1960 U-2 incident

On 1 May 1960, a United States U-2 spy plane was shot down by the Soviet Air Defence Forces while performing photographic aerial reconnaissance deep into Soviet territory. The single-seat aircraft, flown by pilot Francis Gary Powers, was hit by an S-75 Dvina (SA-2 Guideline) surface-to-air missile and crashed near Sverdlovsk (today's Yekaterinburg). Powers parachuted safely and was captured.

Initially, the US authorities acknowledged the incident as the loss of a civilian weather research aircraft operated by NASA, but were forced to admit the mission's true purpose when a few days later the Soviet government produced the captured pilot and parts of the U-2's surveillance equipment, including photographs of Soviet military bases taken during the mission.

The incident occurred during the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower and the premiership of Nikita Khrushchev, around two weeks before the scheduled opening of an east–west summit in Paris. It caused great embarrassment to the United States and prompted a marked deterioration in its relations with the Soviet Union, already strained by the ongoing Cold War.[2]

Powers was convicted of espionage and sentenced to three years of imprisonment plus seven years of hard labor but was released two years later on 10 February 1962 during a prisoner exchange for Soviet officer Rudolf Abel.[3]

U-2 incident of 1960
Part of the Cold War
Lockheed u 2c aircraft
A U-2 aircraft similar to the one shot down
TypeAircraft shot down
Location
56°43′35.73″N 60°59′9.61″E / 56.7265917°N 60.9860028°ECoordinates: 56°43′35.73″N 60°59′9.61″E / 56.7265917°N 60.9860028°E
ObjectiveIntercept American U-2 spy aircraft
Date1 May 1960
Executed bySoviet Air Defense Forces
Casualties1 Soviet (friendly fire) killed

Background

In July 1958, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower requested permission from Pakistani Prime Minister Huseyn Suhrawardy for the U.S. to establish a secret intelligence facility in Pakistan and for the U-2 spyplane to fly from Pakistan. The U-2 flew at altitudes that could not be reached by Soviet fighter jets of the era; it was believed to be beyond the reach of Soviet missiles as well. A facility established in Badaber (Peshawar Air Station), 10 miles (16 km) from Peshawar, was a cover for a major communications intercept operation run by the United States National Security Agency (NSA). Badaber was an excellent location because of its proximity to Soviet central Asia. This enabled the monitoring of missile test sites, key infrastructure and communications. The U-2 "spy-in-the-sky" was allowed to use the Pakistan Air Force section of Peshawar Airport to gain vital photo intelligence in an era before satellite observation.[4]

President Eisenhower did not want to fly American U-2 pilots over the Soviet Union because he felt that if one of these pilots were to be shot down or captured that it could be seen as an act of aggression. At a time like the Cold War, any act of aggression could spark open conflict between the two countries. In order to ease the burden of flying Americans into Soviet airspace the idea developed to have British pilots from the Royal Air Force fly these missions in place of the American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). With the United Kingdom still reeling from the aftermath of the Suez Crisis and in no position to snub American requests, the British government was amenable to the proposal. Using British pilots allowed Eisenhower to be able to use the U-2 plane to see what the Soviet Union was hiding, while still being able to plausibly deny any affiliation if a mission became compromised.

After the success of the first two British pilots and because of pressure to determine the number of Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles more accurately, Eisenhower allowed the flying of two more missions before the Four Power Paris Summit, scheduled for 16 May. The final two missions before the summit were to be flown by American pilots.[5]

On 9 April 1960, a U-2C spyplane of the special CIA unit "10-10," piloted by Bob Ericson, crossed the southern national boundary of the Soviet Union in the area of Pamir Mountains and flew over four Soviet top secret military objects: the Semipalatinsk Test Site, the Dolon Air Base where Tu-95 strategic bombers were stationed, the surface-to-air missile (SAM) test site of the Soviet Air Defence Forces near Saryshagan, and the Tyuratam missile range (Baikonur Cosmodrome).[6]

The plane was detected by the Soviet Air Defense Forces when it had flown more than 250 kilometres (155 mi) over the Soviet national boundary and avoided several attempts at interception by a MiG-19 and a Su-9 during the flight. The U-2 left Soviet air space and landed at an Iranian airstrip at Zahedan. It was clear that the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency had successfully performed an extraordinary intelligence operation. The next flight of the U-2 spyplane from Peshawar airport was planned for late April.[6]

Event

OperationGrandSlam1960
U-2 "GRAND SLAM" flight plan on 1 May 1960, from CIA publication The Central Intelligence Agency and Overhead Reconnaissance; The U-2 And Oxcart Programs, 1954–1974, declassified 25 June 2013

On 28 April 1960, a U.S. Lockheed U-2C spy plane, Article 358, was ferried from Incirlik Air Base in Turkey to the US base at Peshawar airport by pilot Glen Dunaway. Fuel for the aircraft had been ferried to Peshawar the previous day in a US Air Force C-124 transport. A US Air Force C-130 followed, carrying the ground crew, mission pilot Francis Powers, and the back up pilot, Bob Ericson. On the morning of 29 April, the crew in Badaber was informed that the mission had been delayed one day. As a result, Bob Ericson flew Article 358 back to Incirlik and John Shinn ferried another U-2C, Article 360, from Incirlik to Peshawar. On 30 April, the mission was delayed one day further because of bad weather over the Soviet Union.[6]

The weather improved and on 1 May, 15 days before the scheduled opening of the east–west summit conference in Paris, Captain Powers, flying Article 360, 56–6693 left the base in Peshawar on a mission with the operations code word GRAND SLAM[7] to overfly the Soviet Union, photographing targets including the ICBM sites at the Baikonur Cosmodrome and Plesetsk Cosmodrome, then land at Bodø in Norway. At the time, the USSR had six ICBM launch pads, two at Baikonur and four at Plesetsk.[8] Mayak, then named Chelyabinsk-65, an important industrial center of plutonium processing, was another of the targets that Powers was to photograph.[9] A close study of Powers's account of the flight shows that one of the last targets he overflew, before being shot down, was the Chelyabinsk-65 plutonium production facility.[10]

Francis Gary Powers U2 at Moscow
Part of the U-2 wreckage on display at Central Armed Forces Museum in Moscow

The U-2 flight was expected, and all units of the Soviet Air Defence Forces in the Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Siberia, Ural, and later in the USSR European Region and Extreme North, were placed on red alert. Soon after the plane was detected, Lieutenant General of the Air Force Yevgeniy Savitskiy ordered the air-unit commanders "to attack the violator by all alert flights located in the area of foreign plane's course, and to ram if necessary".[11]

Because of the U-2's extreme operating altitude, Soviet attempts to intercept the plane using fighter aircraft failed. The U-2's course was out of range of several of the nearest SAM sites, and one SAM site even failed to engage the aircraft since it was not on duty that day. The U-2 was eventually brought down near Kosulino, Ural Region, by the first of three SA-2 Guideline (S-75 Dvina) surface-to-air missiles[12] fired by a battery commanded by Mikhail Voronov.[6] The SA-2 site had been previously identified by the CIA, using photos taken during Vice President Richard Nixon's visit to Sverdlovsk the previous summer.[13][14]

Powers bailed out but neglected to disconnect his oxygen hose first and struggled with it until it broke, enabling him to separate from the aircraft. Powers was captured soon after parachuting safely down onto Russian soil.[11] Powers carried with him a modified silver dollar which contained a lethal, shellfish-derived saxitoxin-tipped needle, but he did not use it.[15]

The SAM command center was unaware that the plane was destroyed for more than 30 minutes.[11] One of the Soviet MiG-19 fighters pursuing Powers was also destroyed in the missile salvo, and the pilot, Sergei Safronov, was killed.[6][16] The MiGs' IFF transponders were not yet switched to the new May codes because of the 1 May holiday.[17]

American cover-up and exposure

U-2 Spy Plane With Fictitious NASA Markings - GPN-2000-000112
NASA photo of a U-2 with fictitious NASA markings and serial number at the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards Air Force Base, on 6 May 1960 (NASA photo)
Khrushchev U2
Khrushchev visits display of U-2 wreckage.
NSA museum
U-2 incident exhibit at the US's National Cryptologic Museum

Four days after Powers' disappearance, NASA issued a very detailed press release noting that an aircraft had "gone missing" north of Turkey.[3] The press release speculated that the pilot might have fallen unconscious while the autopilot was still engaged, even falsely claiming that "the pilot reported over the emergency frequency that he was experiencing oxygen difficulties." To bolster this, a U-2 plane was quickly painted in NASA colors and shown to the media. Under the impression that the pilot had died and that the plane had been destroyed, the Americans had decided to use the NASA cover-up plan.[18] Nikita Khrushchev used the American misstep to embarrass President Eisenhower and his administration.

That same day on 5 May, the Senate made its first comments on the U-2 incident, and began a domestic political controversy for Eisenhower. Mike Mansfield, the Senate Majority Whip, stated, "First reports indicate that the President had no knowledge of the plane incident. If that is the case, we have got to ask whether or not this administration has any real control over the federal bureaucracy."[19] Mansfield, more than any other person, highlighted the dilemma Eisenhower faced—Eisenhower could admit responsibility for the U-2 flight, and likely ruin any chances for détente at the Paris Summit, or he could continue to deny knowledge and indicate that he did not control his own administration.[20]

After Khrushchev found out about America's NASA cover story, he developed a political trap for Eisenhower. His plan began with the release of information to the world that a spy plane had been shot down in Soviet territory, but he did not reveal that the pilot of this plane had also been found and that he was alive. With the information that Khrushchev released, the Americans believed that they would be able to continue with their cover story that the crashed plane was a weather research aircraft and not a military spy plane. The cover-up said that the pilot of the U-2 weather plane had radioed in that he was experiencing oxygen difficulties while flying over Turkey. From there they claimed that the plane could have continued on its path because of auto-pilot, and that this could be the plane that crashed in the Soviet Union. The final attempt to make the cover story seem as real as possible was the grounding of all U-2 planes for mandatory inspection of oxygen systems in order to make sure that no other "weather missions" would have the same result as the one that was lost and possibly crashed in the Soviet Union.[21]

On 7 May, Khrushchev sprang his trap and announced:[10]

I must tell you a secret. When I made my first report I deliberately did not say that the pilot was alive and well ... and now just look how many silly things the Americans have said.

Also, because of the release of some photographs of the plane, there was evidence that most of the covert U-2 technologies had survived the crash. From this Khrushchev was able to openly embarrass the Eisenhower administration by exposing the attempted cover-up.[22]

Soviet C-75 (SA-2) Surface to air missile Air Defence Museum, Near Moscow
Soviet C-75 (SA-2) SAM launcher used to shoot down Gary Powers' U2, on display at the Air Defense Forces Museum in Balachinka district, Zarya village

Khrushchev still attempted to allow Eisenhower to save face, possibly to salvage the peace summit to some degree, by specifically laying the blame not on Eisenhower himself, but on Director of Central Intelligence Allen Dulles and the CIA: Khrushchev said that anyone wishing to understand the U-2's mission should "seek a reply from Allen Dulles, at whose instructions the American aircraft flew over the Soviet Union."[23] On 9 May, the Soviet premier told US ambassador Thompson that he "could not help but suspect that someone had launched this operation with the deliberate intent of spoiling the summit meeting." Thompson also wrote in his diplomatic cable that Khrushchev suspected it was Allen Dulles, and that Khrushchev had heard about Senator Mansfield's remarks that Eisenhower did not control his own administration.[24]

Upon receiving this cable, Eisenhower, who frequently was very animated, was quiet and depressed. The only words he said to his secretary were, "I would like to resign."[25] Meanwhile, the domestic pressure continued to mount. Eisenhower then accepted Dulles's argument that the congressional leadership needed to be briefed on the U-2 missions from the last four years. Dulles told the legislature that all U-2 flights were used for aerial espionage and had been flown pursuant to "presidential directives". Still, Dulles played down Eisenhower's direct role in approving every previous U-2 flight.[26]

The next day on 10 May, without consulting with any agency heads, House Appropriations Chair Clarence Cannon received considerable press attention when he, not President Eisenhower, revealed the true nature of the U-2 mission. He said to an open session of the House of Representatives that the U-2 was a CIA plane engaged in aerial espionage over the Soviet Union. Cannon said,

Mr. Chairman, on May 1 the Soviet Government captured, 1300 miles inside the boundaries of the Russian empire, an American plane, operated by an American pilot, under the direction and control of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, and is now holding both the plane and the pilot. The plane was on an espionage mission ... The activity ... [was] under the aegis of the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces of the United States, for whom all members of the subcommittee have the highest regard and in whose military capacity they have the utmost confidence.[27]

At the end of Cannon's speech, Democrats and Republicans uncharacteristically rose to their feet to applaud.[28]

Still Eisenhower faced criticism in the press for not controlling his own administration, as Cannon's speech only said the mission was "under the aegis of" the president, not "directed by". Press reports were creating a belief in the public that Eisenhower had lost control, which Eisenhower would not let stand. Knowing that he was jeopardizing the Paris Peace Summit, Eisenhower decided to reveal the aerial espionage program and his direct role in it, an unprecedented move for a U.S. president. His speech on 11 May revolved around four main points: the need for intelligence gathering activities; the nature of intelligence gathering activities; how intelligence activities should be viewed (as distasteful, but vital); and finally that Americans should not be distracted from the real problems of the day. Eisenhower closed passionately by reacting to the Soviet claim that the US acted provocatively and said: "They had better look at their own [espionage] record." As he finished, he told reporters he was still going to the Paris Peace Summit.[29]

From the Congressional Research Service report "Covert Action: An Effective Instrument of U.S. Foreign Policy?", dated October 21, 1996, released by Wikileaks: "Many observers believed that when President Eisenhower in 1960 accepted responsibility for U-2 overflights of the Soviet Union, he made reaching agreements with Moscow much more difficult; had he blamed the flights on the Pentagon or the CIA, Khrushchev arguably might not have felt forced to react so strongly even though he might not believe the denials. Such reasoning, while constrained, is hardly unusual. It is easier for a President to deal with foreign leaders who are known to have committed violent acts, but have never admitted having done so, than to meet formally with those who have acknowledged 'unacceptable' behavior."[30]

Today a large part of the wreck as well as many items from Powers's survival pack are on display at the Central Armed Forces Museum in Moscow. A small piece of the plane was returned to the United States and is on display at the National Cryptologic Museum.[31]

Intelligence

Already from 1948, Norwegian Selmer Nilsen had been recruited by the Soviet intelligence organization GRU, amongst other foreigners, to spy on allied activity in NATO countries. Nilsen was assigned to watch allied military activity in northern Norway.[32] The U-2 operations were linked with the airport Bodø, which was one of its permanent stations. Selmer Nilsen recorded U-2 activity in Bodø and forwarded much military information to the Soviet Union. He was convicted for espionage in 1968 in a closed trial in Norway, with a penalty of seven years and six months' imprisonment. He was released after three years.

Aftermath

Contemporary reactions to the U-2 incident and effect on the Four Powers Summit

The Summit was attended by Eisenhower, Khrushchev, French President Charles de Gaulle, and British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan.[33] It was the first conference to be attended by both Soviet and western leaders in five years.[34] However, prospects for constructive dialogue were dashed by the explosive controversy surrounding the U-2 flight over Soviet territory.

Although the Four Powers Summit was the first meeting between western and Soviet leaders in five years when it was held, the mood was optimistic that there could be an easing of tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States. In an effort to present a less hostile, more cordial Soviet Union, Khrushchev publicly advocated a policy of "peaceful coexistence with the United States."[34] The May Day celebrations on 1 May of that year were marked by this newfound cooperative spirit. Absent were the militarized symbols of previous parades, such as artillery and armor. Instead there were children, white doves, and athletes.[35] But the reaction of the Soviet government to the spy plane incident and the response from the United States doomed any potential meaningful peace agreement.[33]

In the days directly leading up to the conference, tensions increased dramatically between the United States and the Soviet Union over the U-2 incident. At this point in the negotiations, the hardliners of the Soviet government were applying heavy pressure to Khrushchev. In the weeks leading up to the summit there had been a revitalization of anti-American sentiment within the Kremlin, with the Soviets blocking a planned trip to Washington D.C. of a Soviet air marshal, inviting Chinese communist leader Mao Zedong to Moscow, and launching an anti-American press campaign designed to critique "American aggression".[36] At this time east and west were divided about how to move forward in Berlin, and the American press characterized Khrushchev's decision to emphasize the U-2 incident at the summit as an attempt to gain leverage on this issue.[37]

The summit itself did not last long, with talks only beginning on 15 May and ending on 16 May. Both Eisenhower and Khrushchev gave statements on the 16th. Khrushchev blasted the United States on the U-2 incident. He pointed out that the policy of secret spying was one of mistrust and that the incident had doomed the summit before it even began. He expected the United States and Eisenhower to condemn the spying and pledge to end further reconnaissance missions.[38]

At the summit, after Khrushchev had blown Eisenhower's cover, Eisenhower did not deny that the plane had been spying on Soviet military installations but contended that the action was not aggressive but defensive. He argued that the current state of international relations was not one in which peaceful coexistence was an already established fact. The policy of the United States towards the Soviet Union at that time was defensive and cautionary. Eisenhower also made the point that dialogue at the Four Powers Summit was the type of international negotiation that could lead to a relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union where there would be no need to spy on each other. Eisenhower also laid out a plan for an international agreement that authorized the U.N. to "inspect" any nations willing to submit to its authority for signs of increased militarization and aggressive action. He stated that the United States would be more than willing to submit to such an inspection by the U.N. and that he hoped to circumvent the spying controversy with this alternative international surveillance agreement.[38]

The meeting during which both parties made their statements lasted just over three hours. During this time Khrushchev rescinded an invitation he had earlier given to Eisenhower to visit the Soviet Union.

According to Walter Cronkite, Khrushchev would go on to say that this incident was the beginning of his decline in power as party chairman, perhaps because he seemed unable to negotiate the international arena and the communist hardliners at home.[34] The collapse of the summit also saw an increased tension between the Soviets and the Americans in the years to come. After this debacle the arms race accelerated and any considerations for negotiations were dashed for the immediate future.[39]

Consequences of the failed summit

As a result of the spy plane incident and the attempted cover-up, the Four Power Paris Summit was not completed. At the beginning of the talks on 16 May, there was still hope that the two sides could come together even after the events that took place earlier in May, but Eisenhower refused to apologize and Khrushchev left the summit one day after it had begun. Some people said that Khrushchev had overreacted to the event in an attempt to strengthen his own position, and for that, he was the one to blame for the collapse of the Four Power Paris Summit.[22]

Before the U-2 incident Khrushchev and Eisenhower had been getting along well and the summit was going to be an opportunity for the two sides to come together. Also, Eisenhower had been looking forward to a visit to the Soviet Union and was very upset when his invitation was retracted. The two sides were going to discuss topics such as nuclear arms reduction and also how to deal with increasing tensions surrounding Berlin. According to Eisenhower, had it not been for the U-2 incident, the summit and his visit to the Soviet Union could have greatly helped Soviet and American relations.[40]

The Soviet Union convened a meeting of the United Nations Security Council on 23 May to tell their side of the story.[41] The meetings continued for four days with other allegations of spying being exchanged, as well as recriminations over the Paris Summit, and a US offer of an "open skies" proposal to allow reciprocal flights over one another's territory,[42][43][44] at the end of which the Soviet Union overwhelmingly lost a vote[45] on a concise resolution which would have condemned the incursions and requested the US to prevent their recurrence.[46]

The incident severely compromised Pakistan's security and worsened relations with the United States. As an attempt to put up a bold front, General Khalid Mahmud Arif of the Pakistan Army, while commenting on the incident, stated that "Pakistan felt deceived because the US had kept her in the dark about such clandestine spy operations launched from Pakistan's territory."[47] The communications wing at Badaber was formally closed down on 7 January 1970.[48] Further, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee held a lengthy inquiry into the U-2 incident.[49]

Pilot fate

Upon his capture, Gary Powers told his Soviet captors what his mission had been and why he had been in Soviet airspace. He did this in accordance with orders that he had received before he went on his mission.[40] Powers pleaded guilty and was convicted of espionage on 19 August and sentenced to three years imprisonment and seven years of hard labor. He served one year and nine months of the sentence before being exchanged for Rudolf Abel on 10 February 1962.[3] The exchange occurred on the Glienicke Bridge connecting Potsdam, East Germany, to West Berlin.[50]

New tactics and technology

The incident showed that even high-altitude aircraft were vulnerable to Soviet surface-to-air missiles. As a result, the United States began emphasizing high-speed, low-level flights for its previously high altitude B-47, B-52 and B-58 bombers, and began developing the supersonic F-111, which would include an FB-111A variant for the Strategic Air Command.[51] The Corona spy satellite project was accelerated. The CIA also accelerated the development of the Lockheed A-12 OXCART supersonic spyplane that first flew in 1962 and later began developing the Lockheed D-21 unmanned drone.

Later versions

The original consensus about the cause of the U-2 incident was that the spy plane had been shot down by one of a salvo of 14 Soviet SA-2 missiles. This story was originated by Oleg Penkovsky, a GRU agent who spied for MI6.[52] In 2010, CIA documents were released indicating that "top US officials never believed Powers's account of his fateful flight because it appeared to be directly contradicted by a report from the National Security Agency" which alleged that the U-2 had descended from 65,000 to 34,000 feet (19,812 to 10,363 m) before changing course and disappearing from radar. One contemporary reading of the NSA's story is that they mistakenly tracked the descent of a MiG-19 piloted by Sr. Lt. Sergei Safronov.[53]

Igor Mentyukov

In 1996, Soviet pilot Captain Igor Mentyukov claimed that, at 65,000 feet (19,800 m) altitude, under orders to ram the intruder, he had caught the U-2 in the slipstream of his unarmed Sukhoi Su-9, causing the U-2 to flip over and break its wings. The salvo of missiles had indeed scored a hit, downing a pursuing MiG-19, not the U-2. Mentyukov said that if a missile had hit the U-2, its pilot would not have lived.[54][55]

Though the normal Su-9 service ceiling was 55,000 feet (16,800 m), Mentyukov's aircraft had been modified to achieve higher altitudes, having its weapons removed. With no weapons, the only attack option open to him was aerial ramming. Mentyukov asserted that Soviet generals concealed these facts to avoid challenging Nikita Khrushchev's faith in the efficiency of Soviet air defenses.[55]

Sergei Khrushchev

In 2000, Sergei Khrushchev wrote about the experience of his father, Nikita Khrushchev, in the incident. He described how Mentyukov attempted to intercept the U-2, but failed to gain visual contact. Major Mikhail Voronov, in control of a battery of anti-aircraft missiles, fired three SA-2s at the radar contact but only one ignited. It quickly rose toward the target and exploded in the air behind the U-2 but near enough to violently shake the aircraft, tearing off its long wings. At a lower altitude, Powers climbed out of the falling fuselage and parachuted to the ground. Uncertainty about the initial shootdown success resulted in 13 further anti-aircraft missiles being fired by neighboring batteries, but the later missiles only hit a pursuing MiG-19 piloted by Sr. Lt. Sergei Safronov, mortally wounding him.[17] This account of the events that occurred during the mission match the details that were given to the CIA by Gary Powers. According to Powers, a missile exploded behind him and after this occurred his U-2 began to nosedive. It is at this point that Powers began to make all of the preparations to eject. Powers landed safely and tried to hide in the Russian countryside until he could get help. His attempts to do this failed and he was captured.[21] Sergei Safronov was posthumously awarded the Order of the Red Banner.[11]

Film

In 2015 the Steven Spielberg feature film Bridge of Spies was released, which dramatized James B. Donovan (Tom Hanks [56])'s negotiations for Powers' release, but took certain liberties with what really happened. For instance, Powers is shown being tortured by the Soviets, when in reality he was treated well by his captors and spent much of his time doing handicrafts.[57]

In January 2016, the BBC magazine produced photographs from the time and an interview with Powers's son.[58]

See also

General:

Analogous incidents:

References

  1. ^ Samoylov, Boris (1 February 2012), "Загадка первомая 1960 года – часть I" [Riddle of May Day 1960 – Part I], Военно-промышленный курьер (Military-Industrial Courier, VPK) (in Russian) (4 (421)), retrieved 21 May 2013
  2. ^ Walsh, Kenneth T. (6 June 2008). "Presidential Lies and Deceptions". US News and World Report. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008.
  3. ^ a b c Orlov, Alexander. "The U-2 Program: A Russian Officer Remembers". Archived from the original on 13 July 2006. Retrieved 8 January 2007.
  4. ^ Amjad Ali, the Pakistani ambassador to the US at the time, narrated in his book Glimpses (Lahore: Jang Publishers, 1992) that the personal assistant of Suhrawardy advised embassy staff of the Prime Minister's agreement to the US facility on Pakistan soil.
  5. ^ Brugioni, Dino A., and Doris G. Taylor. Eyes in the Sky: Eisenhower, the CIA, and Cold War Aerial Espionage (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute, 2010), pp. 343–46.
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  11. ^ a b c d Банцер, Сергей (Sergey Bantser). "Как сбили Пауэрса" [How Powers was shot down] (in Russian). Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  12. ^ "Таким образом, всего по Lockheed U-2 и двум МиГ было выпущено семь ракет. Еще одну (восьмую) ракету выпустил зенитный ракетный дивизион соседнего полка под командованием полковника Ф. Савинова." Юрий Кнутов, Олег Фаличев. Бой в небе над Уралом Retrieved 13 January 2012
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  18. ^ Brugioni and Taylor (2010), p. 346.
  19. ^ Congressional Record, 5-5-60, pp. 9493–94; quoted in Barrett (2005), p. 384.
  20. ^ David M. Barrett, CIA and Congress: The Untold Story from Truman to Kennedy (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2005), p. 384.
  21. ^ a b Brugioni and Taylor (2010), pp. 346–47.
  22. ^ a b Tucker, Spencer C. The Encyclopedia of the Cold War: A Political, Social, and Military History. (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2008) pp. 1319–1320
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  24. ^ Thompson to State Department, 5-9-60, FRUS: Eastern Europe, 1955–1957, Soviet Union, vol 10, pp. 519–21; quoted in Barrett (2005), p. 387.
  25. ^ Whitman Diary, Whitman File, DDE diary, 5-9-60. Box 5, DDE Library; quoted in Barrett (2005), p. 387.
  26. ^ Congressional Record, 5-9-60, pp. 9979–87, A3941. "Briefing of Congressional Leadership ... 9 May 1960," Dulles FOIA Papers; quoted in Barrett (2005), p. 388–89.
  27. ^ Congressional Record, 5-10-60, pp. 9854–55; quoted in Barrett (2005), p. 395–97.
  28. ^ Barrett (2005), p. 397.
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  32. ^ Fjørtoft, Kjell, "Spionfamilien", Gyldendal norsk forlag, 1986, Oslo
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  36. ^ Beschloss, Michael (1986). Mayday: Eisenhower, Khrushchev, and the U-2 Affair. New York: Harper & Row. p. 274. ISBN 978-0-06-015565-0.
  37. ^ Summit Crisis. Mr. K. In Ugly Mood Over U-2 Incident, 1960/05/16 (1960) (newsreel). Universal-International News. 16 May 1960. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
  38. ^ a b "Modern History Sourcebook: Khrushchev and Eisenhower: Summit Statements, May 16, 1960". Retrieved 22 May 2013.
  39. ^ Geelhoed, Bruce E.; Anthony O. Edmonds (2003). Eisenhower, Macmillan, and Allied Unity, 1957–1961. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-333-64227-6.
  40. ^ a b Tucker (2008), p. 1320.
  41. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report 857. S/PV/857 23 May 1960. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
  42. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report 858. S/PV/858 24 May 1960. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
  43. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report 859. S/PV/859 25 May 1960. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
  44. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report 860. S/PV/860 26 May 1960. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
  45. ^ United Nations Security Council Verbatim Report 860. S/PV/860 page 17. 26 May 1960. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
  46. ^ United Nations Security Council Document 4321. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: draft resolution S/4321 23 May 1960. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
  47. ^ Hamid Hussain. "Tale of a love affair that never was: United States-Pakistan Defence Relations". Archived 4 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine The Defence Journal, June 2002.
  48. ^ "Pentagon's new demands". The News International. 14 March 2008. Archived from the original on 16 October 2008.
  49. ^ Bogle, Lori Lynn, ed. (2001), The Cold War, Routledge, p. 104. 978-0815337218.
  50. ^ "Three days in 300 years: Spies on the bridge". Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  51. ^ Lax, Mark. From Controversy to Cutting Edge: A History of the F-111 in Australian Service. Canberra, Australia: Air Power Development Centre, Department of Defence (Australia). p. 15. ISBN 978-1-920800-54-3.
  52. ^ Penkovsky, Oleg (1966). The Penkovsky Papers: The Russian Who Spied for the West. London: Collins. OCLC 2714427.
  53. ^ "CIA documents show US never believed Gary Powers was shot down". The Times. Times Newspapers Limited. (Registration required (help)).
  54. ^ Schwartz, Stephen I. (1998). Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons Since 1940. Brookings Institution Press. p. 679. ISBN 0-8157-7774-4.
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Further reading

  • Sergei N. Khrushchev. Nikita Khrushchev and the Creation of a Superpower. State College, PA: Penn State Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-271-01927-7.
  • Jay Miller. Lockheed U-2; Aerograph 3. Aerofax Inc., 1983 (paperback) ISBN 0-942548-04-3.
  • Pickett, William B. (2007). "Eisenhower, Khrushchev, and the U-2 Affair: A Forty-six Year Retrospective". In Clifford, J. Garry; Wilson, Theodore A. Presidents, Diplomats, and Other Mortals: Essays Honoring Robert H. Ferrell. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press. pp. 137–153. ISBN 978-0-8262-1747-9.
  • Chris Pocock. Dragon Lady; The History of the U-2 Spyplane. Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International, 1989 (paperback). ISBN 978-0-87938-393-0.
  • Chris Pocock. 50 Years of the U-2; The Complete Illustrated History of the "Dragon Lady". Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military History, 2005. ISBN 978-0-7643-2346-1.
  • Phil Taubman. Secret Empire: Eisenhower, the CIA, and the Hidden Story of America's Space Espionage. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003. ISBN 0-684-85699-9.
  • David M. Watry. Diplomacy at the Brink: Eisenhower, Churchill, and Eden in the Cold War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2014.
  • Nigel West, Seven Spies Who Changed the World. London: Secker & Warburg, 1991 (hard cover). ISBN 978-0-436-56603-5. London: Mandarin, 1992 (paperback). ISBN 978-0-7493-0620-5.

External links

American Experience (season 8)

Season eight of the television program American Experience originally aired on the PBS network in the United States on October 16, 1995 and concluded on February 26, 1996. The season contained nine new episodes and began with the film Murder of the Century.

American espionage in the Soviet Union and Russian Federation

The United States has conducted espionage against the Soviet Union and its successor state, the Russian Federation.

Arms race

An arms race, in its original usage, is a competition between two or more states to have the best armed forces. Each party competes to produce more weapons, larger military, superior military technology.

International conflict specialist Theresa Clair Smith, defines the term as "the participation of two or more nation-states in apparently competitive or interactive increases in quantity or quality of war material and/or persons under arms."The term is also used to describe any long-term escalating competitive situation where each competitor focuses on out-doing the others.

Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan)

Mohammad Ayub Khan (Pashto: محمد ایوب خان‎; 14 May 1907 – 19 April 1974), HPk, NPk, HJ, MBE, was a Pakistani military dictator and the second President of Pakistan who forcibly assumed the presidency from the first President Iskander Mirza through coup in 1958, the first successful coup d'état of the country. The popular demonstrations and labour strikes which were supported by the protests in East Pakistan ultimately led to his forced resignation in 1969.

Trained at the British Royal Military College, Ayub Khan fought in World War II as a Colonel in the British Indian Army before deciding to transfer to join the Pakistan Army as an aftermath of partition of British India in 1947. His command assignment included his role as commander of the 14th Division in East-Bengal and elevated as the first native Commander-in-Chief of the Pakistan Army in 1951 by then-Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan in a controversial promotion over several senior officers. From 1953–58, he served in the civilian government as Defence and Home Minister and supported President Iskander Mirza's decision to impose martial law against Prime Minister Feroze Khan's administration in 1958. Two weeks later, he took over the presidency from Mirza after the meltdown of civil-military relations between the military and the civilian President.After appointing General Musa Khan as an army c-in-c in 1958, the policy inclination towards the alliance with the United States was pursued that saw the allowance of American access to facilities inside Pakistan, most notably the airbase outside of Peshawar, from which spy missions over the Soviet Union were launched. Relations with neighboring China were strengthened but deteriorated with Soviet Union in 1962, and with India in 1965. His presidency saw the war with India, in which Pakistan managed to gain an advantage, but a peace treaty would be signed, which ended Pakistan's war. In 1965 ended with the Soviet Union facilitating the Tashkent Declaration between two nations. At home front, the policy of privatisation and industrialization was introduced that made the country's economy as Asia's fastest-growing economies. During his tenure, several infrastructure programs were built that consisted the completion of hydroelectric stations, dams and reservoirs, as well as prioritizing the space program but reducing the nuclear deterrence.

In 1965, Ayub Khan entered in a presidential race as PML candidate to counter the popular and famed non-partisan Fatima Jinnah and controversially reelected for the second term. He was faced with allegations of widespread intentional vote riggings, authorized political murders in Karachi, and the politics over the unpopular peace treaty with India which many Pakistanis considered an embarrassing compromise. In 1967, he was widely disapproved when the demonstrations across the country were led by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto over the price hikes of food consumer products and, dramatically fell amid the popular uprising in East led by Mujibur Rahman in 1969. Forced to resign to avoid further protests while inviting army chief Yahya Khan to impose martial law for the second time, he fought a brief illness and died in 1974.

His legacy remains mixed; he is credited with an ostensible economic prosperity and what supporters dub the "decade of development", but is criticized for beginning the first of the intelligence agencies' incursions into the national politics, for concentrating corrupt wealth in a few hands, and segregated policies that later led to the breaking-up of nation's unity that resulted in the creation of Bangladesh.

Eisenhower commemorative dollar

The Eisenhower Commemorative Dollar is a United States commemorative coin minted in 1990 to celebrate the 100th Anniversary of the birth of General/President Dwight D. Eisenhower. This coin is not to be confused with the Eisenhower Dollar which was a regular issue American coin.

Francis Gary Powers

Francis Gary Powers (August 17, 1929 – August 1, 1977)—often referred to as simply Gary Powers—was an American pilot whose Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) U-2 spy plane was shot down while flying a reconnaissance mission in Soviet Union airspace, causing the 1960 U-2 incident.

He later worked as a helicopter pilot for KNBC and died in a 1977 helicopter crash.

Frederic Pryor

Frederic L. Pryor (born 1933) is an American economist. He is known for his role during his student years in a noted Cold War "spy swap" subsequent to the 1960 U-2 incident. He has taught or researched Economics at Yale University, the University of California, the University of Michigan, the University of Paris, the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva, and several other universities. He joined the Swarthmore College faculty in 1967.

Karl G. Harr Jr.

Karl Gottlieb Harr Jr. (born August 3, 1922–March 5, 2002) was an American defense policy expert.

Harr was born in South Orange, New Jersey. He attended Princeton University, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree magna cum laude in 1943. Princeton awarded Harr the Moses Taylor Pyne Honor Prize, Princeton's highest undergraduate honor.

Harr held two positions from 1956 to 1961, which enabled him to observe and participate in the inner workings of the National Security Council (NSC). In November 1956, he became Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs and alternate Defense member of the NSC Planning Board. This position enabled him to become familiar with the functions, organization, and procedures of the National Security Council and the Operations Coordinating Board. In 1958, he was appointed Special Assistant to the President for Security Operations Coordination and vice chairman of the Operations Coordinating Board. In this position, his functions were to seek to ensure coordinated implementation of national security policies in the programs and operations of various government departments and agencies, and to report to the President and the NSC on the effectiveness of operations coordination and implementation of national security policies.

Throughout his professional life, Harr corresponded with a number of prominent individuals. Some of his correspondents include Nelson Rockefeller, Charles Douglas Jackson, David Sarnoff, Walter Bedell Smith, William Kintner, Hubert Humphrey, Townsend Hoopes, Robert Cutler, Robert Bowie, T. Keith Glennan, Clarence B. Randall, Lewis Strauss, Gordon Gray, and Walt Whitman Rostow. His correspondence discussed such subjects as proposals for political warfare with the Communists, U.S. foreign policy, response to Sputnik, psychological warfare, the work of the United States Information Agency, Laos, OCB committee work, developments in Germany, the Sprague Report, and the 1960 U-2 incident.

List of Soviet Union–United States summits

Soviet Union–United States summits were held from 1943 to 1991. The topics discussed at the summits between the President of the United States and either the General Secretary or the Premier of the Soviet Union ranged from fighting the Axis Powers during World War II to arms control between the two superpowers themselves during the Cold War.

List of accolades received by Bridge of Spies (film)

Bridge of Spies is a 2015 historical legal thriller directed by Steven Spielberg. The screenplay was written by Matt Charman and Joel and Ethan Coen. The film is set during the Cold War and is based on the 1960 U-2 incident and its aftermath. Tom Hanks plays lawyer James B. Donovan who is tasked with negotiating the release of the captured American pilot Francis Gary Powers (Austin Stowell) in exchange for the convicted KGB spy Rudolf Abel (Mark Rylance). Alan Alda, Sebastian Koch, and Amy Ryan feature in supporting roles.The film premiered at the 53rd New York Film Festival on October 4, 2015. Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures gave the film a wide release on October 16 at over 2,800 theaters in the United States and Canada. Bridge of Spies grossed a worldwide total of over $165 million on a production budget of $40 million. Rotten Tomatoes, a review aggregator, surveyed 261 reviews and judged 91% to be positive. The film garnered many awards and nominations in a variety of categories with particular praise for Rylance's performance.

Bridge of Spies received six nominations at the 88th Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Original Screenplay, and Best Original Score. Rylance went on to win the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor. At the 69th British Academy Film Awards, the film garnered nine nominations and won Best Supporting Actor for Rylance. He also won the Best Supporting Actor award from the AACTA Awards, New York Film Critics Circle, London Film Critics' Circle, Toronto Film Critics Association, and Vancouver Film Critics Circle. Rylance also received nominations at the Golden Globe Awards and the Screen Actors Guild Awards. Both the American Film Institute and the National Board of Review included Bridge of Spies in their top ten films of 2015.

List of conflicts related to the Cold War

While the Cold War itself never escalated into direct confrontation, there were a number of conflicts related to the Cold War around the globe, spanning the entirety of the period usually prescribed to it (March 12, 1947 to December 26, 1991, a total of 44 years, 9 months, and 2 weeks).

Operation Grand Slam (disambiguation)

Operation Grand Slam was a military operational plan used by the Pakistan Army during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965.

Operation Grand Slam may also refer to:

A fictional scheme featured in:

Goldfinger (novel), a 1959 James Bond novel by Ian Fleming

Goldfinger (film), a 1964 James Bond film based on the Ian Fleming novel

the code name for U.S. espionage mission 4154 over the Soviet Union that led to the 1960 U-2 incident

the name of a United Nations-led military offensive operation launched in December 1962 during the Congo Crisis

S-75 Dvina

The S-75 (Russian: С-75; NATO reporting name SA-2 Guideline) is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defence system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance. Following its first deployment in 1957 it became one of the most widely deployed air defence systems in history. It scored the first destruction of an enemy aircraft by a surface-to-air missile, with the shooting down of a Taiwanese Martin RB-57D Canberra over China on 7 October 1959 that was hit by a salvo of three V-750 (1D) missiles at an altitude of 20 km (65,600 ft). This success was credited to Chinese fighter aircraft at the time in order to keep the S-75 program secret.This system first gained international fame when an S-75 battery, using the newer, longer-range and higher-altitude V-750VN (13D) missile was deployed in the 1960 U-2 incident, when it shot down the U-2 of Francis Gary Powers overflying the Soviet Union on May 1, 1960. The system was also deployed in Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis, when it shot down another U-2 (piloted by Rudolf Anderson) overflying Cuba on October 27, 1962, almost precipitating a nuclear war. North Vietnamese forces used the S-75 extensively during the Vietnam War to defend Hanoi and Haiphong. It has also been locally produced in the People's Republic of China using the names HQ-1 and HQ-2.

These Guys Are from England and Who Gives a Shit

These Guys Are from England and Who Gives a Shit is the 2001 re-release of the U2 EP by Negativland. It contains both tracks from the original EP, plus some tracks from the 1989 Over the Edge broadcasts on which the original EP was based, as well as live tracks recorded at the Great American Music Hall in San Francisco. The album was called a "bootleg" and released under "Seelard Records" as a joke, but in fact it was a real release by the band. Several of the live tracks on the album contain the same samples of a profane Casey Kasem as had appeared on the U2 EP set to a different musical arrangement, which includes a spoken portion which in part borrows from the lyrics of "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction". Other live tracks made reference to the band's battle with SST Records and to the 1960 U-2 incident.

Ulbricht Doctrine

The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could occur only if both states fully recognised each other's sovereignty. That contrasted with the Hallstein Doctrine, a West German policy which insisted that West Germany was the only legitimate German state.

East Germany gained acceptance of its view from fellow Communist states, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria, which all agreed not to normalise relations with West Germany until it recognised East German sovereignty.

West Germany eventually abandoned its Hallstein Doctrine, instead adopting the policies of Ostpolitik. In December 1972, a Basic Treaty between East and West Germany was signed that reaffirmed two German states as separate entities. The treaty also allowed the exchange of diplomatic missions and the entry of both German states to the United Nations as full members.

United States aerial reconnaissance of the Soviet Union

Between 1946 and 1960, the United States Air Force conducted aerial reconnaissance flights over the Soviet Union in order to determine the size, composition, and disposition of Soviet forces. Aircraft used included the Boeing B-47 Stratojet bomber and—from 1956—the Lockheed U-2 spy plane specifically designed for high-altitude reconnaissance flight. The overflight program was ended following the 1960 U-2 incident.

Western Bloc

The Western Bloc during the Cold War refers to capitalist countries under the hegemony of the United States and NATO against the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact. The latter were referred to as the Eastern Bloc. The governments and press of the Western Bloc were more inclined to refer to themselves as the "Free World" or the "Western world", whereas the Eastern Bloc was often called the "Communist world or Second world".

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