1964 Summer Paralympics

The 1964 Summer Paralympics (Japanese: 第二回パラリンピック夏季競技大会 Hepburn: Dai Ni-kai Pararinpikku Kyōgi Taikai), originally known as the 13th International Stoke Mandeville Games and also known as Paralympic Tokyo 1964,[1] were the second Paralympic Games to be held. They were held in Tokyo, Japan, and were the last Summer Paralympics to take place in the same city as the Summer Olympics until the 1988 Summer Paralympics.

The 1964 Games, although still formally an edition of the International Stoke Mandeville Games, were the first to use the term "Paralympic" in association with the event; the term "Paralympic Games" was approved by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) first in 1984, while the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) was formed in 1989.[2][3]

In contrast with the 1960 Games, many events had more than three participants, meaning that athletes were no longer guaranteed a medal upon completing their event.[4]

Tokyo will host the Summer Paralympic Games again in 2020.

II Paralympic Games
Paralympic Tokyo 1964
Host cityTokyo, Japan
Nations21
Athletes375
Events144 in 9 sports
Opening8 November
Closing12 November
Opened by
Yoshiaki Kasai
StadiumOda Field
Rome 1960 Tel Aviv 1968

Sports

Nine sports were competed at the 1964 games. In athletics, a wheelchair racing event in the form of a 60 m dash was added; previously the athletics program had included only field events. Wheelchair racing has since become one of the most prominent Paralympic events.[5]

Medal table

Athletes from 17 of the 19 National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) won at least one medal. By default, the table is ordered by the number of gold medals the athletes from a nation have won. The number of silver medals is taken into consideration next and then the number of bronze medals. If nations are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed alphabetically by IPC country code.

With a few exceptions, each event contributed one medal of each type to the table (although for team events, multiple physical medals were actually awarded). Two bronze medals were awarded in the dartchery, snooker and table tennis events.[6][7][8] Some swimming events did not award silver or bronze medals.[9]


  double-dagger First-time Paralympic appearance

  • To sort this table by nation, total medal count, or any other column, click on the icon next to the column title.

  *   Host nation (Japan)

RankNPCGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 United States504132123
2 Great Britain18232061
3 Italy14151645
4 Australia1211730
5 Rhodesia105217
6 South Africa88319
7 Israel731121
8 Argentina6141636
9 West Germany52512
10 Netherlands46414
11 France42511
12 Austria41712
13 Japan*15410
14 Belgium1023
15 Switzerland0101
16 Malta0022
17 Sweden0011
Totals (17 NPCs)144137137418

Athletes with outstanding performances included Margaret Harriman of Rhodesia who won two gold medals in archery,[10] and Serge Bec of France who won two individuals gold medals, one team gold medal and one team silver medal.[11] Dick Thompson of the United Kingdom won two individual golds, one silver and one bronze in athletics.[12] The United States' Ron Stein won six golds and South Africa's Daniel Erasmus won two golds and two silvers in athletics.[12]

Participating delegations

Nineteen delegations participated in the Tokyo Paralympics.[13]

The 1964 Games marked South Africa's Paralympic Games début. The country had just been banned from taking part in the Olympic Games, due to its policy of apartheid, and was thus absent from the 1964 Summer Olympics. It was not, however, banned from the Paralympics until 1980, and Japan (as host country) did not oppose its participation.[14][15]

Ceremonies

031164 - Tokyo opening ceremony -7 - 1a - adjusted
Members of the Australian Team march at the Opening Ceremony of the Tokyo 1964 Summer Paralympic Games

The Opening ceremony was organized in the Oda Field, and the Closing Ceremony at Yoyogi National Gymnasium.[5] About 5000 spectators were present at both of the ceremonies.[5] Then Crown Prince Akihito and Crown Princess Michiko were present in both of them.[5]

Media coverage

Earlier it was thought that the Games might not get much media coverage, due to the focus on the Olympic Games, but both radio and television media gave high coverage to the Games.[5]

Organizing Committee

Yoshisuke Kasai was the chairman of the Board of directors.[1] The board had 3 vice-chairmen, namely T. Azuma, H. Dazai and I. Miki.[1] The auditor of the organizing committee was M. Tozawa,[1] and the secretary general was K. Ujiie.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e The Thirteenth International Stoke Mandeville Games for The Paralysed, dinf.ne.jp, March 17, 1999
  2. ^ History and Use of the Term Paralympic, International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  3. ^ Rome 1960, International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  4. ^ IPC searchable database
  5. ^ a b c d e "Tokyo 1964". International Paralympic Committee. 2008. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
  6. ^ "Medallists Tokyo 1964 Paralympic Games Dartchery". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  7. ^ "Medallists Tokyo 1964 Paralympic Games Snooker". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  8. ^ "Medallists Tokyo 1964 Paralympic Games Table Tennis". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  9. ^ "Medallists Tokyo 1964 Paralympic Games Swimming". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
  10. ^ "Medallists-Tokyo 1964 Paralympic Games-Archery". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  11. ^ "Medallists-Tokyo 1964 Paralympic Games-Wheelchair Fencing". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  12. ^ a b "Medallists-Tokyo 1964 Paralympic Games-Athletics". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
  13. ^ "Medal Standings - Tokyo 1964 Paralympic Games". International Paralympic Committee. 2008. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
  14. ^ "'The Netherlands against Apartheid' - 1970s", International Institute of Social History
  15. ^ South Africa at the Paralympics, International Paralympic Committee

External links

1964 Summer Paralympics medal table

The 13th International Stoke Mandeville Games, later known as the 1964 Summer Paralympics, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, Japan, from November 3 to 12, 1964, in which paraplegic and tetraplegic athletes competed against one another. The Stoke Mandeville Games were a forerunner to the Paralympics first organized by Sir Ludwig Guttmann in 1948. This medal table ranks the competing National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) by the number of gold medals won by their athletes.

A total of 418 medals were awarded in 9 sports. Athletes from 17 of the 19 competing NPCs won at least one medal with the United States taking both the most gold medals, with 50, and most in total, with 123. The host nation Japan won 10 medals at the Games: 1 gold, 5 silver and 4 bronze. The debuting NPCs included Japan, South Africa, Sweden and Fiji. South Africa, despite being banned from the Olympics, was present at the 1964 Paralympics.Athletes with outstanding performances included Margaret Harriman of Rhodesia who won two gold medals in archery, and Serge Bec of France who won two individuals gold medals, one team gold medal and one team silver medal. Dick Thompson of the United Kingdom won two individual golds, one silver and one bronze in athletics. The United States' Ron Stein won six golds and South Africa's Daniel Erasmus won two golds and two silvers in athletics.

Archery at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

Archery at the 1964 Summer Paralympics consisted of twelve events, eight for men and four for women.

Argentina at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

Argentina was one of the nineteen nations that competed at the Summer Paralympic Games in 1964 held in Tokyo, Japan from November 3 to 12, 1964. The team finished eighth in the medal table with a total of thirty seven medals, six gold, fourteen silver and sixteen bronze. The Argentinian team consisted of twenty four athletes, eighteen male and six female.

Athletics at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

Athletics at the 1964 Summer Paralympics consisted of 42 events, 24 for men and 18 for women.

Austria at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

Austria sent a delegation to compete at the 1964 Summer Paralympics in Tokyo, Japan. Its athletes finished twelfth in the overall medal count.

Belgium at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

Belgium sent a delegation to compete at the 1964 Summer Paralympics in Tokyo, Japan. Its athletes finished fourteenth in the overall medal count.

Fiji at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

Fiji competed at the 1964 Summer Paralympics in Tokyo, Japan. It was Fiji's first participation in the Paralympic Games. The country (a British colony at the time) was represented by a single athlete, who competed in weightlifting, and did not win a medal.

France at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

France sent a delegation to compete at the 1964 Summer Paralympics in Tokyo, Japan. Its athletes finished eleventh in the overall medal count.

Great Britain at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

Great Britain sent a delegation to compete at the 1964 Summer Paralympics in Tokyo, Japan. Its athletes finished second in the gold and overall medal count.

Ireland at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

Ireland competed at the 1964 Summer Paralympics in Tokyo, Japan. It did not won any medals.

Israel at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

Israel participated in the 1964 Summer Paralympics in Tokyo. 20 Israeli athletes won seven gold medals, three silver and eleven bronze, enabling their country to finish 7th on the medal table.

The Israeli delegation was composed of ten IDF veterans and ten athletes of the Israel Sports Center for the Disabled. Other excelling athletes were banned from participating due to indecent behavior. The delegation was headed by Mr. Arieh Fink, head of the rehabilitation department of the Israel Ministry of Defense, and accompanied by Mr. Gershon Huberman, director of the Israel Sports Center for the Disabled. Further members of the delegation were basketball coaches Shimon Shelah and Jacob Hendelsman, Mrs. Edna Medalia and two medical nurses.

In the 1964 Summer Paralympic Games, Israel participated for the first time in the weightlifting field, following Shalom Dalugatch's achievement of criteria by breaking the previous Paralympics' record. Delegation member Israel Even-Sahav was the sole athlete, of all participating states, asked to take part in rehearsals to the opening ceremony.

The delegation's travel expenses were divided in accordance with its composition: The IDF veterans were sponsored by the Ministry of Defense, sports organizations, the Olympic Committee and the athletes themselves, while the Center's athletes were sponsored by Japanese parties, most prominently by businessman Saul Eisenberg.

The eldest member of the delegation was Michael Ben-Naftali (40) and the youngest Jacob Ben-Arie (14).

Israel was ranked 7th on the medal table, winning seven gold medals, three silver and 11 bronze and achieving three world records.

Italy at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

Italy sent a delegation to compete at the 1964 Summer Paralympics in Tokyo, Japan. Its athletes finished third in the gold and overall medal count.

Japan at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

Japan was the host country of the 1964 Summer Paralympics in Tokyo, which also marked its first participation in the Paralympic Games. It was the only Asian country to take part in the Games.Despite being the host nation, Japan fielded only sixteen representatives (fourteen men and two women), competing in archery, athletics, dartchery, swimming, table tennis, and wheelchair fencing. In the men's doubles (C category) in table tennis, Yasunori Igari and Fujio Watanabe won Japan's first Paralympic gold medal, and its only gold medal of the 1964 Games. Japanese competitors also won two silver medals in archery, a bronze in dartchery, a silver and a bronze in swimming, a silver and two bronze in table tennis, and a silver in wheelchair fencing.

Netherlands at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

Netherlands competed at the 1964 Summer Paralympics in Tokyo, Japan. The team included 8 athletes, 5 men and 3 women. Competitors from Netherlands won 14 medals, including 4 gold, 6 silver and 4 bronze to finish 10th in the medal table.

Rhodesia at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

Rhodesia competed at the 1964 Summer Paralympics in Tokyo. It was one of two African countries to take part, the other being South Africa. It sent six competitors to the games, four male and two female. It won 17 medals, 10 gold, 5 silver and 2 bronze.

South Africa at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

South Africa made its Paralympic Games début at the 1964 Summer Paralympics in Tokyo, Japan.

It sent nine athletes to compete in archery, athletics, swimming and weightlifting. They finished sixth on the medal table with nineteen medals, of which eight were gold. Paradoxically, South Africa thus began to compete at the Paralympics just after being barred from competing at the Olympics. South Africa had been banned from the Olympic Games following the passing of United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1761 which, in 1962, condemned the country's policy of apartheid. South Africa was not, however, banned from the Paralympics, and was therefore present at the 1964 Paralympics despite being absent from the 1964 Summer Olympics.The winners of its eight gold medals were G.P. Marais in archery (Men's St. Nicholas Round open), I. Marinowitz in archery (Women's St. Nicholas Round open), Daniel Erasmus in athletics (Men's Discus A and Men's Shot Put A), M. Forty in discus (Women's Club Throw B and Women's Discus B), A. Somerset in swimming (Women's 25 m Breaststroke incomplete class 1), and B. Humble in weightlifting (Men's Middleweight).

Table tennis at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

Table tennis at the 1964 Summer Paralympics consisted of twelve events, eight for men and four for women.

United States at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

The United States sent a delegation to compete at the 1964 Summer Paralympics in Tokyo, Japan. Its athletes finished first in the gold and overall medal count.

Wheelchair basketball at the 1964 Summer Paralympics

Wheelchair basketball at the 1964 Summer Paralympics consisted of two events for men.

Events at the 1964 Summer Paralympics (Tokyo)
Summer Games
Winter Games

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