1972 Democratic National Convention

The 1972 Democratic National Convention was the presidential nominating convention of the Democratic Party for the 1972 presidential election. It was held at Miami Beach Convention Center in Miami Beach, Florida, on July 10 – 13, 1972. Lawrence F. O'Brien served as permanent chairman of the convention, while Yvonne Braithwaite Burke served as vice-chair, becoming the first African American and the first woman of color to hold that position.[1][2] On the last day of the convention, Lawrence F. O'Brien departed and Burke was left to preside for about fourteen hours.[2][3]

The convention nominated Senator George McGovern of South Dakota for President and Senator Thomas Eagleton of Missouri for Vice President. Eagleton withdrew from the race just 19 days later after it was disclosed that he had previously undergone mental health treatment, including electroshock therapy, and he was replaced on the ballot by Sargent Shriver of Maryland, a Kennedy in-law.

The convention, which has been described as "a disastrous start to the general election campaign",[4] was one of the most unusual—perhaps the most contentious in the history of the Democratic Party since 1924—with sessions beginning in the early evening and lasting until sunrise the next morning. Previously excluded political activists gained influence at the expense of elected officials and traditional core Democratic constituencies such as organized labor. A protracted vice presidential nominating process delayed McGovern's acceptance speech (which he considered "the best speech of his life") until 2:48 a.m.—after most television viewers had gone to bed.[4][5][6] Hunter S. Thompson covered this convention in detail in several articles and in Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail '72.

1972 Democratic National Convention
1972 presidential election
George McGovern, c 1972 (3x4)
ThomasEagleton (3x4 a)
McGovern and Eagleton
Date(s)July 10–13, 1972
CityMiami Beach, Florida
VenueMiami Beach Convention Center
Presidential nomineeGeorge McGovern of
South Dakota
Vice Presidential nomineeThomas Eagleton of Missouri

Delegate selection

Miami Beach FL Convention Center01
The Miami Beach Convention Center was the site of the 1972 Democratic National Convention

The 1972 convention was significant as the first implementation of the reforms set by the Commission on Party Structure and Delegate Selection, which McGovern himself had chaired before deciding to run for president. After McGovern resigned from his position as chair, he was replaced as chair by U.S. Representative Donald Fraser, which gave the McGovern–Fraser Commission its name. The 28-member commission was established after the tumultuous 1968 convention.

1972 Democratic Convention - Miami Beach (28510440192)
View of the convention in action.

The commission set guidelines ordering state parties to "adopt explicit written Party rules governing delegate selection" and implemented eight "procedural rules and safeguards", including the prohibition of proxy voting, the end of the unit rule (winner-take-all primaries) and related practices such as instructing delegations, a new quorum requirement of not less than 40% at all party committee meetings, the removal of all mandatory assessments of delegates and the cap of mandatory participation fees at $10. In addition, there were new rules ensuring that party meetings in non-rural areas were held on uniform dates, at uniform times, and in places of easy access and that adequate public notice of all party meetings concerned with delegate selection was posted. Among the most significant of the changes were new quotas mandating that certain percentages of delegates be women or members of minority groups.

As a result of the new rules, subjects that were previously deemed not fit for political debate, such as abortion and gay rights, now occupied the forefront of political discussion. The new rules for choosing and seating delegates created an unusual number of rules and credentials challenges. Many traditional Democratic groups such as organized labor and big-city political machines had small representation at the convention. Their supporters challenged the seating of relative political novices, but for the most part were turned back by the supporters of McGovern, who during the presidential primaries had amassed the most delegates to the convention by using a grassroots campaign that was powered by opposition to the Vietnam War. Many traditional Democratic leaders and politicians felt that McGovern's delegate count did not reflect the wishes of most Democratic voters. Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter helped to spearhead a "Stop McGovern" campaign, while at the same time trying to become McGovern's candidate for vice president. The stop-McGovern forces tried unsuccessfully to alter the delegate composition of the California delegation.

The Illinois primary required voters to select individual delegates, not presidential candidates. Most Illinois delegation members were uncommitted and were controlled or influenced by Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley, the leader of the Chicago political machine. The delegation was challenged by McGovern supporters arguing that the results of the primary did not create a diverse enough delegation in terms of women and minorities. The credentials committee, headed by Patricia Roberts Harris, rejected the entire elected delegation, including elected women and minorities, and seated an unelected delegation led by Chicago Alderman William S. Singer, Jesse Jackson and pledged to George McGovern.

The California primary was "winner-take-all", which was contrary to the delegate selection rules. So even though McGovern only won the California primary by a 5% electoral margin, he won all 271 of their delegates to the convention. The anti-McGovern group argued for a proportional distribution of the delegates, while the McGovern forces stressed that the rules for the delegate selection had been set and the Stop McGovern alliance was trying to change the rules after the game. As with the credential fight, McGovernites carried the day effectively handing the nomination to McGovern.

McGovern recognized the mixed results of the changes that he made to the Democratic nominating convention, saying, "I opened the doors of the Democratic Party and 20 million people walked out".[7]


Formed after "divisive platform battles", the 1972 Democratic National Convention's platform has been characterized as "probably the most liberal one ever adopted by a major party in the United States". It advocated immediate withdrawal from Vietnam, amnesty for war resisters, the abolition of the draft, a guaranteed job for all Americans (it offered to "make the government the employer of last resort"), and a guaranteed family income well above the poverty line.[4]


The Feminist Movement was a major influence on the Democratic platform of 1972, and on the entire convention in general. With renewed vigor, the Democrats reaffirmed their dedication to the Equal Rights Amendment, as did the Republicans.

There were disagreements within the Democrats of the National Women's Political Caucus (NWPC), and the Women's Movement in general, over how to best approach certain issues. At the convention Betty Friedan clashed with Gloria Steinem over the way NWPC women should approach certain issues, and whether or not they should make sure to throw all possible support behind Shirley Chisholm (both women were supporters of Chisholm's presidential campaign).

As the Convention was occurring on Miami Beach, Gloria Steinem chose The Betsy Ross Hotel as headquarters for the National Organization for Women (NOW). Built in 1942, the hotel had been named after Betsy Ross, the Philadelphia seamstress who sewed American Flags.

McGovern ultimately excised the abortion issue from the party's platform; recent publications show McGovern was deeply conflicted on the issue.[8] Actress and activist Shirley MacLaine, though privately supporting abortion rights, urged the delegates to vote against the plank. Gloria Steinem later wrote this description of the events:

The consensus of the meeting of women delegates held by the caucus had been to fight for the minority plank on reproductive freedom; indeed our vote had supported the plank nine to one. So fight we did, with three women delegates speaking eloquently in its favor as a constitutional right. One male Right-to-Life zealot spoke against, and Shirley MacLaine also was an opposition speaker, on the grounds that this was a fundamental right but didn't belong in the platform. We made a good showing. Clearly we would have won if McGovern's forces had left their delegates uninstructed and thus able to vote their consciences.[9]

Germaine Greer flatly contradicted Steinem's account. Having recently gained public notoriety for her feminist manifesto The Female Eunuch and sparring with Norman Mailer, Greer was commissioned to cover the convention for Harper's Magazine. Greer criticized Steinem's "controlled jubilation" that 38% of the delegates were women, ignoring that "many delegations had merely stacked themselves with token females...The McGovern machine had already pulled the rug out from under them".[10]

Greer leveled her most searing critique on Steinem for her capitulation on abortion rights. Greer reported, "Jacqui Ceballos called from the crowd to demand abortion rights on the Democratic platform, but Bella [Abzug] and Gloria stared glassily out into the room", thus killing the abortion rights platform. Greer asks, "Why had Bella and Gloria not helped Jacqui to nail him on abortion? What reticence, what loserism had afflicted them?"[10] The cover of Harper's that month read, "Womanlike, they did not want to get tough with their man, and so, womanlike, they got screwed".[11]

Gay rights

A coalition of gay rights groups at the convention "drew up a proposed platform provision that called for, among other things, repealing laws against homosexuals marrying". The provision was rejected by a vote of 54–34. Afterwards, however, two delegates, Jim Foster and Madeline Davis (the first openly lesbian delegate to a major national political convention), spoke publicly on its behalf.[12]


The platform championed busing under its "Education" plank, stating, "Transportation of students is another tool to accomplish desegregation".[13]


In addition to a guaranteed job for all Americans (it offered to "make the government the employer of last resort") and a guaranteed family income above the poverty line,[4] the McGovern platform championed the right of American welfare recipients to be represented by organizations resembling labor unions when dealing with welfare agencies.

The McGovern platform is often criticized as a "reformist coup" responsible in large part for the subsequent decline in American liberalism and chasing away the Democratic Party's "best politicians". It alienated the "working- and lower-middle class voters [who] saw [the platform] as threatening to traditional, deeply valued, if inequitable social arrangements"—so much so that one in three Democrats voted for Nixon, the Republican incumbent, in the presidential election in November. For example:

Although the McGovern platform did not promise socialism, it did pledge to eliminate—through government guarantee and dicta—any manifestation of free enterprise that could potentially produce inequality or failure. It promised to use the tax system and federal law enforcement to redistribute income and wealth. And it said the Democrats would study whether corporations should be chartered as federal institutions.[5]

Right to be different

The Democrats also included "the right to be different" in their 1972 platform.[14] According to the party, this right included the right to "maintain a cultural or ethnic heritage or lifestyle, without being forced into a compelled homogeneity".[15][16]

Delegate vote for presidential nomination

Running mate

Most polls showed McGovern running well behind incumbent President Richard Nixon, except when McGovern was paired with Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy. McGovern and his campaign brain trust lobbied Kennedy heavily to accept the bid to be McGovern's running mate, but he continually refused their advances, and instead suggested U.S. Representative (and House Ways and Means Committee chairman) Wilbur Mills of Arkansas and Boston Mayor Kevin White.[18] Offers were then made to Hubert Humphrey, Connecticut Senator Abraham Ribicoff, and Minnesota Senator Walter Mondale, all of whom turned it down.[18]

McGovern and his campaign staff felt that a Kennedy-style figure was best to balance the ticket: a Catholic, big city-based leader with strong ties to organized labor and urban political machines. McGovern informed Kennedy that he was seriously considering Kevin White, who had informed McGovern he was available. But the Massachusetts delegates threatened to boycott the convention hall if the choice was White, who as an Edmund Muskie supporter had fought sharply with the McGovern slate during the primary. White was dropped from consideration.[18]

Finally, the vice presidential slot was offered to Senator Thomas Eagleton of Missouri. Eagleton was relatively unknown to many of the delegates. This, along with the anger of many of the delegates who were wary after the protracted infighting, caused the vice presidential balloting to become almost a farce. The delegates insisted on nominating eight candidates for Vice President, including not only Eagleton but also Senator Mike Gravel of Alaska, former Massachusetts Governor Endicott Peabody, and Frances "Sissy" Farenthold of the Texas state house. Farenthold was the first-ever serious female candidate for the Democratic Vice President nomination.[19]

By the time the roll call finally began, the delegates were in a prankish mood, casting ballots for people not involved in politics, deceased persons, non-American persons, and even fictional characters. Such ballots were cast for Martha Beall Mitchell, CBS-TV's Roger Mudd, Mao Zedong, and the fictional Archie Bunker.

Eventually, Eagleton secured the nomination but the last-day-of-school atmosphere of the proceedings dragged out the process. When Eagleton was at last confirmed, it was 1:40 AM.[18] This delay forced the acceptance speeches of the candidates to be given well past the television prime time hours and probably hurt the McGovern campaign by not creating the so-called "convention bounce".

Several days after the convention, it was revealed that Senator Eagleton had been hospitalized for depression and had electric shock treatment. He was also rumored to be more than a social drinker. McGovern stood behind his choice and stated that he was behind Senator Eagleton "1000 percent". The news media and many political pros, especially in the Democratic Party, lobbied hard for his removal from the ticket.

Eventually, McGovern felt compelled to accept Senator Eagleton's withdrawal from the ticket. The episode had placed McGovern in a "no-win" situation. If he kept Eagleton, the selection did not look good for the decision-making ability of the McGovern team, while if he removed Eagleton, he appeared to be weak and vacillating. Since this incident, front-running presidential candidates have developed short lists of potential running mates and have meticulously performed background checks.

McGovern chose Sargent Shriver as his running mate a few weeks later. The McGovern-Shriver ticket went on to one of the greatest defeats in American political history.

Delegate vote for vice-presidential nomination


See also


  1. ^ Visionary Project
  2. ^ a b Terkel, Amanda (2017-08-14). "The Long, Hard Fight To Finally Get A Woman At The Top Of The Ticket | HuffPost". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  3. ^ Visionary Project
  4. ^ a b c d Rosenbaum, David E. (October 21, 2012). "George McGovern Dies at 90, a Liberal Trounced but Never Silenced". New York Times. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
  5. ^ a b Macinnes, Gordon (1996). Wrong for All the Right Reasons: How White Liberals Have Been Undone by Race. New York: NYU Press. pp. 84–88. ISBN 9780814796382.
  6. ^ See the video from the C-SPAN Video Library: "1972 McGovern Acceptance Speech", July 10, 1972.
  7. ^ Jonah Goldberg, "Nedrenaline Rush" Archived January 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine August 11, 2006 National Review
  8. ^ Miroff, Bruce (2007). The Liberals' Moment: The McGovern Insurgency and the Identity Crisis of the Democratic Party. University Press of Kansas. p. 207. ISBN 978-0700616503.
  9. ^ Steinem, Gloria. Outrageous Acts and Everyday Rebellions. New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1984. pp. 100–110.
  10. ^ a b Germaine Greer, Harper's Magazine October 1972.
  11. ^ Harper's Magazine Archives
  12. ^ Martin, Michel (September 5, 2012). "In 1972, Davis Blazed Party Trail On Gay Rights". NPR. Retrieved October 20, 2013.
  13. ^ Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, "Democratic Party Platform of 1972 (July 10, 1972)", The American Presidency Project, University of California, Santa Barbara.
  14. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York: Basic Books. p. 266. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.
  15. ^ Hampson, Rick (September 4, 2012). "Democrats place gay marriage on convention platform". USA Today.
  16. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York: Basic Books. p. 270. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.
  17. ^ Source
  18. ^ a b c d "Introducing... the McGovern Machine". Time Magazine. July 24, 1972. Retrieved September 7, 2008.
  19. ^ "A Guide to the Frances Tarlton Farenthold Papers, 1913-2013", Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin.
  20. ^ "US Vice President - D Convention Race - Jul 10, 1972". Our Campaigns. Retrieved 2018-08-29.


External links

Preceded by
Chicago, Illinois
Democratic National Conventions Succeeded by
New York, New York
1972 Democratic Party presidential primaries

The 1972 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1972 U.S. presidential election. Senator George McGovern of South Dakota was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections, caucuses, and state party conventions, culminating in the 1972 Democratic National Convention held from July 10 to July 13, 1972, in Miami, Florida.

1972 Democratic Party vice presidential candidate selection

This article lists those who were potential candidates for the Democratic nomination for Vice President of the United States in the 1972 election. Coming into the 1972 Democratic National Convention, South Dakota Senator George McGovern had the delegate lead, but did not have the presidential nomination locked up. After winning the Democratic nomination for president on July 13, McGovern looked for a running mate. McGovern's first choice for vice president was Ted Kennedy, but Kennedy refused to join the ticket; Minnesota Senator Walter Mondale, Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson, and Connecticut Senator Abraham A. Ribicoff also declined. McGovern offered the position to Missouri Senator Thomas Eagleton, who appealed to labor groups and Catholics, two groups that McGovern had alienated during the primary campaign. The ticket of McGovern and Eagleton was nominated by the 1972 Democratic National Convention. Following the convention, it was revealed that Eagleton had received treatment for depression. Though McGovern considered keeping Eagleton on the ticket, he ultimately chose to replace Eagleton with former Ambassador Sargent Shriver. The McGovern-Shriver ticket lost the presidential election to the Nixon-Agnew ticket. After the controversy surrounding Eagleton, future campaigns spent much more time vetting vice presidential candidates.

1972 United States presidential election

The 1972 United States presidential election was the 47th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 7, 1972. Incumbent Republican President Richard Nixon defeated Democratic Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.

Nixon easily swept aside challenges from two Republican congressmen in the 1972 Republican primaries to win re-nomination. McGovern, who had played a significant role in reforming the Democratic nomination system after the 1968 election, mobilized the anti-war movement and other liberal supporters to win his party's nomination. Among the candidates he defeated were early front-runner Edmund Muskie, 1968 nominee Hubert Humphrey, and Congresswoman Shirley Chisholm, the first African-American to run for a major party's presidential nomination.

Nixon emphasized the strong economy and his success in foreign affairs, while McGovern ran on a platform calling for an immediate end to the Vietnam War, and the institution of a guaranteed minimum income. Nixon maintained a large and consistent lead in polling. Separately, Nixon's reelection committee broke into the Watergate Hotel to wiretap the Democratic National Committee's headquarters, a scandal that would later be known as "Watergate". McGovern's campaign was further damaged by the revelation that his running mate, Thomas Eagleton, had undergone psychiatric electroshock therapy as a treatment for depression. Eagleton was replaced on the ballot by Sargent Shriver.

Nixon won the election in a landslide, taking 60.7% of the popular vote and carrying 49 states, and he was the first Republican to sweep the South. McGovern took just 37.5% of the popular vote, while John G. Schmitz of the American Independent Party won 1.4% of the vote. Nixon received almost 18 million more votes than McGovern, and he holds the record for the widest popular vote margin in any United States presidential election. The 1972 presidential election was the first since the ratification of the 26th Amendment, which lowered the voting age from 21 to 18. Within two years of the election, both Nixon and Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned from office, the former due to Watergate and the latter to a separate corruption charge, and Nixon was succeeded by Gerald Ford.

1972 in LGBT rights

This is a list of notable events in the history of LGBT rights that took place in the year 1972.

2020 United States presidential election in Florida

The 2020 United States presidential election in Florida is scheduled to take place on Tuesday, November 3, 2020, as part of the 2020 United States elections in which all 50 states plus the District of Columbia will participate. Florida voters will choose electors to represent them in the Electoral College via a popular vote. The state of Florida has 29 electoral votes in the Electoral College.Miami Beach, Florida, which hosted the 1972 Democratic National Convention, is a finalist to host the 2020 Democratic National Convention. The other finalists are Milwaukee and Houston.As of January 2019, Donald Trump is the declared Republican candidate. Florida Republicans Jeb Bush and Marco Rubio, both primary candidates in 2016, declined to run against Trump. Rubio also endorsed Trump.A number of Democrats are running or have expressed interest in running, and Elizabeth Warren, Kamala Harris, and Bernie Sanders are among the major declared candidates. Additionally, Kirsten Gillibrand has formed an exploratory committee.There has been speculation that Andrew Gillum the former Mayor of Tallahassee and Democratic nominee for Governor of Florida in the 2018 might run. Media personalities Joe Scarborough and Dwayne Johnson, both Florida natives, have declined to run to be the Democratic nominee. Scarborough represented Florida's 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 2000 as a Republican, but since 2017 has identified as "Independent".

Electoral history of George Wallace

Electoral history of George Wallace, 48th Governor of Alabama (1963–1967, 1971–1979, 1983–1987), 1968 American Independent Party Presidential nominee and candidate for 1964, 1972 and 1976 Democratic Party presidential nomination

Democratic primary for Governor of Alabama, 1958:

John Malcolm Patterson – 196,859 (31.82%)

George Wallace – 162,435 (26.26%)

Jimmy Faulkner – 91,512 (14.79%)

A.W. Todd – 59,240 (9.58%)

Laurie C. Battle – 38,955 (6.30%)

George Hawkins – 24,332 (3.93%)

C.C. Owen – 15,270 (2.47%)

Karl Harrison – 12,488 (2.02%)

Billy Walker – 7,963 (1.29%)

W.E. Dodd – 4,753 (0.77%)

John G. Crommelin – 2,245 (0.36%)

Shearen Elebash – 1,177 (0.19%)

James Gulatte – 798 (0.13%)

Ralph "Shorty" Price – 655 (0.11%)Democratic primary for Governor of Alabama runoff, 1958:

John Malcolm Patterson – 315,353 (55.74%)

George Wallace – 250,451 (44.27%)Democratic primary for Governor of Alabama, 1962:

George Wallace – 207,062 (32.49%)

Ryan DeGraffenried, Sr. – 160,704 (25.22%)

Jim Folsom – 159,640 (25.05%)

MacDonald Gallion – 80,374 (12.61%)

Bull Connor – 23,019 (3.61%)

J. Bruce Henderson – 3,666 (0.58%)

Wayne Jennings – 1,946 (0.31%)

Albert Boutwell – 862 (0.14%)Democratic primary for Governor of Alabama runoff, 1962:

George Wallace – 340,730 (55.87%)

Ryan DeGraffenried, Sr. – 269,122 (44.13%)Alabama gubernatorial election, 1962:

George Wallace (D) – 303,987 (96.27%)

Frank P. Walls (I) – 11,789 (3.73%)1964 Democratic presidential primaries:

Pat Brown – 1,693,813 (27.26%)

Lyndon B. Johnson (inc.) – 1,106,999 (17.82%)

Sam Yorty – 798,431 (12.85%)

George Wallace – 672,984 (10.83%)

John W. Reynolds – 522,405 (8.41%)

Albert S. Porter – 493,619 (7.94%)

Matthew E. Welsch – 376,023 (6.05%)

Daniel Brewster – 267,106 (4.30%)

Jennings Randolph – 131,432 (2.12%)

Unpledged delegates – 81,614 (1.31%)

Robert F. Kennedy – 36,258 (0.58%)1968 Democratic presidential primaries:

Eugene McCarthy – 2,914,933 (38.73%)

Robert F. Kennedy – 2,305,148 (30.63%)

Stephen M. Young – 549,140 (7.30%)

Lyndon B. Johnson (inc.) – 383,590 (5.10%)

Thomas C. Lynch – 380,286 (5.05%)

Roger D. Branigin – 238,700 (3.17%)

George Smathers – 236,242 (3.14%)

Hubert Humphrey – 166,463 (2.21%)

Unpledged delegates – 161,143 (2.14%)

Scott Kelly – 128,899 (1.71%)

George Wallace – 34,489 (0.46%)1968 Democratic National Convention (Presidential tally):

Hubert Humphrey – 1,760 (67.43%)

Eugene McCarthy – 601 (23.03%)

George McGovern – 147 (5.63%)

Channing E. Phillips – 68 (2.61%)

Daniel K. Moore – 18 (0.69%)

Ted Kennedy – 13 (0.50%)

Paul Bryant – 1 (0.04%)

James H. Gray – 1 (0.04%)

George Wallace – 1 (0.04%)United States presidential election, 1968:

Richard Nixon/Spiro Agnew (R) – 31,783,783 (43.4%) and 301 electoral votes (55.95%, 32 states carried)

Hubert Humphrey/Edmund Muskie (D) – 31,271,839 (42.7%) and 191 electoral votes (35.50%, 14 states and D.C. carried)

George Wallace/Curtis LeMay (American Independent) – 9,901,118 (13.5%) and 46 electoral votes (8.55%, 5 states carried)

Eugene McCarthy (I) – 25,634 (0.0%)

Others – 243,258 (0.3%)Democratic primary for Governor of Alabama, 1970:

Albert Brewer (inc.) – 428,146 (41.98%)

George Wallace – 416,443 (40.84%)

Charles Woods – 149,987 (14.71%)

Asa Carter – 15,441 (1.51%)

Jim Folsom – 4,123 (0.40%)

Coleman Brown – 2,836 (0.28%)

Ralph "Shorty" Price – 2,804 (0.28%)Democratic primary for Governor of Alabama runoff, 1970:

George Wallace – 559,832 (51.56%)

Albert Brewer (inc.) – 525,951 (48.44%)Alabama gubernatorial election, 1970:

George Wallace (D) – 637,046 (74.51%)

John Cashin (Alabama National Democrat) – 125,491 (14.68%)

A.C. Walker (I) – 75,679 (8.85%)

Jerome B. Couch (Prohibition) – 9,705 (1.14%)

Menter G. Walker (I) – 3,534 (0.41%)

John Watts (Whig) – 3,497 (0.41%)1972 Democratic presidential primaries:

Hubert Humphrey – 4,121,372 (25.77%)

George McGovern – 4,053,451 (25.34%)

George Wallace – 3,755,424 (23.48%)

Edmund Muskie – 1,840,217 (11.51%)

Eugene McCarthy – 553,990 (3.46%)

Henry M. Jackson – 505,198 (3.16%)

Shirley Chisholm – 430,703 (2.69%)

Terry Sanford – 331,415 (2.07%)

John V. Lindsay – 196,406 (1.23%)

Sam Yorty – 79,446 (0.50%)

Wilbur Mills – 37,401 (0.23%)

Walter Fauntroy – 21,217 (0.13%)

Unpledged delegates – 19,533 (0.12%)

Ted Kennedy – 16,693 (0.10%)

Vance Hartke – 11,798 (0.07%)

Patsy Mink – 8,286 (0.05%)1972 Democratic National Convention (Presidential tally):

George McGovern – 1,729 (57.37%)

Henry M. Jackson – 525 (17.42%)

George Wallace – 382 (12.67%)

Shirley Chisholm – 152 (5.04%)

Terry Sanford – 78 (2.59%)

Hubert Humphrey – 67 (2.22%)

Wilbur Mills – 34 (1.13%)

Edmund Muskie – 25 (0.83%)

Ted Kennedy – 13 (0.43%)

Wayne L. Hays – 5 (0.17%)

Eugene McCarthy – 2 (0.07%)

Ramsey Clark – 1 (0.03%)

Walter Mondale – 1 (0.03%)1972 Democratic National Convention (Vice Presidential tally):

Thomas Eagleton – 1,742 (59.07%)

Frances Farenthold – 405 (13.73%)

Mike Gravel – 226 (7.66%)

Endicott Peabody – 108 (3.66%)

Clay Smothers – 74 (2.51%)

Birch Bayh – 62 (2.10%)

Peter Rodino – 57 (1.93%)

Jimmy Carter – 30 (1.02%)

Shirley Chisholm – 20 (0.68%)

Moon Landrieu – 19 (0.64%)

Edward T. Breathitt – 18 (0.61%)

Ted Kennedy – 15 (0.51%)

Fred R. Harris – 14 (0.48%)

Richard G. Hatcher – 11 (0.37%)

Harold E. Hughes – 10 (0.34%)

Joseph M. Montoya – 9 (0.31%)

William L. Guy – 8 (0.27%)

Adlai Stevenson III – 8 (0.27%)

Robert Bergland – 5 (0.17%)

Hodding Carter – 5 (0.17%)

Cesar Chavez – 5 (0.17%)

Wilbur Mills – 5 (0.17%)

Wendell Anderson – 4 (0.14%)

Stanley Arnold – 4 (0.14%)

Ron Dellums – 4 (0.14%)

John J. Houlihan – 4 (0.14%)

Roberto A. Mondragon – 4 (0.14%)

Reubin O'Donovan Askew – 3 (0.10%)

Herman Badillo – 3 (0.10%)

Eugene McCarthy – 3 (0.10%)

Claiborne Pell – 3 (0.10%)

Terry Sanford – 3 (0.10%)

Ramsey Clark – 2 (0.07%)

Richard J. Daley – 2 (0.07%)

John DeCarlo – 2 (0.07%)

Ernest Gruening – 2 (0.07%)

Roger Mudd – 2 (0.07%)

Edmund Muskie – 2 (0.07%)

Claude Pepper – 2 (0.07%)

Abraham Ribicoff – 2 (0.07%)

Pat Taylor – 2 (0.07%)

Leonard F. Wodcoock – 2 (0.07%)

Bruno Agnoli – 2 (0.07%)

Ernest Albright – 1 (0.03%)

William A. Barrett – 1 (0.03%)

Daniel Berrigan – 1 (0.03%)

Phillip Berrigan – 1 (0.03%)

Julian Bond – 1 (0.03%)

Hargrove Bowles – 1 (0.03%)

Archibald Burton – 1 (0.03%)

Phillip Burton – 1 (0.03%)

William Chappell – 1 (0.03%)

Lawton Chiles – 1 (0.03%)

Frank Church – 1 (0.03%)

Robert Drinan – 1 (0.03%)

Nick Galifianakis – 1 (0.03%)

John Goodrich – 1 (0.03%)

Michael Griffin – 1 (0.03%)

Martha Griffiths – 1 (0.03%)

Charles Hamilton – 1 (0.03%)

Patricia Harris – 1 (0.03%)

Jim Hunt – 1 (0.03%)

Daniel Inouye – 1 (0.03%)

Henry M. Jackson – 1 (0.03%)

Robery Kariss – 1 (0.03%)

Allard K. Lowenstein – 1 (0.03%)

Mao Zedong – 1 (0.03%)

Eleanor McGovern – 1 (0.03%)

Martha Mitchell – 1 (0.03%)

Ralph Nader – 1 (0.03%)

George Norcross – 1 (0.03%)

Jerry Rubin – 1 (0.03%)

Fred Seaman – 1 (0.03%)

Joe Smith – 1 (0.03%)

Benjamin Spock – 1 (0.03%)

Patrick Tavolacci – 1 (0.03%)

George Wallace – 1 (0.03%)American Independent Party National Convention, 1972 (Presidential tally):

John G. Schmitz – 330 (71.74%)

George L. Garfield – 56 (12.17%)

Allen Grear – 26 (5.65%)

Thomas J. Anderson – 24 (5.22%)

Richard B. Kay – 16 (3.48%)

George Wallace – 8 (1.74%)Democratic primary for Governor of Alabama, 1974:

George Wallace (inc.) – 536,235 (64.79%)

Gene McLain – 249,035 (30.09%)

Jim Folsom – 24,821 (3.00%)

Ralph "Shorty" Price – 9,834 (1.19%)

Thomas Robinson – 7,726 (0.93%)Alabama gubernatorial election, 1974:

George Wallace (D) (inc.) – 497,574 (83.16%)

Elvin McCary (R) – 88,381 (14.77%)

Jim Partain (Prohibition) – 12,350 (2.06%)1976 Democratic presidential primaries:

Jimmy Carter – 6,235,609 (39.19%)

Jerry Brown – 2,449,374 (15.39%)

George Wallace – 1,955,388 (12.29%)

Mo Udall – 1,611,754 (10.13%)

Henry M. Jackson – 1,134,375 (7.13%)

Frank Church – 830,818 (5.22%)

Robert Byrd – 340,309 (2.14%)

Sargent Shriver – 304,399 (1.91%)

Unpledged delegates – 283,437 (1.78%)

Ellen McCormack – 238,027 (1.50%)

Fred R. Harris – 234,568 (1.47%)

Milton Shapp – 88,254 (0.56%)

Birch Bayh – 86,438 (0.54%)

Hubert Humphrey – 61,992 (0.39%)

Ted Kennedy – 19,805 (0.12%)

Arthur O. Blessitt – 8,717 (0.06%)

Lloyd Bentsen – 4,046 (0.03%)1976 Democratic National Convention (Presidential tally):

Jimmy Carter – 2,239 (74.48%)

Mo Udall – 330 (10.98%)

Jerry Brown – 301 (10.01%)

George Wallace – 57 (1.90%)

Ellen McCormack – 22 (0.73%)

Frank Church – 19 (0.63%)

Hubert Humphrey – 10 (0.33%)

Henry M. Jackson – 10 (0.33%)

Fred R. Harris – 9 (0.30%)

Milton Shapp – 2 (0.07%)

Robert Byrd – 1 (0.03%)

Cesar Chavez – 1 (0.03%)

Leon Jaworski – 1 (0.03%)

Barbara Jordan – 1 (0.03%)

Ted Kennedy – 1 (0.03%)

Jennings Randolph – 1 (0.03%)

Fred Stover – 1 (0.03%)1976 Democratic National Convention (Vice Presidential tally):

Walter Mondale – 2,817 (94.28%)

Carl Albert – 36 (1.21%)

Barbara Jordan – 25 (0.84%)

Ron Dellums – 20 (0.67%)

Henry M. Jackson – 16 (0.54%)

Gary Benoit – 12 (0.40%)

Frank Church – 11 (0.37%)

Fritz Efaw – 11 (0.37%)

Peter Flaherty – 11 (0.37%)

George Wallace – 6 (0.20%)

Allard Lowenstein – 5 (0.17%)

Edmund Muskie – 4 (0.13%)

Philip Hart – 2 (0.07%)

Thomas E. Morgan – 2 (0.07%)

Mo Udall – 2 (0.07%)

Wendell Anderson – 1 (0.03%)

Al Castro – 1 (0.03%)

Fred R. Harris – 1 (0.03%)

Ernest Hollings – 1 (0.03%)

Peter Rodino – 1 (0.03%)

Daniel Schorr – 1 (0.03%)

Josephnie Smith – 1 (0.03%)

Hunter S. Thompson – 1 (0.03%)Democratic primary for Governor of Alabama, 1982:

George Wallace – 425,469 (42.53%)

George McMillan – 296,271 (29.62%)

Joe McCorquodale – 250,614 (25.05%)

Jim Folsom – 17,333 (1.73%)

Reuben McKinley – 10,617 (1.06%)Democratic primary for Governor of Alabama runoff, 1982:

George Wallace – 512,203 (51.19%)

George McMillan – 488,444 (48.81%)Alabama gubernatorial election, 1982:

George Wallace (D) – 650,538 (57.64%)

Emory M. Folmar (R) – 440,815 (39.06%)

Leo Suiter (Alabama Conservative) – 17,936 (1.59%)

Henry Klingler (LBT) – 7,671 (0.68%)

John Jackson (Alabama National Democrat) – 4,693 (0.42%)

John Dyer (Prohibition) – 4,364 (0.39%)

Martin J. Boyers (Socialist Workers) – 2,578 (0.23%)

Electoral history of Jimmy Carter

Electoral history of Jimmy Carter, 39th President of the United States (1977–1981) and 76th Governor of Georgia (1971–1975).

Georgia Democratic gubernatorial primary, 1966

Ellis Arnall - 231,480 (29.38%)

Lester Maddox - 185,672 (23.56%)

Jimmy Carter - 164,562 (20.89%)

James H. Gray - 152,973 (19.41%)

Garland T. Byrd - 39,994 (5.08%)

Hoke O'Kelley - 13,271 (1.68%)Georgia Democratic gubernatorial primary, 1970

Jimmy Carter - 388,280 (48.62%)

Carl E. Sanders - 301,659 (37.77%)

Chevene King - 70,424 (8.82%)

J. B. Stoner - 17,663 (2.21%)

McKee Hargett - 9,440 (1.18%)

Thomas J. Irvin - 4,184 (0.52%)

Adam B. Matthews - 3,332 (0.42%)Georgia Democratic gubernatorial primary runoff, 1970

Jimmy Carter - 506,462 (59.42%)

Carl E. Sanders - 345,906 (40.58%)Georgia gubernatorial election, 1970

Jimmy Carter (D) - 620,419 (59.28%)

Hal Suit (R) - 424,983 (40.60%)

Write-ins - 1,261 (0.12%)1972 Democratic National Convention (Vice Presidential tally)

Thomas Eagleton - 1,742 (59.07%)

Frances Farenthold - 405 (13.73%)

Mike Gravel - 226 (7.66%)

Endicott Peabody - 108 (3.66%)

Clay Smothers - 74 (2.51%)

Birch Bayh - 62 (2.10%)

Peter Rodino - 57 (1.93%)

Jimmy Carter - 30 (1.02%)

Shirley Chisholm - 20 (0.68%)

Moon Landrieu - 19 (0.64%)

Edward T. Breathitt - 18 (0.61%)

Ted Kennedy - 15 (0.51%)

Fred R. Harris - 14 (0.48%)

Richard G. Hatcher - 11 (0.37%)

Harold E. Hughes - 10 (0.34%)

Joseph M. Montoya - 9 (0.31%)

William L. Guy - 8 (0.27%)

Adlai Stevenson III - 8 (0.27%)

Robert Bergland - 5 (0.17%)

Hodding Carter - 5 (0.17%)

Cesar Chavez - 5 (0.17%)

Wilbur Mills - 5 (0.17%)

Wendell Anderson - 4 (0.14%)

Stanley Arnold - 4 (0.14%)

Ron Dellums - 4 (0.14%)

John J. Houlihan - 4 (0.14%)

Roberto A. Mondragon - 4 (0.14%)

Reubin O'Donovan Askew - 3 (0.10%)

Herman Badillo - 3 (0.10%)

Eugene McCarthy - 3 (0.10%)

Claiborne Pell - 3 (0.10%)

Terry Sanford - 3 (0.10%)

Ramsey Clark - 2 (0.07%)

Richard J. Daley - 2 (0.07%)

John DeCarlo - 2 (0.07%)

Ernest Gruening - 2 (0.07%)

Roger Mudd - 2 (0.07%)

Edmund Muskie - 2 (0.07%)

Claude Pepper - 2 (0.07%)

Abraham Ribicoff - 2 (0.07%)

Pat Taylor - 2 (0.07%)

Leonard F. Wodcoock - 2 (0.07%)

Bruno Agnoli - 2 (0.07%)

Ernest Albright - 1 (0.03%)

William A. Barrett - 1 (0.03%)

Daniel Berrigan - 1 (0.03%)

Phillip Berrigan - 1 (0.03%)

Julian Bond - 1 (0.03%)

Hargrove Bowles - 1 (0.03%)

Archibald Burton - 1 (0.03%)

Phillip Burton - 1 (0.03%)

William Chappell - 1 (0.03%)

Lawton Chiles - 1 (0.03%)

Frank Church - 1 (0.03%)

Robert Drinan - 1 (0.03%)

Nick Galifianakis - 1 (0.03%)

John Goodrich - 1 (0.03%)

Michael Griffin - 1 (0.03%)

Martha Griffiths - 1 (0.03%)

Charles Hamilton - 1 (0.03%)

Patricia Harris - 1 (0.03%)

Jim Hunt - 1 (0.03%)

Daniel Inouye - 1 (0.03%)

Henry M. Jackson - 1 (0.03%)

Robery Kariss - 1 (0.03%)

Allard K. Lowenstein - 1 (0.03%)

Mao Zedong - 1 (0.03%)

Eleanor McGovern - 1 (0.03%)

Martha Mitchell - 1 (0.03%)

Ralph Nader - 1 (0.03%)

George Norcross - 1 (0.03%)

Jerry Rubin - 1 (0.03%)

Fred Seaman - 1 (0.03%)

Joe Smith - 1 (0.03%)

Benjamin Spock - 1 (0.03%)

Patrick Tavolacci - 1 (0.03%)

George Wallace - 1 (0.03%)1976 Democratic presidential primaries

Jimmy Carter - 6,235,609 (39.27%)

Jerry Brown - 2,449,374 (15.43%)

George Wallace - 1,955,388 (12.31%)

Mo Udall - 1,611,754 (10.15%)

Henry M. Jackson - 1,134,375 (7.14%)

Frank Church - 830,818 (5.23%)

Robert Byrd - 340,309 (2.14%)

Sargent Shriver - 304,399 (1.92%)

Unpledged - 283,437 (1.79%)

Ellen McCormack - 238,027 (1.50%)

Fred R. Harris - 234,568 (1.48%)

Milton Shapp - 88,254 (0.56%)

Birch Bayh - 86,438 (0.54%)

Hubert Humphrey - 61,992 (0.39%)

Ted Kennedy - 19,805 (0.13%)

Lloyd Bentsen - 4,046 (0.03%)

Terry Sanford - 404 (0.00%)1976 Democratic National Convention (Presidential tally)

Jimmy Carter - 2,239 (74.48%)

Mo Udall - 330 (10.98%)

Jerry Brown - 301 (10.01%)

George Wallace - 57 (1.90%)

Ellen McCormack - 22 (0.73%)

Frank Church - 19 (0.63%)

Hubert Humphrey - 10 (0.33%)

Henry M. Jackson - 10 (0.33%)

Fred R. Harris - 9 (0.30%)

Milton Shapp - 2 (0.07%)

Robert Byrd, Cesar Chavez, Leon Jaworski, Barbara Jordan, Ted Kennedy, Jennings Randolph, Fred Stover - each 1 vote (0.03%)United States presidential election, 1976

Jimmy Carter/Walter Mondale (D) - 40,831,881 (50.1%) and 297 electoral votes (23 states and D.C. carried)

Gerald Ford/Bob Dole (R) - 39,148,634 (48.0%) and 240 electoral votes (27 states carried)

Ronald Reagan/Bob Dole (R) - 1 electoral vote (faithless elector)

Eugene McCarthy (Independent) - 740,460 (0.9%)

Roger MacBride/David Bergland (Libertarian) - 172,553 (0.2%)

Lester Maddox/William Dyke (American Independent) - 170,274 (0.2%)

Thomas J. Anderson/Rufus Shackelford (American) - 158,271 (0.2%)

Peter Camejo/Willie Mae Reid (Socialist Workers) - 90,986 (0.1%)1980 Democratic presidential primaries

Jimmy Carter (inc.) - 10,043,016 (51.13%)

Ted Kennedy - 7,381,693 (37.58%)

Unpledged - 1,288,423 (6.56%)

Jerry Brown - 575,296 (2.93%)

Lyndon LaRouche - 177,784 (0.91%)

Cliff Finch - 48,032 (0.25%)1980 Democratic National Convention (Presidential tally)

Jimmy Carter (inc.) - 2,123 (64.04%)

Ted Kennedy - 1,151 (34.72%)

William Proxmire - 10 (0.30%)

Koryne Kaneski Horbal - 5 (0.15%)

Scott M. Matheson, Sr. - 5 (0.15%)

Ron Dellums - 3 (0.09%)

Robert Byrd - 2 (0.06%)

John Culver - 2 (0.06%)

Kent Hance - 2 (0.06%)

Jennings Randolph - 2 (0.06%)

Warren Spannaus - 2 (0.06%)

Alice Tripp - 2 (0.06%)

Jerry Brown - 1 (0.03%)

Dale Bumpers - 1 (0.03%)

Hugh L. Carey - 1 (0.03%)

Walter Mondale - 1 (0.03%)

Edmund Muskie - 1 (0.03%)

Thomas J. Steed - 1 (0.03%)New York Liberal Party presidential convention, 1980

John B. Anderson - 85,590 (87.67%)

Jimmy Carter - 9,896 (10.14%)

Abstaining - 2,142 (2.19%)United States presidential election, 1980

Ronald Reagan/George H. W. Bush (R) - 43,903,230 (50.7%) and 489 electoral votes (44 states carried)

Jimmy Carter/Walter Mondale (D) (inc.) - 35,480,115 (41.0%) and 49 electoral votes (6 states and D.C. carried)

John B. Anderson/Patrick Joseph Lucey (Independent) - 5,719,850 (6.6%)

Ed Clark/David H. Koch (Libertarian) - 921,128 (1.1%)

Barry Commoner/LaDonna Harris (Citizens) - 233,052 (0.3%)

Others - 252,303 (0.3%)

Electoral history of Ted Kennedy

Electoral history of Ted Kennedy, United States Senator from Massachusetts (1962–2009) and, at the time of his death, the second most senior member of the Senate.

Endicott Peabody

Endicott Peabody (February 15, 1920 – December 2, 1997) was an American politician from Massachusetts. A Democrat, he served a single two-year term as the 62nd Governor of Massachusetts, from 1963 to 1965.

Earlier in life, Peabody, then nicknamed "Chub", played college football at Harvard University, where he earned honors as an All-American lineman for the Crimson.

Frances Farenthold

Frances Tarlton "Sissy" Farenthold (born October 2, 1926) is a former U.S. politician, attorney, activist, and educator. She is best known for her two campaigns for the office of Governor of Texas and for being placed in nomination for the office of Vice President of the United States during the 1972 Democratic National Convention.

Gloria Decker

Gloria A. Decker (born 1933) is a New Jersey Democratic Party politician who served as Mayor of Phillipsburg and as executive director of the New Jersey State Lottery Commission. She switched to the Republican Party in 1994.

She attended Churchman's Business College. Decker became active in politics in 1953 when Democrat Robert B. Meyner, a Phillipsburg resident, ran successfully for governor. She served as vice chair of the Warren County Young Democrats and served on the Warren County Democratic Committee. She was an alternate delegate to the 1968 Democratic National Convention and a delegate to the 1972 Democratic National Convention. In the 1960s, she was elected to the Phillipsburg Board of Education.Decker was elected Warren County Democratic Chairman in a 1972 special election following the resignation of Arthur W. Paini. Decker was a Commissioner of the Warren County Board of Taxation from 1972 to 1974. She was among the early supporters of Brendan Byrne for the Democratic nomination for governor in 1973. Byrne appointed her to serve as the executive director of the New Jersey Lottery Commission in 1977; she held that post until the end of the Byrne administration in 1982.

She was the vice president and general manager of Games Production, Inc. from 1982 to 1984, and a lottery consultant for G Tech Corp. from 1984 to 1986.Decker was the deputy mayor of Phillipsburg from 1989 to 1991, and the mayor of Phillipsburg from 1991 to 1995. Elected as a Democrat, she switched parties in 1994 and lost re-election in 1995 running as a Republican. Governor Christine Todd Whitman appointed her to serve as executive director of the New Jersey Real Estate Commission in 1996; she held that post until 2002. She has served as a commissioner of the Warren County Board of Elections since 2001.

Jim Foster (activist)

James M. Foster (November 19, 1934 – October 31, 1990) was an American LGBT rights and Democratic activist. Foster became active in the early gay rights movement when he moved to San Francisco following his undesirable discharge from the United States Army in 1959 for being homosexual. Foster co-founded the Society for Individual Rights (SIR), an early homophile organization, in 1964. Dianne Feinstein credits SIR and the gay vote with generating her margin of victory in her election to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in 1969.In 1971, Foster, along with Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon, transformed the SIR Political Action Committee into the Alice B. Toklas Memorial Democratic Club. The Toklas club was the first gay Democratic club in country. Also in 1971, Foster was instrumental in convincing Richard Hongisto to run for sheriff and in delivering gay votes to his winning campaign. It became a truism of San Francisco politics that, as long-time activist José Sarria had put it, "nobody ran for anything in San Francisco without knocking on the door of the gay community."

In 1972, after the Toklas club delivered one-third of the signatures needed to secure George McGovern the first position on the California Democratic primary ballot, Foster was added to the list of speakers at the 1972 Democratic National Convention. Originally, Foster had been given a prime time speaking slot, but George McGovern's campaign manager, future U.S. Senator and presidential candidate Gary Hart, changed it to a 3:00 a.m. speaking slot. The campaign had decided they needed to tone down their radical image. He and fellow delegate Madeline Davis were the first openly LGBT people ever to address a national party convention. He called upon the Democratic Party to add a gay rights plank to the party platform, saying:We do not come to you begging your understanding or pleading your tolerance. We come to you affirming our pride in our lifestyle, affirming the validity of our right to seek and to maintain meaningful emotional relationships and affirming our right to participate in the life of this country on an equal basis with every citizen. Foster and other gay rights activists got a minority report to the floor, but the plank was defeated.Foster was approached by fledgling gay politician Harvey Milk in 1973. Milk sought Foster's endorsement for his first campaign for Supervisor. Foster, who through the Toklas club had staked out a position that it was best for the gay community to work with liberal establishment politicians than try to elect gay candidates, refused to support Milk's campaign. This led to an enmity between the men which lasted until Milk's assassination in 1978. It has been suggested that this enmity, which extended to the Toklas club and the Milk-founded San Francisco Gay Democratic Club, may have hampered the LGBT community's early efforts to address the spread of HIV in San Francisco.Foster was a founding member of the San Francisco Health Commission in 1985. In 1989 he was hired by pharmaceutical company Lymphomed as a consultant.

Foster died of an AIDS-related illness at his San Francisco home on October 31, 1990.

John Swainson

John Burley Swainson (July 31, 1925 – May 13, 1994) was a Canadian-American politician and jurist from the U.S. state of Michigan and the 42nd Governor of Michigan.

Swainson was born in Windsor, Ontario, Canada. He moved to Port Huron, Michigan, at the age of two, with his family.

His father, John A. C. Swainson, of Port Huron, was a Democratic presidential elector for Michigan in 1964 and an alternate Michigan delegate to the 1972 Democratic National Convention.He was captain of his high school football team and an Eagle Scout.Swainson served in the United States Army during World War II with the 95th Infantry Division and lost both legs by amputation following a landmine explosion November 15, 1944, near Metz, Alsace-Lorraine. He was awarded France's Croix de Guerre, the Presidential Unit Citation with two battle stars, and the Purple Heart, all before his twentieth birthday. After months of convalescence and rehabilitation at the Percy Jones Army Hospital in Battle Creek, Swainson learned to walk upright and unassisted.

Swainson received a B.A. from Olivet College, where he also met and married his wife, Alice Nielson. She accompanied him to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he received a law degree in 1951. While there, he was elected student president of the law school.

Miami Beach Resort and Spa

The Miami Beach Resort and Spa is a historic resort hotel opened in 1963 as the Doral Hotel On-The-Ocean on the famous Millionaire's Row at 4833 Collins Avenue in Miami Beach, Florida.

Michael Gamble

Michael P. Gamble (May 4, 1907 – November 4, 1992) was an Ohio Democratic Party politician and a member of the Ohio General Assembly. Formerly a Canton City Councilman, Gamble was elected to the Ohio House of Representatives in 1966. A member of the 107th Ohio General Assembly, Gamble was a member of the first state legislature following redistricting from the 1965 Voting Rights Act. In 1968, Gamble lost reelection to Ross Heintzelman, cutting his House tenure to a single term.

Returning to Canton, he was elected as city treasurer, and served for a number of years. He also served as an alternative delegate for the 1972 Democratic National Convention. Gamble died in 1992, at the age of 85.

Reubin Askew

Reubin O'Donovan Askew (September 11, 1928 – March 13, 2014) was an American politician, who served as the 37th Governor of the U.S. state of Florida from 1971 to 1979. He led on tax reform, civil rights, and financial transparency for public officials, maintaining an outstanding reputation for personal integrity.Born in Muskogee, Oklahoma, Askew established a legal practice in Pensacola, Florida after graduating from the University of Florida Levin College of Law. He served as a military intelligence officer in the United States Air Force during the Korean War. Askew won election to the Florida House of Representatives in 1958 and to the Florida Senate in 1962. He defeated incumbent Republican Governor Claude R. Kirk Jr. in the 1970 gubernatorial election and won re-election in 1974.

As governor, Askew presided over the imposition of the state's first corporate tax. He was one of the first of the "New South" governors and supported school desegregation. Askew is widely thought to have been one of the state's best governors; in 2014 the Tampa Bay Times ranked him the second best governor in Florida history and the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University rated him one of the country's top ten governors of the 20th century. Askew was the keynote speaker at the 1972 Democratic National Convention and declined an offer to serve as George McGovern's running mate in the 1972 presidential election.

Askew served as the United States Trade Representative from 1979 to 1981. He sought the Democratic nomination in the 1984 presidential election but withdrew early in the race. After leaving public office, Askew taught at the public universities of Florida. After having a stroke, he died on March 13, 2014, at age 85.

Robert D. Fulton

Robert David Fulton (born May 13, 1929) is an American politician who briefly served as the 37th Governor of Iowa during the first 16 days of 1969. He also served as the Lieutenant Governor of Iowa from 1965 to 1969. He is notable for being both Iowa's 37th Governor and Lieutenant Governor.

TVTV (video collective)

TVTV (short for Top Value Television) was a San Francisco-based video collective founded in 1972 by Allen Rucker, Michael Shamberg, Tom Weinberg, Hudson Marquez, and Megan Williams. Shamberg was author of the 1971 "do-it-yourself" video production manual Guerrilla Television. Over the years, more than thirty "guerrilla video" makers were participants in TVTV productions. They included members of the Ant Farm (Chip Lord, Doug Michels, Hudson Marquez, and Curtis Schreier) and the Videofreex (Skip Blumberg, Nancy Cain, Chuck Kennedy, and Parry Teasdale). TVTV pioneered the use of independent video based on wanting to change society and have a good time inventing new and then-revolutionary media, ½" Sony Portapak video equipment, and later embracing the ¾" video format.

The group made a series of documentaries including:

Four More Years (1972), covering the 1972 Republican National Convention

The World's Largest TV Studio (1972), covering the 1972 Democratic National Convention

Adland (1974), an examination of American commercial culture

Lord of the Universe (1974), an award-winning documentary on the activities of the GuruMaharaj Ji and his followers

TVTV Looks at the Oscars (1976) concept by Rich Rosen

TVTV: Super Bowl (1976) concept by Rich Rosen

Gerald Ford's America (1975)

The TVTV Show (1976), TVTV's final television special, co-produced with NBC television, directed by Alan Myerson

The Bob Dylan Hard Rain Special (1976), another NBC co-production

Supervision (1976), a multipart PBS series about the birth of television and its cultural impact

The Good Times are Killing me (1975) a portrait of Cajun culture. Focusing on the Cajuns'strong cultural identity as well as the life of Cajun Musician Nathan AbshireOther participants in TVTV included designer Elan Soltes, producer David Axelrod, actor-comedian Bill Murray and his brother Brian Doyle-Murray, cinematographer Paul Goldsmith, actor and director Harold Ramis and producer Wendy Appel (aka Wendy Apple).

In 1976 -1977, experimental filmmaker Wheeler Winston Dixon briefly joined the collective, editing most of the Supervision series, as well as portions of the Hard Rain Special and the entirety of The TVTV Show.

TVTV alumni went on to careers of their own with the disbanding of the group in 1979, after a move to Los Angeles that brought many in the group more into the orbit of conventional filmmaking. Bill Murray went on to become a film and TV star; Michael Shamberg a film producer, most notably with his company Jersey Films, in collaboration with Stacey Sher and Danny DeVito; Allen Rucker a writer and author; Wheeler Winston Dixon an author and university professor; Harold Ramis a film director, writer and actor; Skip Blumberg a videographer and producer; Tom Weinberg a producer based in his hometown, Chicago; and Elan Soltes a video graphic designer in Hollywood.

The Computer Company

The Computer Company (TCC) was an early computer time-sharing service based in Richmond, Virginia.

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