1968 Republican National Convention

The 1968 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held at the Miami Beach Convention Center in Miami Beach, Dade County, Florida, from August 5 to August 8, 1968, to select the party's nominee in the general election. It nominated former Vice President Richard M. Nixon for President and Maryland Governor Spiro T. Agnew for Vice President. It was the fourth time Nixon had been nominated on the Republican ticket as either its vice-presidential (1952 and 1956) or presidential candidate (1960).

1968 Republican National Convention
1968 presidential election
Nixon and Agnew
Date(s)August 5–8, 1968
CityMiami Beach, Florida
VenueMiami Beach Convention Center
Keynote speakerDaniel J. Evans
Presidential nomineeRichard M. Nixon of California
Vice Presidential nomineeSpiro T. Agnew of Maryland
Total delegates1,333
Votes needed for nomination667 (majority)
Results (President)Nixon (NY/CA): 1,238 (92.87%)
Rockefeller (NY): 93 (6.98%)
Reagan: (CA): 2 (0.15%)
Results (Vice President)Agnew (MD): 1,119 (83.95%)
Romney (MI): 186 (13.95%)
Lindsay (NY): 10 (0.75%)
Others: 2 (0.15%)
Not Voting: 16 (1.20%)

Political context

Miami Beach FL Convention Center01
The Miami Beach Convention Center was the site of the 1968 Republican National Convention

Richard M. Nixon, former Vice President of the United States under 34th President Dwight D. Eisenhower, emerged as the frontrunner again for the 1968 Republican presidential nomination. Nixon had been the Republican Party nominee in the 1960 presidential election, and lost to Democratic Party candidate John F. Kennedy.

The so-called "New Nixon" in the 1968 presidential election devised a "Southern strategy," taking advantage of the region's opposition to racial integration and other progressive/liberal policies of the national Democratic Party and the administration of incumbent 36th President Lyndon B. Johnson.

Nixon decided not to re-select his 1960 running mate Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., and House Minority Leader Gerald R. Ford of Michigan proposed New York City Mayor John V. Lindsay for Vice President. Nixon turned instead to another perceived moderate, Maryland Governor Spiro T. Agnew. Agnew, former Baltimore County Executive in the Baltimore City suburbs (1963–1967), and since Governor of Maryland, had come to Republican leaders and Nixon's attention when he summoned several Black civic, religious, and political leaders in Baltimore to the local State Office Building complex, following the disastrous April 1968 urban riots which enveloped Black sections of East and West Baltimore in the wake of the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. in Memphis, Tennessee. Agnew complained of the Black leaders' lack of support after a number of what he perceived to be positive projects, programs and support by his Republican administration for the minority communities in the city. Agnew's biting comments caused many in the audience to walk out.

Nixon was nominated on the first ballot with 692 votes to 277 votes for Nelson Rockefeller, 182 votes for California Governor Ronald Reagan and the rest scattered. In his acceptance speech he deplored the state of the union:

When the strongest nation in the world can be tied down for four years in Vietnam with no end in sight, when the richest nation in the world can't manage its own economy, when the nation with the greatest tradition of the rule of law is plagued by unprecedented racial violence, when the President of the United States cannot travel abroad or to any major city at home, then it's time for new leadership for the United States of America.[1]

Nixon also said that he had "a good teacher", referring to Eisenhower, and made the delegates happy with the statement "Let's win this one for Ike!" Eisenhower was not present during Nixon's speech nor during any part of the convention. Due to failing health, he was under doctor's orders not to travel. He died the following March.


The following were placed into nomination:

Nominated for President

Frank Carlson
of Kansas
Hiram Fong
Hiram Fong
of Hawaii

Nominated for Vice President

The Republican Convention Tally results

The Republican Convention Tally[2]
President (before switches) (after switches) Vice President Vice-Presidential votes
Richard M. Nixon 692 1238 Spiro T. Agnew 1119
Nelson Rockefeller 277 93 George Romney 186
Ronald Reagan 182 2 John V. Lindsay 10
Ohio Governor James A. Rhodes 55 Massachusetts Senator Edward Brooke 1
Michigan Governor George Romney 50 James A. Rhodes 1
New Jersey Senator Clifford Case 22 Not Voting 16
Kansas Senator Frank Carlson 20
Arkansas Governor Winthrop Rockefeller 18
Hawaii Senator Hiram Fong 14
Harold Stassen 2
New York City Mayor John V. Lindsay 1

Results by state

Supporters of Richard Nixon at the 1968 Republican National Convention Miami Beach, Florida
Nixon supporters at the convention

The balloting by state was as follows:[3][4][5]

Alabama 14 12
Alaska 11 1
Arizona 16
Arkansas 18
California 86
Colorado 14 3 1
Connecticut 4 12
Delaware 9 3
Florida 32 1 1
Georgia 21 2 7
Hawaii 14
Idaho 9 5
Illinois 50 5 3
Indiana 26
Iowa 13 8 3
Kansas 20
Kentucky 22 2
Louisiana 19 7
Maine 7 7
Maryland 18 8
Massachusetts 34
Michigan 4 44
Minnesota 9 15 1 1
Mississippi 20
Missouri 16 5 3
Montana 11 3
Nebraska 16
Nevada 9 3
New Hampshire 8
New Jersey 18 22
New Mexico 8 1 5
New York 4 88
North Carolina 9 1 16
North Dakota 5 2 1
Ohio 2 55 1
Oklahoma 14 1 7
Oregon 18
Pennsylvania 22 41 1
Rhode Island 14
South Carolina 22
South Dakota 14
Tennessee 28
Texas 41 15
Utah 2 6
Vermont 9 3
Virginia 22 2
Washington 15 3 6
West Virginia 11 3
Wisconsin 30
Wyoming 12
District of Columbia 6 3
Puerto Rico 5
U.S. Virgin Islands 2 1
Total 692 277 182 55 50 22 20 18 14 2 1

See also


  1. ^ "Address Accepting the Presidential Nomination at the Republican National Convention in Miami Beach, Florida". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved 16 August 2018.
  2. ^ Troy, Schlesinger & Israel 2012, pp. 1318-1319.
  3. ^ Lebanon Daily News. Lebanon, PA. August 8, 1968 https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/5415080/. Retrieved January 9, 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ The News-Herald. Franklin, PA. August 8, 1968 https://www.newspapers.com/newspage/96895628/. Retrieved January 7, 2018. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. ^ "1968 Republican Convention Roll Call". CBS Radio News. August 1968.


External links

Preceded by
Daly City, California
Republican National Conventions Succeeded by
Miami Beach, Florida
1968 Republican Party presidential primaries

The 1968 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1968 U.S. presidential election. Former Vice President Richard Nixon was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1968 Republican National Convention held from August 5 to August 8, 1968, in Miami Beach, Florida.

1968 Republican Party vice presidential candidate selection

This article lists those who were potential candidates for the Republican nomination for Vice President of the United States in the 1968 election. After winning the Republican presidential nomination at the 1968 Republican National Convention, former Vice President Richard Nixon convened a series of meetings with close advisers and party leaders such as Strom Thurmond in order to choose his running mate. Nixon ultimately asked the convention to nominate Maryland Governor Spiro Agnew as his running mate. By a large margin, Agnew won the vice presidential nomination on the first ballot over Michigan Governor George W. Romney, who was supported by a faction of liberal Republicans. Nixon chose Agnew because he wanted a centrist who was broadly acceptable to the party, had experience with domestic issues, and appealed to Southern voters (to counter the third party candidacy of former Alabama Governor George Wallace). The Nixon-Agnew ticket defeated the Humphrey-Muskie ticket, and also won re-election in 1972, defeating the McGovern-Shriver ticket. However, Agnew was forced to resign as Vice President in 1973 due to a controversy regarding his personal taxes.

Despite being his running mate in 1960, Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. was not considered as a potential running mate for Nixon in 1968.

1968 United States presidential election

The 1968 United States presidential election was the 46th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 5, 1968. The Republican nominee, former Vice President Richard Nixon, defeated the Democratic nominee, incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Analysts have argued the election of 1968 was a major realigning election as it permanently disrupted the New Deal Coalition that had dominated presidential politics for 36 years.

Incumbent Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson had been the early front-runner for his party's nomination, but he announced his withdrawal from the race after anti–Vietnam War candidate Eugene McCarthy finished second in the New Hampshire primary. McCarthy, former Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, and Vice President Humphrey emerged as the three major candidates in the Democratic primaries until Kennedy was assassinated in June 1968. Humphrey won the presidential nomination at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, which saw numerous anti-war protests. Nixon entered the 1968 Republican primaries as the front-runner, and he defeated Nelson Rockefeller, Ronald Reagan, and other candidates at the 1968 Republican National Convention to win his party's nomination. Governor George Wallace of Alabama ran on the American Independent Party ticket, campaigning in favor of racial segregation.

The election year was tumultuous; it was marked by the assassination of Civil Rights Movement leader Martin Luther King Jr., subsequent King assassination riots across the nation, the assassination of Kennedy, and widespread opposition to the Vietnam War across university campuses. Nixon ran on a campaign that promised to restore law and order to the nation's cities and provide new leadership in the Vietnam War. A year later, he would popularize the term "silent majority" to describe those he viewed as being his target voters. He also pursued a "Southern strategy" designed to win conservative Southern white voters who had traditionally supported the Democratic Party. Humphrey promised to continue Johnson's War on Poverty and to support the Civil Rights Movement. Humphrey trailed badly in polls taken in late August but narrowed Nixon's lead after Wallace's candidacy collapsed and Johnson suspended bombing in the Vietnam War.

Nixon won a plurality of the popular vote by a narrow margin, but won by a large margin in the Electoral College, carrying most states outside of the Northeast. Wallace won five states in the Deep South and ran well in some ethnic enclave industrial districts in the North; he is the most recent third party candidate to win a state. This was the first presidential election after the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which had led to mass enfranchisement of racial minorities throughout the country, especially in the South. Nixon's victory marked the start of a period of Republican dominance in presidential elections, as Republicans won seven of the next ten elections.

1970 United States Senate election in Massachusetts

The 1970 United States Senate election in Massachusetts was held on November 3, 1970. The incumbent Democratic Senator Ted Kennedy defeated his challengers. This was Kennedy's first election run since the 1969 Chappaquiddick incident.

Kennedy won 62.2% of the vote, down from the 74.3% that he won in the previous election in 1964, indicating that Chappaquiddick did affect his popularity.

This was the last election in which Ted Kennedy lost any Massachusetts county. Spaulding carried Barnstable, Dukes, Franklin, and Nantucket Counties.

Albert David Baumhart Jr.

Albert David Baumhart Jr. (June 15, 1908 – January 23, 2001) was a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Ohio.

Baumhart was born in Vermilion, Ohio. He attended Ohio University in Athens, Ohio, receiving his A.B. and M.A. in 1931. He was a publishing house representative at Vermilion, Ohio, from 1932 to 1939. He was a member of the Ohio State Senate from 1937 to 1940.

Baumhart was elected as a Republican to the Seventy-seventh Congress. He resigned to accept a commission in the United States Navy on September 2, 1942. He was discharged as a lieutenant commander on January 17, 1946. He was a member of the public relations staff of Owens-Corning Fiberglass Corp., in Toledo, Ohio, from 1946 to 1953. He served as director of the Republican National Committee in 1953 and 1954.

Baumhart was again elected as a Republican to the Eighty-fourth, Eighty-fifth, and Eighty-sixth Congresses. He was not a candidate for renomination in 1960. He was a delegate to 1968 Republican National Convention. He worked as public relations consultant and died on January 23, 2001, in Lorain, Ohio. He is interred at Maple Grove Cemetery in Vermilion, Ohio.

Clark MacGregor

Clark MacGregor (July 12, 1922 – February 10, 2003) was a Republican U.S. Representative from Minnesota's 3rd Congressional District.

MacGregor was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and graduated cum laude from Dartmouth College in 1944 and the University of Minnesota Law School in 1946. He was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1960, defeating six-term Democratic incumbent Roy Wier, and served in the 87th, 88th, 89th, 90th, and 91st congresses, January 3, 1961 – January 3, 1971.

In 1963, MacGregor appeared in a satirical revue by Dudley Riggs' Brave New Workshop.

He was a delegate to the 1964 and 1968 Republican National Convention from Minnesota. He was an unsuccessful candidate for U.S. Senator from Minnesota in 1970, running against former Democratic Vice President Hubert Humphrey. MacGregor was Assistant to Richard Nixon for congressional relations in 1970, Counsel to the President on congressional relations (1971–1972), Chairman of the Committee to Re-elect the President (July to November 1972) following John Mitchell's resignation from the position in the Watergate political scandal.

After 1973, he left politics. He continued to live in Washington, D.C., worked for United Technologies Corporation, and was on the boards of the National Symphony Orchestra and the Wolf Trap Foundation.

Daniel J. Evans

Daniel Jackson Evans (born October 16, 1925) is an civil engineer and former politician who served three terms as the 16th Governor of the State of Washington from 1965 to 1977, and as United States Senator represented Washington State from 1983 to 1989.Evans was seriously considered for the Republican vice presidential nomination in 1968 and 1976. At the 1968 Republican National Convention (where he gave the keynote address) Evans refused to endorse Richard Nixon for the presidential nomination, remaining a supporter of the unsuccessful candidacy of Nelson Rockefeller.

David E. McGiffert

David E. McGiffert (June 27, 1926 – October 12, 2005) was a United States lawyer and Pentagon official who dealt with domestic security during the social upheavals of the late 1960s.

Edward H. Jenison

Edward Halsey Jenison (July 27, 1907 – June 24, 1996) was a U.S. Representative for three terms, Illinois State Representative for one term, and newspaper publisher of the Daily Beacon-News of Paris, Illinois for 65 years.Born in Fond du Lac, Wisconsin, Jenison attended the public schools and the University of Wisconsin–Madison. He engaged in newspaper work, from 1925 to 1937, and as a publisher, since 1938, of the Paris, Illinois Daily Beacon-News. He served as lieutenant commander in the United States Navy, attached to the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Air, with service in the Pacific and Atlantic Forces, from April 1943 to September 1946.Jenison was elected as a Republican to the Eightieth, Eighty-first, and Eighty-second Congresses (January 3, 1947 – January 3, 1953). He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1952 to the Eighty-third Congress, in 1954 to the Eighty-fourth Congress, and in 1962 to the Eighty-eighth Congress. He resumed the publishing business, and was named "master editor" by the Southern Illinois Editorial Association in 1986. He served as delegate to the 1956 Republican National Convention and 1968 Republican National Convention. He served as director, Department of Finance, State of Illinois, from June 15, 1960, to January 20, 1961. He served as a member of the Illinois House of Representatives for one term from 1965 to 1966. Jenison also served in the Illinois House of Representatives from November 7, 1973 to the end of his term in 1974. He was appointed to replace William D. Cox who was convicted in the United States District Court for mail fraud and filing a false income tax return. He served as a delegate, Illinois Sixth Constitutional Convention from 1969 to 1970. He died on June 24, 1996; his funeral service was in Paris, Illinois.

Edwin B. Forsythe

Edwin Bell Forsythe (January 17, 1916 – March 29, 1984) was an American Republican Party politician who represented New Jersey in the United States House of Representatives from 1970 until his death from lung cancer in Moorestown Township, New Jersey in 1984.

Electoral history of Ronald Reagan

This is the electoral history of Ronald Reagan. Reagan, a Republican, served as the 40th President of the United States (1981–89) and earlier as the 33rd Governor of California (1967–75). At 69 years, 349 days of age at the time of his first inauguration, Reagan was the oldest person to assume the presidency in the nation's history, a distinction now held by Donald Trump, who was 70 years, 220 days old at the time of his 2017 inauguration. Even so, Reagan remains the oldest person ever elected president, in 1984 at 73.

Having been elected twice to the presidency, Reagan reshaped the Republican party, led the modern conservative movement, and altered the political dynamic of the United States. His 1980 presidential campaign stressed some of his fundamental principles: lower taxes to stimulate the economy, less government interference in people's lives, states' rights, and a strong national defense.During his presidency, Reagan pursued policies that reflected his personal belief in individual freedom, brought changes domestically, both to the U.S. economy and expanded military, and contributed to the end of the Cold War. Termed the Reagan Revolution, his presidency would reinvigorate American morale, reinvigorate the American economy and reduce American reliance upon government.

George Cretekos

George N. Cretekos is an American politician from the state of Florida. A member of the Republican Party, Cretekos serves as the mayor of Clearwater, Florida. Prior to his election as mayor, he served as a congressional aide to Bill Young for 36 years, and served on the Clearwater City Council.

Gordon H. Scherer

Gordon Harry Scherer (26 December 1906, Cincinnati, Ohio – 13 August 1988, Cincinnati, Ohio) was an American politician of the Republican party who served as a U.S. representative from Ohio from 1953 to 1963. Scherer earned a law degree in 1929 from the Salmon P. Chase College of Law and practiced law in Cincinnati, Ohio. From 1933 to 1941, he worked for the Hamilton County, Ohio, prosecutor. From 1943 to 1944, he served as Cincinnati's safety director. From 1945 to 1946, Scherer served on the city's planning commission. Scherer was then elected to the Cincinnati city council, on which he served from 1945 to 1949.

In 1952, Scherer stood successfully for election to the U.S. House of Representatives and began serving in 1953 (83rd Congress). He was re-elected in 1954, 1956, 1958, and 1960. He declined to run for election again in 1962, returning to his private law practice. Following his time in Congress, Scherer served four term in the Ohio House of Representatives, from 1965 to 1972. Scherer was a member of the U.S. House of Representative's Committee on Un-American Activities, (HUAC).

Scherer served as a delegate from Ohio to the 1964 and 1968 Republican National Convention. He was chairman of the Hamilton County Republican Party from 1962 to 1968. From 1970 to 1973, Scherer was a member of the United States National Commission for UNESCO. He was on the executive board of that commission from 1974 to 1975. In 1972, Scherer was appointed the U.S. representative to the United Nations, in which capacity he served from 1972 to 1973. He died in 1988.

Harold C. Hollenbeck

Harold Capistran Hollenbeck (born December 29, 1938) is an American Republican Party politician who represented New Jersey's 9th congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 1977 to 1983.

Helen Cole

Helen TeAta Gale Cole (July 13, 1922 – April 7, 2004) was an American politician who served in the Oklahoma House of Representatives from 1979 to 1984, when she was first elected to the Oklahoma Senate. Cole returned to the state senate in 1991 and was succeeded by Kathleen Wilcoxson in 1997.

Helen TeAta Gale was born in Tishomingo, Oklahoma, on July 13, 1922, to William Oakley Gale and Avis Minnette Fifield (Thompson). She was raised in a single-parent household and graduated from Ardmore High School in 1939. Gale's aunt was Te Ata Fisher. In 1946, Gale married John Dwayne Cole Sr. The couple had two children, John Jr. and Tom.Helen Cole was active in several local civic and political organizations, and contributed to the successful gubernatorial campaigns of Henry Bellmon and Dewey Bartlett. Cole was named a delegate to the 1968 Republican National Convention, and Bartlett appointed her to the Oklahoma Personnel Board. Cole then ran for a seat on the Oklahoma House of Representatives. From 1979 to 1984, she represented district 54. Cole contested the 45th district Oklahoma Senate seat in 1984, and won one term. Cole retired, only to return to her political career as mayor of Moore, Oklahoma, in 1990. The next year, she succeeded her son Tom as state senator from the 45th district. In 1992, Cole was named a delegate to the Republican National Convention for a second time. Cole stepped down from the state senate in 1997, and was succeeded by Kathleen Wilcoxson. Cole was appointed a delegate to the Republican National Convention for a third time in 2000. In retirement, she became a benefactor of the University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma. Cole died in Moore, Oklahoma, on April 7, 2004, aged 81.

John W. Wydler

John Waldemar Wydler (June 9, 1924 – August 4, 1987) was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from New York.

Wydler was born in Brooklyn. He served in the United States Army Air Corps from 1942 until 1945. He graduated from Brown University in 1947 and Harvard University Law School in 1950. He served in the United States attorney's office for the Eastern District of New York from 1953 until 1959. He was elected to Congress in 1962 and served from January 3, 1963 until January 3, 1981. He was a delegate to the 1968 Republican National Convention.On December 24, 1987, the U.S. Post Office at Garden City, New York was named in his honor. In addition, the John W. Wydler Government Documents Depository, Axinn Library, at Hofstra University, was also dedicated to him. Wydler is buried in the Cemetery of the Holy Rood in Westbury, New York.

John Y. McCollister

John Yetter McCollister (June 10, 1921 – November 1, 2013) was a Nebraska Republican politician.

He was born to John M. McCollister and Ruth Yetter McCollister in Iowa City, Iowa. In 1939 he graduated from Washington High School in Sioux Falls, South Dakota and in 1943 he graduated from the University of Iowa in Iowa City. He married Nanette Stokes on August 22, 1943.

Moses M. Weinstein

Moses M. Weinstein (July 8, 1912 – November 30, 2007 Pembroke Pines, Broward County, Florida) was an American lawyer and politician.

Spiro Agnew

Spiro Theodore Agnew (; November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the 39th vice president of the United States from 1969 until his resignation in 1973. He is the second and most recent vice president to resign the position, the other being John C. Calhoun in 1832. Unlike Calhoun, Agnew resigned as a result of a scandal.

Agnew was born in Baltimore to an American-born mother and a Greek immigrant father. He attended Johns Hopkins University, and graduated from the University of Baltimore School of Law. He worked as an aide to U.S. Representative James Devereux before he was appointed to the Baltimore County Board of Zoning Appeals in 1957. In 1962, he was elected Baltimore County Executive. In 1966, Agnew was elected Governor of Maryland, defeating his Democratic opponent George P. Mahoney and independent candidate Hyman A. Pressman.

At the 1968 Republican National Convention, Richard Nixon asked Agnew to place his name in nomination, and named him as running mate. Agnew's centrist reputation interested Nixon; the law and order stance he had taken in the wake of civil unrest that year appealed to aides such as Pat Buchanan. Agnew made a number of gaffes during the campaign, but his rhetoric pleased many Republicans, and he may have made the difference in several key states. Nixon and Agnew defeated the Democratic ticket of incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey and his running mate, Senator Edmund Muskie. As vice president, Agnew was often called upon to attack the administration's enemies. In the years of his vice presidency, Agnew moved to the right, appealing to conservatives who were suspicious of moderate stances taken by Nixon. In the presidential election of 1972, Nixon and Agnew were re-elected for a second term, defeating Senator George McGovern and his running mate Sargent Shriver.

In 1973, Agnew was investigated by the United States Attorney for the District of Maryland on suspicion of criminal conspiracy, bribery, extortion and tax fraud. Agnew took kickbacks from contractors during his time as Baltimore County Executive and Governor of Maryland. The payments had continued into his time as vice president. After months of maintaining his innocence, Agnew pleaded no contest to a single felony charge of tax evasion and resigned from office. Nixon replaced him with House Republican leader Gerald Ford. Agnew spent the remainder of his life quietly, rarely making public appearances. He wrote a novel and a memoir that both defended his actions.

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