The 1962–63 New York City Newspaper Strike ran from December 8, 1962, until March 31, 1963, lasting for a total of 114 days. Besides low wages, the unions were resisting automation of the printing presses.
A preliminary action took place when The Newspaper Guild went on strike against the Daily News just after midnight on November 1, 1962. Guild vice president Thomas J. Murphy indicated that the Daily News had been singled out as the union's first target "because there we have had more aggravation, more agitation, more issues, more disputes and more anti-unionism from management". The Daily News was able to keep printing on November 2, 1962, by using the presses of the New York Journal-American. Workers at the Daily News settled their issues, accepting raises of $8 per week in talks mediated by United States Secretary of Labor W. Willard Wirtz, with employees receiving an added $4.25 per week in the first year, with an additional $3.75 weekly in the subsequent year, allowing the paper to start with a print run of 1.5 million copies, short of its nation-leading normal circulation of 2,075,000 copies.
On December 4, 1962, negotiators representing the nine major newspapers offered a deal that combined an $8 increase in wages and benefits spread over two years, combined with changes in work procedures that would cut costs for the papers. Union negotiators rejected the offer from the newspapers the following day, setting their requirement of a $16 weekly raise over two years, and set a deadline of midnight on December 8 if an agreement could not be reached before then. Representatives of the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service, including Frank H. Brown and Stephen Schlossberg, attempted to help both sides reach agreement on December 6, with "the public interest" cited as justifying federal intervention.
The strike began at 2:00 AM on December 8, when workers from the New York Typographical Union, led by their president Bert Powers, walked out from the Daily News, New York Journal American, The New York Times, and New York World-Telegram & Sun. In addition, the New York Daily Mirror, New York Herald Tribune, New York Post and both the Long Island Star Journal and Long Island Daily Press all suspended operations on a voluntary basis. The newspapers kept their offer of an $8 increase per week spread over two years, while the unions were looking for a $38.82 increase in the two-year period.
A number of publications were created or benefited from the strike. The New York Review of Books was created during the strike, issuing its first copies on February 21, 1963, with circulation reaching 75,000 during the strike, before retreating to between 50,000 and 60,000 following the strike. The Brooklyn Eagle saw circulation grow from 50,000 to 390,000 before shrinking to 154,000 before it was hit with a deliverers' strike on June 27, 1963.
Leonard Andrews, employed by a credit card company, the Uni-Serv Corporation, approached the company's customers about advertising in a publication he created called The New York Standard, the largest of several alternative papers published during the strike, reaching a peak circulation of more than 400,000 and appearing for 67 issues.
Four papers had originally been the target of the strike, but five other papers suspended printing on a voluntary basis. The New York Post withdrew from the Publishers Association, resuming printing on March 4, 1963.
Mayor of New York City Robert F. Wagner, Jr., together with labor negotiator Theodore W. Kheel, were able to forge an agreement to end the strike under which the newspaper workers would receive wage and benefit increases of $12.63 per week. Kheel noted that the contracts for all ten newspaper unions would expire on the same date in 1965, emphasizing the importance of addressing the festering labor issues.
An analysis performed by The New York Times showed that the nine affected newspapers lost a total of more than $100 million in advertising and circulation revenues and that the industry's more than 19 thousand employees lost $50 million in wages and benefits.
After the strike was ended, both the Times and Herald Tribune doubled their price to 10 cents, one of the factors that had cut readership. As of September 30, 1963, circulation of six daily New York papers was down 11.9% on weekdays and 8.3% on Sundays based on reports from the Audit Bureau of Circulations. The John F. Kennedy assassination in November 1963 helped bring readers back to newspapers.
The New York Daily Mirror, owned by the Hearst Corporation, shut down on October 15, 1963, and sold its name and goodwill to the Daily News. The Mirror's management blamed the closure on the effects of the strike aggravating existing problems at the paper.
Cue magazine (now part of New York magazine) saw weekly circulation rise by 35,000 a year after the strike started and TV Guide had seen a jump of 350,000. Time saw New York City circulation rise by 10%.
Events from the year 1963 in the United States.Bert Powers
Bertram Anthony "Bert" Powers (March 8, 1922 – December 23, 2006) was an American labor leader who was best known for leading his union, the New York Typographical Union No. 6, into the 114-day 1962–63 New York City newspaper strike against four New York City newspapers. Powers was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts and died in Washington, D.C. at the Washington Home hospice of pneumonia.He became a printer after a 1937 accident and moved to New York City in 1946, where he eventually rose to become vice president of the New York local of the International Typographical Union in 1953. Powers was elected president of the ITU local in 1961 and faced a December 1962 end of the existing labor contract with the New York Publishers Association, the trade and bargaining association for nine New York City newspapers.After talks failed, he called a strike on December 8, 1962, which ended March 31, 1963, and lasted for 114 days. As a result of that strike, Mr. Powers gained local and national attention, and his photo was on the cover of TIME magazine for the March 1, 1963 issue with the blurb: "Is Labor's Only Weapon a Monkey Wrench?"In 1974, Powers and the publishers reached an historic deal. In return for guaranteed jobs for the printers then working, the publishers were free to computerize (or automate) the setting of type, thus gaining labor savings and faster composing of the page contents for each edition.Powers retired as president of the local in 1990, after the ITU had merged into the CWA in 1987.Brooklyn Eagle
The Brooklyn Eagle, originally The Brooklyn Eagle, and Kings County Democrat, was a daily newspaper published in the city and later borough of Brooklyn, in New York City, for 114 years from 1841 to 1955. At one point, it was the afternoon paper with the largest daily circulation in the United States. Walt Whitman, the 19th-century poet, was its editor for two years. Other notable editors of the Eagle included Thomas Kinsella, St. Clair McKelway, Cleveland Rogers, Frank D. Schroth, and Charles Montgomery Skinner.
The paper, added "Daily" to its name as The Brooklyn Daily Eagle and Kings County Democrat on June 1, 1846. The banner name was shortened on May 14, 1849 to The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, but the lower masthead retained the political name until June 8. On September 5, 1938, the name was further shortened, to Brooklyn Eagle, with The Brooklyn Daily Eagle continuing to appear below the masthead of the editorial page, through the end of its original run in 1955. The paper ceased publication in 1955 due to a prolonged strike. It was briefly revived from the bankrupt estate between 1960 and 1963.
A new version of the Brooklyn Eagle as a revival of the old newspaper's traditions began publishing in 1996. It has no business relation to the original Eagle (the name having lost trademark protection). The new paper publishes a daily historical/nostalgia feature called "On This Day in History", made up of much material from the pages of the old original Eagle.Gotham Bowl
The Gotham Bowl was a post-season college football bowl game that was played in New York City, United States, in 1961 and 1962. The game was initially created as a fund raising attempt for the March of Dimes.
The game was not a success financially: the two games that were played both lost money as few fans were willing to sit through the cold December New York weather. Plus, as it was essentially a charity game, it had little financial capital on which it could survive.Hearst Communications
Hearst Communications often referred to simply as Hearst, is an American mass media and business information conglomerate based in New York City.Hearst owns newspapers, magazines, television channels, and television stations, including the San Francisco Chronicle, the Houston Chronicle, Cosmopolitan and Esquire. It owns 50% of broadcasting firm A&E Networks and 20% of the sports broadcaster ESPN in partnership with The Walt Disney Company.Despite being better known for the above media holdings, Hearst makes most of its profits in the business information section, where it owns companies including Fitch Ratings, First Databank, and others.Hearst Communications is based in the Hearst Tower in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. The company was founded by William Randolph Hearst as an owner of newspapers, and the Hearst family remains involved in its ownership and management.Matilda Landsman
Matilda Landsman was a New York Times employee in the 1950s. She was subpoenaed by the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee in November 1955 during their investigation into Communists in the media. She was one of 34 news media employees to be subpoenaed by the Senate after the testimony of journalist Winston Burdett, a one-time spy for the Soviet Union, in June 1955. Landsman worked as a Linotype operator at the time of her testimony in January 1956. According to allegations from unnamed sources Landsman had voluntarily obtained reassignment from the Times newsroom to the Linotype department, at lower pay, in order to do organizing and recruiting for the Communist Party among members of the powerful and militant typographers union, which was to shut down all the newspapers in New York City in a crippling 114-day 1962–63 New York City newspaper strike which left half the daily papers in New York dead or mortally wounded. In the past she had worked as a stenographer in the Times news and Sunday departments, and as a secretary to Joseph Fels Barnes, editor of the defunct New York Star, the brief-lived successor to the progressive/left daily newspaper PM.
In her testimony she invoked the Fifth Amendment to avoid answering questions about her affiliation with the Communist Party.New York Daily Mirror
The New York Daily Mirror was an American morning tabloid newspaper first published on June 24, 1924, in New York City by the William Randolph Hearst organization as a contrast to their mainstream broadsheets, the Evening Journal and New York American, later consolidated into the New York Journal American. It was created to compete with the New York Daily News which was then a sensationalist tabloid and the most widely circulated newspaper in the United States. Hearst preferred the broadsheet format and sold the Mirror to an associate in 1928, only to buy it back in 1932.
Hearst hired away the Daily News's Philip Payne as managing editor of Mirror. Payne's circulation building stunts ranged from reviving the sensational Hall-Mills murder case to sponsoring and being a passenger on the Old Glory transatlantic flying record attempt, in which he was killed. Early on, several bright young writers and photographic journalists joined the Daily Mirror, such as Ring Lardner, Jr., Hy Peskin and the political commentator Drew Pearson. The poet-songwriter Nick Kenny was the paper's radio editor, and Edward Zeltner contributed a column. The gossip columnist Walter Winchell and managing editor Emile Gauvreau were both hired away from the New York Evening Graphic, the city's third sensational tabloid. Winchell was given his own radio show and syndicated, in his prime—the 1940s and early 1950s—in more than 2000 daily papers.
During the three tabloids' 1920s circulation war, management of the Mirror estimated that its content was 10% news and 90% entertainment. For example, the Mirror and Graphic both had devoted substantial resources to the exploitation of scandal with repeated stories on such events as the divorce trial of real estate tycoon Edward West "Daddy" Browning who at age 51 had married 16-year-old Frances Belle "Peaches" Heenan, as well as constant coverage of the decade's celebrities like Rudolph Valentino, Babe Ruth and Charles A. Lindbergh.
By the 1930s, the Daily Mirror was one of the Hearst Corporation's largest papers in terms of circulation. However, the paper never became a significantly profitable property as its earnings were mostly destined to support the company's faltering afternoon papers, and in its later years it declined substantially despite numerous efforts to turn things around.
Despite having the second-highest daily circulation of an American newspaper at the time, the Daily Mirror closed on October 16, 1963, after the 114-day 1962–63 New York City newspaper strike. The Daily Mirror name rights were at that point acquired by its rival the Daily News.On January 4, 1971, publisher Robert W. Farrell revived the New York Daily Mirror in name only, as a tabloid, published in Long Island City, Queens. Operating on a shoestring budget, the paper faced obstruction from the Daily News (from whom it had acquired the Daily Mirror name rights after the Daily News let them lapse). This new iteration of the Daily Mirror ceased publication on February 28, 1972.Outline of New York City
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to New York City:
New York City – largest city in the state of New York and most populous city in the United States. New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon the world's commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, and sports. If New York City were a country, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. It is the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world — anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, and home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.Pete Hamill
Pete Hamill (; born June 24, 1935) is an American journalist, novelist, essayist, editor and educator. Widely traveled and having written on a broad range of topics, he is perhaps best known for his career as a New York City journalist, as "the author of columns that sought to capture the particular flavors of New York City's politics and sports and the particular pathos of its crime." Hamill was a columnist and editor for the New York Post and The New York Daily News.Robert F. Wagner Jr.
Robert Ferdinand Wagner II (April 20, 1910 – February 12, 1991), usually known as Robert F. Wagner Jr. served three terms as the mayor of New York City, from 1954 through 1965. When running for his third term, he broke with the Tammany Hall leadership, ending the reign of clubhouse bosses in city politics.Seven Days in May (novel)
Seven Days in May is a political thriller novel by Charles W. Bailey II and Fletcher Knebel, first published in hardcover by Harper & Row in 1962.The plot concerns an attempted military coup in the United States.Stephen Schlossberg
Stephen Schlossberg (May 18, 1921 – December 10, 2011) was a union organizer who later became general counsel of the United Auto Workers and served as undersecretary for labor-management relations under Secretary of Labor Bill Brock during the Reagan administration.The New York Review of Books
The New York Review of Books (or NYREV or NYRB) is a semi-monthly magazine with articles on literature, culture, economics, science and current affairs. Published in New York City, it is inspired by the idea that the discussion of important books is an indispensable literary activity. Esquire called it "the premier literary-intellectual magazine in the English language." In 1970 writer Tom Wolfe described it as "the chief theoretical organ of Radical chic".The Review publishes long-form reviews and essays, often by well-known writers, original poetry, and has letters and personals advertising sections that had attracted critical comment. In 1979 the magazine founded the London Review of Books, which soon became independent. In 1990 it founded an Italian edition, la Rivista dei Libri, published until 2010. Robert B. Silvers and Barbara Epstein edited the paper together from its founding in 1963, until her death in 2006. From then until his death in 2017, Silvers was the sole editor. Ian Buruma became editor in September 2017 and left the post in September 2018. Gabriel Winslow-Yost and Emily Greenhouse were named co-editors in February 2019. The Review has a book publishing division, established in 1999, called New York Review Books, which publishes classics, collections, comics and children's books. Since 2010, the journal has hosted an online blog written by its contributors.
The Review celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2013, and a Martin Scorsese film called The 50 Year Argument documents the history and influence of the paper.The New York Times Fiction Best Sellers of 1962
This is a list of adult fiction books that topped The New York Times Fiction Best Seller list in 1962. Four books topped the list that year, the longest on top being Ship of Fools by Katherine Anne Porter, which spent exactly half the year there - from April 29 to November 11, its last week at the top - though it continued in the top 15 best sellers for another 20 weeks. Franny and Zooey by J.D. Salinger started the year at the top of the list carrying over from 1961, where it entered the top spot on October 25. In all Salinger's book spent 25 continuous weeks in the top spot. The list was interrupted at the end of the year by the 1962–63 New York City newspaper strike which lasted 114 days and had a profound impact on the newspaper industry in New York.Theodore W. Kheel
Theodore Woodrow Kheel (May 9, 1914 – November 12, 2010) was an American attorney and labor mediator who played a key role in reaching resolutions of long-simmering labor disputes between managements and unions and resulting strikes in New York City and elsewhere in the United States, including the 114-day-long 1962-63 New York City newspaper strike that crippled the city's traditional media.Tom Wolfe
Thomas Kennerly Wolfe Jr. (March 2, 1930 – May 14, 2018) was an American author and journalist widely known for his association with New Journalism, a style of news writing and journalism developed in the 1960s and 1970s that incorporated literary techniques.
Wolfe began his career as a regional newspaper reporter in the 1950s, achieving national prominence in the 1960s following the publication of such best-selling books as The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test (a highly experimental account of Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters) and two collections of articles and essays, Radical Chic & Mau-Mauing the Flak Catchers and The Kandy-Kolored Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby. In 1979, he published the influential book The Right Stuff about the Mercury Seven astronauts, which was made into a 1983 film of the same name directed by Philip Kaufman.
His first novel, The Bonfire of the Vanities, published in 1987, was met with critical acclaim and also became a commercial success. It was adapted as a major motion picture of the same name directed by Brian De Palma.WINS (AM)
WINS (1010 kHz) is an AM radio station licensed to New York City and owned by Entercom. WINS' studios and newsroom are in the Hudson Square neighborhood of Manhattan, and its transmitting facility is located in Lyndhurst, New Jersey.
WINS is the oldest continuously operating all-news radio station in the United States, broadcasting in that format since 1965. WINS also broadcasts a digital HD Radio signal.WPLJ
WPLJ (95.5 FM) is a radio station licensed to New York City and owned by the broadcasting division of Cumulus Media. WPLJ's studio facilities are located at 2 Penn Plaza in midtown Manhattan, and its transmitter is located at the Empire State Building. The station airs a Hot Adult Contemporary music format, and is the home of the Todd & Jayde morning show. WPLJ broadcasts in the HD Radio format.
On February 13, 2019, it was announced that Cumulus and Educational Media Foundation had entered into an agreement for EMF to purchase WPLJ, along with several other stations in other markets, for $103.5 million. EMF will begin operating WPLJ when the deal closes in early summer.