on Ron Kovic's autobiography of the same name, depicts Kovic and fellow Vietnam Veterans Against the War activists Bobby Muller, Bill Wieman and Mark Clevinger being spat upon at the convention. The scene was actually not in Kovic's autobiography, but was taken almost frame for frame and word by word from a documentary film made at the 1972 Republican Convention titled "Operation Last Patrol" by filmmaker and actor Frank Cavestani and photo journalist Cathrine Leroy.
Miami Beach, Florida
|Republican National Conventions||Succeeded by|
Kansas City, Missouri
The 1972 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1972 U.S. presidential election. Incumbent President Richard Nixon was again selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1972 Republican National Convention held from August 21 to August 23, 1972, in Miami, Florida. This is the earliest Republican Convention where one of the candidates is still alive as of 2019.Angelo D. Roncallo
Angelo Dominick Roncallo (May 28, 1927 – May 4, 2010) was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from Nassau County, New York.
Roncallo was born in Port Chester, New York. He served in the United States Army from 1944 until 1945. He graduated from Manhattan College in 1950 and received a law degree from Georgetown University in 1953. He served as a town councilman for the town of Oyster Bay, New York from 1965 until 1967 and as comptroller of Nassau County, New York from 1968 until 1972.
He was a delegate to the 1972 Republican National Convention. He was elected to Congress in 1972 and served from January 3, 1973 until January 3, 1975. He unsuccessfully ran for re-election against Jerome A. Ambro, Jr.. He served as a justice of the New York Supreme Court from 1977 until 1995. He was a resident of Massapequa, New York for many years. He died on May 4, 2010.Anne Armstrong
Anne Legendre Armstrong (December 27, 1927 – July 30, 2008) was a United States diplomat and politician. She was the first woman to serve as Counselor to the President and as United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom; serving in those capacities under the Ford, Nixon, and Carter administrations. She was the recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1987.F. F. Montgomery
Finnius Freeman "Monte" Montgomery (born June 6, 1924) is a former Oregon state politician. Serving as a member of the House from District 13, he was Speaker of the Oregon House of Representatives from 1965 to 1969. He also ran unsuccessfully for Oregon Secretary of State in 1968, losing to Clay Myers in a primary election. In 1972, Montgomery served as a delegate member of the Oregon Delegation to the
1972 Republican National Convention held in Miami, Florida. Montgomery later served as president of the Associated Oregon Loggers, but was convicted in 1986 of stealing from that organization.Four More Years
Four More Years is a 1972 documentary covering the 1972 Republican National Convention produced by Top Value Television. The title of the film refers to Richard Nixon's re-election slogan. The convention named Nixon as the Presidential nominee and Spiro Agnew as the nominee for Vice President. All filming takes place on the site of the convention center in Miami Beach, Florida. It was TVTV's second production, after The World's Largest TV Studio (1972), which covered the Democratic Convention one month prior.Frank Davenport
Frank Davenport (March 19, 1912 – January 5, 1995) was an American Republican Party politician who served as the Sheriff of Passaic County, New Jersey and served one term in the New Jersey Senate.
Davenport was born in Paterson in 1912 and attended St. Joseph's High School there. In World War II, he was an Army intelligence special agent. He began his law enforcement career as Undersheriff of Passaic County. In 1960, he became the elected Sheriff of Passaic County, a position his father once held. He was reelected Sheriff in 1963, 1966, 1969, and 1972 though he resigned his Sheriff office upon becoming a State Senator and by 1977 was an Undersheriff again. He had also served as the chair of the Passaic County Republican Party from 1968 to 1974 and attended the 1968 and 1972 Republican National Convention as a district delegate.In his bid for the State Senate in 1973, he ran in the newly created, Paterson-based 35th district. Despite the heavy Democratic leanings of the urban district, the popularity of the Democrats in the post-Watergate election season, and the incumbency of State Senator Joseph A. Lazzara, Davenport won the election by 93 votes out of 33,745 votes cast. Davenport's margins were much higher in the suburban communities of the district (Hawthorne, North Haledon, and Prospect Park) than the ones Lazzara ran in Paterson. He decided to retire from the Senate after one full term and was succeeded by Frank X. Graves Jr.He died on January 5, 1995 at the age of 82.Gainesville Eight
The Gainesville Eight were a group of anti-Vietnam War activists indicted on charges of conspiracy to disrupt the 1972 Republican National Convention in Miami Beach, Florida. All eight defendants were acquitted.
Vietnam Veterans Against the War had planned to demonstrate against the ongoing Vietnam War during the convention. After learning from FBI informants and agents within the VVAW about possible plans for disruption and violence, the Department of Justice initiated a grand jury investigation. Eight of the people investigated were indicted by the government on charges of conspiracy to disrupt the convention: John Briggs, Scott Camil, Alton Foss, John Kniffin, Peter Mahoney, Stanley Michelson, William Patterson, and Don Perdue. All but Briggs were Vietnam veterans.
While organizing protests, the group received information that during the convention the government was going to shoot someone or use explosives and blame it on the antiwar protesters. They were also going to raise the five drawbridges so that antiwar demonstrators would be trapped on Miami Beach and shot by police and soldiers during the commotion. In response to this information, the VVAW group planned to draw those police and soldiers away by attacking federal buildings, police stations, and fire stations in the two adjacent counties to occupy the government forces, then reopen bridges to aid escape of the demonstrators. These plans were typed up and distributed among the rest of the group by a VVAW member and undercover FBI agent, Bill Lemmer. The eight were accused of planning to use automatic weapons, explosives, incendiary devices, as well as slingshots and crossbows.
The jury got to read the letter containing all the proposed plans on attacking the federal buildings, but they also got to read the constantly repeated admonition in the letter, "This will be done for defensive purposes only." The jury saw that their goal was to protect the rights of the protesters, and they acquitted the eight men of all charges without the need for them to present a defense. In Camil's words, "We had no conspiracy to disrupt the convention. Our conspiracy, if you want to call it that, was to go down to the convention and exercise our Constitutional rights as citizens and to defend those rights against anybody who tried to take away those rights, whether it be the government or anyone else. And the jury sided with us."
Bill Lemmer, the Southern regional assistant coordinator of Vietnam Veterans Against the War, revealed himself as an undercover FBI operative in May 1972. Bill Lemmer had been thrown out of a 'fast'/protest by DCVC(VVAW) on the Capitol steps in Washington D.C. in January 1972 after advocating for violent, destructive actions on the Washington Monument. A deposition to that effect was sent to the trial in Gainesville. During the 1973 trial it was revealed that the VVAW had been infiltrated by government agents and informants, such as Emmerson Poe and Lemmer. Showing that these agents provocateur led the illegal activities severely damaged the prosecution's case. The prosecution also tried to use the defendant's Vietnam records as indication that these were violent people.
The jury acquitted all eight after less than four hours of deliberation.
Jack Carrouth was one of the attorneys for the prosecution. Brady Coleman was one of the attorneys for the defense.
Folk singers Pete Seeger and Phil Ochs expressed support for the group, as did Ron Kovic.George E. Nowotny
George Edward Nowotny, Jr. (born October 18, 1932), is a retired businessman from Tulsa, Oklahoma, who was a three-term Republican state representative from Fort Smith, Arkansas. Initially elected in 1966 with Winthrop Rockefeller, the first Republican governor of Arkansas since the Reconstruction era, Nowotny left politics in 1972, when he declined to seek a fourth term as a legislator.Grimes Poznikov
Grimes Poznikov (August 5, 1946 – October 27, 2005), known as "The Human Jukebox," was a fixture of San Francisco's Fisherman's Wharf in the 1970s and 1980s. He was a street performer, who would wait in a cardboard refrigerator box until a passerby offered him a donation and requested a song. He would then open the front flap of the box and play the requested song on a trumpet, kazoo, or one of a number of other instruments.Posnikov was born in Neodesha, Kansas to Albert Poznik, a lawyer, and Bernie Poznik, a performing artist and singer. From an early age he learned to play any musical instrument from piano to trumpet and drums. He graduated from Neodesha High School in 1964 and continued his education at Cornell College, graduating in 1969 with a degree in psychology.After graduating from college, Poznikov taught elementary school in Chicago, Illinois for three years. While teaching, he became involved in the peace movement and he was arrested at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago with other anti-war protesters while blowing "America the Beautiful" on the trumpet. In 1972, he set up a trailer during the 1972 Republican National Convention in Miami, Florida, calling it the "American Lobotomy Machine". He and other peace demonstrators sat in it for hours, pretending to be brainwashed into being "good Americans."Poznikov played as the Automatic Human Jukebox in Victoria Park near the cable car turnaround, earning, in 1973, about $60 a week working two hours a day.ABC EVENING NEWS on 1975-08-29 reported that the Board of supervisors wanted to keep musical vendors under tighter control. Poznikov presented city hall with petition of 21,166 signatures asking that musicians and artists be allowed to continue. Voters to decide November 1975.Poznikov played Taps at the vigil held on the steps of SF City Hall after the assassinations of Mayor George Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk, November 27, 1978.Poznikov featured on Charles Kuralt's “On the Road” show on CBS, “The Mike Douglas Show,” and "To Tell the Truth" in San Francisco guidebooks, in Penthouse magazine, in Newsweek magazine, in Briarpatch Review and the Wall Street Journal.Poznikov was arrested several times for selling marijuana. He got busted for selling marijuana to high school kids in 1982. He had repeated complaints, blocking the sidewalk, making noise. In 1987, he was forced out of his spot at Hyde and Beach streets after complaints of loud music, playing “I Left My Heart in San Francisco” 13 decibels above the sound limit. His teeth were knocked out by police during the last arrest in the late 1980s, ending his ability to play trumpet.Poznikov lost his apartment, stayed with friends and then on the streets. He suffered emotionally, and began abusing drugs. In 2002 he was living under a rotting baby grand piano in a homeless encampment near Caltrain tracks, in week after Christmas, crews hired by the city broke up the camp, with bulldozers at daybreak and Poznikov lost what scraps remained of his life.He died on October 27, 2005, on a sidewalk near Cesar Chavez and Bayshore Freeway, of alcohol poisoning.Poznikov was survived by his sister, Jenny Predpelski of Overland Park, KS; girlfriend, Susan "Harmony" Tanner; and two brothers, Greg Poznik of Madison, Wis., and Sam Silver of Aurora, Colo.Broken Jukebox: a short opera about Grimes Poznikov for soprano, baritone, chorus, string quintet, trumpet and piano premiered January 2008 at College of Marin.ITT Inc.
ITT Inc., formerly ITT Corporation, is an American worldwide manufacturing company based in White Plains, New York. The company produces specialty components for the aerospace, transportation, energy and industrial markets. ITT’s three businesses include Industrial Process, Motion Technologies, and Connect and Control Technologies.ITT has approximately 10,000 employees in more than 35 countries and serves customers in well over 100 countries. The company’s long-standing brands include Goulds Pumps, Cannon connectors, KONI shock absorbers and Enidine energy absorption components.The company was founded in 1920 as International Telephone & Telegraph. During the 1960s and 1970s, under the leadership of CEO Harold Geneen, the company rose to prominence as the archetypal conglomerate, deriving its growth from hundreds of acquisitions in diversified industries.
ITT divested its telecommunications assets in 1986, and in 1995 spun off its non-manufacturing divisions, later purchased by Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide. In 1996, the current company was founded as a spinoff of ITT as ITT Industries, Inc. It later changed its name to ITT Corporation in 2006.
In 2011, ITT spun off its defense businesses into a company named Exelis, and its water technology business into a company named Xylem Inc. ITT Corporation changed its name to ITT Inc. in 2016.John Toepp
John F. Toepp (September 25, 1920 - April 24, 1979) was an American politician. He was a Republican member of both houses of the Michigan Legislature between 1963 and 1978.Born in Ohio, Toepp attended Western Michigan University. He served one term in the Michigan House of Representatives and was elected to the Senate in 1966, succeeding Guy Vander Jagt who had won election to Congress. Toepp served in the Senate until his defeat in 1978.Toepp was an alternate delegate to the 1972 Republican National Convention and a broadcaster for high school football and basketball with WATT and for National Basketball League.Knox H. White
Knox H. White (born January 26, 1954) is an attorney in his native Greenville, South Carolina, who has served as his city's 34th and current mayor since December 11, 1995, a longer tenure than any other mayor of Greenville. Previously, he was from 1983 to 1993 an at-large member of the Greenville City Council. He won another four-year term in November 2015.List of mayors of Miami-Dade County, Florida
1964–1970: Chuck Hall
1970–1972: Stephen P. Clark
1972–1974: Jack Orr
1974–1993: Stephen P. Clark
1993–1996: post abolished
1996–2004: Alex Penelas
2004–2011: Carlos Alvarez
2011–0000: Carlos A. GiménezMelvin H. Evans
Melvin Herbert Evans (August 7, 1917 – November 27, 1984) was a U.S. Virgin Islander politician, who served as the appointive, and the first elected Governor of the United States Virgin Islands, serving from 1969 to 1975. After serving as governor he was delegate from the United States Virgin Islands to the United States House of Representatives from 1979 to 1981.
Evans was born in Christiansted in Saint Croix, and attended Howard University, Washington, D.C. and the University of California, Berkeley. He was the Virgin Islands Health Commissioner, and appointed Governor of the United States Virgin Islands, serving from 1969 until 1971. He was the first elected Governor in 1970 and served from 1971 until 1975. Evans was a Republican National Committeeman and served as a delegate to the 1972 Republican National Convention and 1976 Republican National Convention.
On November 7, 1978, Evans was elected Delegate to the United States House of Representatives from U.S. Virgin Islands as a Republican. He defeated Democrat Janet Watlington, an aide to outgoing Del. Ron de Lugo, with 10,458 votes, or 52% of the vote. Watlington placed second 9,588 votes, equaling 48% of the total votes cast. Evans served as Delegate in the House from January 3, 1979 to January 3, 1981. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1980, losing to former Delegate Ron de Lugo.
Evans was appointed United States Ambassador to Trinidad and Tobago, and served until his death. He is interred in Christiansted Cemetery in Saint Croix.Neil Reagan
John Neil Reagan (September 16, 1908 – December 11, 1996) was an American radio station manager, CBS senior producer, and senior vice president of McCann Erickson. He was the older brother of United States President Ronald Reagan.Richard Lugar
Richard Green Lugar (April 4, 1932 – April 28, 2019) was an American politician who served as a United States Senator from Indiana from 1977 to 2013. He was a member of the Republican Party.
Born in Indianapolis, Lugar graduated from Denison University and the University of Oxford. He served on the Indianapolis Board of School Commissioners from 1964 to 1967 before he was elected to two terms as mayor of Indianapolis, serving from 1968 to 1976. During his tenure as mayor, Lugar served as the president of the National League of Cities in 1971 and gave the keynote address at the 1972 Republican National Convention.
In 1974, Lugar ran his first campaign for the U.S. Senate. In the year's senate elections he lost to incumbent Democratic senator Birch Bayh. He ran again in 1976, defeating Democratic incumbent Vance Hartke. Lugar was reelected in 1982, 1988, 1994, 2000, and 2006. In 2012, Lugar was defeated in a primary challenge by Indiana State Treasurer Richard Mourdock, ending his 36-year tenure in the U.S. Senate. Lugar ran for the Republican nomination for President of the United States in the 1996 primaries but lack of success led to his withdrawal early in the campaign.
During Lugar's tenure, he served as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations from 1985 to 1987 and from 2003 to 2007, serving as the ranking member of the committee from 2007 until his departure in 2013. Lugar also twice served as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry, from 1995 to 2001 and briefly again in part of 2001. Much of Lugar's work in the Senate was toward the dismantling of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons around the world, co-sponsoring his most notable piece of legislation with Georgia Democrat Sam Nunn: the Nunn–Lugar Act.
Following his service in the Senate, Lugar created a nonprofit organization which specializes in the policy areas he pursued while in office.Russell G. Lloyd Sr.
Russell G. Lloyd Sr. (March 29, 1932 - March 21, 1980) served as the Republican mayor of Evansville, Indiana from 1972 to 1980 and was an alternate delegate from Indiana to the 1972 Republican National Convention. He was the only Republican to be twice elected mayor of Evansville until the 2015 re-election of Lloyd Winnecke.In 1961 Lloyd was appointed attorney for the Legal Aid Society of Vanderburgh County.Evansville citizen Julia Van Orden had a history as a "constant complainer" according to city police and had claimed harassment from officials inspecting her home. On March 18, 1980, Van Orden had thrown a brick at a city inspector's vehicle windshield when he came to inspect an addition to her house. The following morning, Van Orden, believing Lloyd was still the mayor (his term had actually expired in January of that year), arrived at his home. She shot Lloyd four times with a handgun, in the head, neck, and shoulders, in a fit of anger after a brief argument. Van Orden fled, and Lloyd was taken to the hospital, where a brain scan indicated brain death. Doctors announced "there is no hope" shortly before turning off Lloyd's medical ventilator.
Though Van Orden's attorney argued she was too mentally ill to have understood her actions, she was nonetheless convicted and sentenced to between 20 and 40 years in prison. Days before what would have been her release in 2000, she was committed to Logansport State Hospital in Logansport, Indiana, where on August 22, 2006, she allegedly stabbed a hospital employee and was charged with attempted murder. During her trial for the attack, Van Orden was found guilty but mentally ill. Nevertheless, she was sentenced to 50 years in prison for the attack, and she died in the Indiana Women's Prison's medical ward in 2014.Lloyd's son, Russell G. Lloyd Jr., served as mayor of Evansville from 2000 to 2004.TVTV (video collective)
TVTV (short for Top Value Television) was a San Francisco-based video collective founded in 1972 by Allen Rucker, Michael Shamberg, Tom Weinberg, Hudson Marquez, and Megan Williams. Shamberg was author of the 1971 "do-it-yourself" video production manual Guerrilla Television. Over the years, more than thirty "guerrilla video" makers were participants in TVTV productions. They included members of the Ant Farm (Chip Lord, Doug Michels, Hudson Marquez, and Curtis Schreier) and the Videofreex (Skip Blumberg, Nancy Cain, Chuck Kennedy, and Parry Teasdale). TVTV pioneered the use of independent video based on wanting to change society and have a good time inventing new and then-revolutionary media, ½" Sony Portapak video equipment, and later embracing the ¾" video format.
The group made a series of documentaries including:
Four More Years (1972), covering the 1972 Republican National Convention
The World's Largest TV Studio (1972), covering the 1972 Democratic National Convention
Adland (1974), an examination of American commercial culture
Lord of the Universe (1974), an award-winning documentary on the activities of the GuruMaharaj Ji and his followers
TVTV Looks at the Oscars (1976) concept by Rich Rosen
TVTV: Super Bowl (1976) concept by Rich Rosen
Gerald Ford's America (1975)
The TVTV Show (1976), TVTV's final television special, co-produced with NBC television, directed by Alan Myerson
The Bob Dylan Hard Rain Special (1976), another NBC co-production
Supervision (1976), a multipart PBS series about the birth of television and its cultural impact
The Good Times are Killing me (1975) a portrait of Cajun culture. Focusing on the Cajuns'strong cultural identity as well as the life of Cajun Musician Nathan AbshireOther participants in TVTV included designer Elan Soltes, producer David Axelrod, actor-comedian Bill Murray and his brother Brian Doyle-Murray, cinematographer Paul Goldsmith, actor and director Harold Ramis and producer Wendy Appel (aka Wendy Apple).
In 1976 -1977, experimental filmmaker Wheeler Winston Dixon briefly joined the collective, editing most of the Supervision series, as well as portions of the Hard Rain Special and the entirety of The TVTV Show.
TVTV alumni went on to careers of their own with the disbanding of the group in 1979, after a move to Los Angeles that brought many in the group more into the orbit of conventional filmmaking. Bill Murray went on to become a film and TV star; Michael Shamberg a film producer, most notably with his company Jersey Films, in collaboration with Stacey Sher and Danny DeVito; Allen Rucker a writer and author; Wheeler Winston Dixon an author and university professor; Harold Ramis a film director, writer and actor; Skip Blumberg a videographer and producer; Tom Weinberg a producer based in his hometown, Chicago; and Elan Soltes a video graphic designer in Hollywood.William T. Conklin
William T. Conklin (April 28, 1908 – February 15, 1990) was an American politician from New York.
of the RNC
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