1960 Turkish coup d'état

The 1960 Turkish coup d'état (Turkish: 27 Mayıs Darbesi) was the first coup d'état in the Republic of Turkey. The coup was staged by a group of 38[1] young Turkish military officers, acting outside the Staff Chiefs' chain of command. It was orchestrated by Alparslan Türkeş and ultimately led on May 27, 1960 by General Cemal Gürsel,[2] against the democratically-elected government of the Democrat Party. Alparslan Türkeş was a member of the junta (National Unity Committee).

1960 Turkish coup d'etat
Date27 May 1960
Location
Result

Coup successful

Belligerents
National Unity Committee Democrat Party Government
Commanders and leaders
Gen. Cemal Gürsel
Lt. Gen. Cemal Madanoğlu
Col. Alparslan Türkeş(debated, Turkish historians argue that he was a double agent working for the government but failed in his duties)(no English sources available)
Celâl Bayar
Adnan Menderes
Units involved
38 Committee members
Casualties and losses
2 soldiers, 1 civilian 7 Democrat Party Members

Background

The incident took place at a time of both socio-political turmoil and economic hardship, as US aid from the Truman doctrine and the Marshall Plan was running out and so Prime Minister Adnan Menderes planned to visit Moscow in the hope of establishing alternative lines of credit.[3][4][5]

Coup

Colonel Alparslan Türkeş orchestrated the plot. He was a member of the junta (National Unity Committee) and had been among the first 16 officers trained by the United States in 1948 to form a stay-behind counter-guerrilla. As such, he explicitly stated his anticommunism and his faith and allegiance to NATO and CENTO in his short address to nation, but he remained vague on the reasons of the coup. On the morning of May 27, Türkeş declared the coup over radio, which ultimately announced "the end of one period in Turkish history, and usher in a new one":

The Great Turkish Nation: Starting at 3:00 am on the 27th of May, the Turkish armed forces have taken over administration throughout the entire country. This operation, thanks to the close cooperation of all our citizens and security forces, has succeeded without loss of life. Until further notice, a curfew has been imposed, exempt only to members of the armed forces. We request our citizens to facilitate the duty of our armed forces, and assist in reestablishing the nationally desired democratic regime.

— Alparslan Türkeş, Radio broadcast May, 27th 1960[6]

In a press conference on the following day, Cemal Gürsel emphasized that the "purpose and the aim of the coup is to bring the country with all speed to a fair, clean and solid democracy.... I want to transfer power and the administration of the nation to the free choice of the people"[7] Thus, the coup removed a democratically-elected government but expressed the intent to install a democratically-elected government.

Purge

The junta forced 235 generals and more than 3,000 other commissioned officers into retirement; purged more than 500 judges and public prosecutors and 1400 university faculty members and put the chief of the General Staff, the president, the prime minister and other members of the administration under arrest.[8][9] It followed by the appointment of the commander of the army General Cemal Gürsel, as the provisional head of state, prime minister and the minister of defense.

Yassıada trials

Members of the Turkish government who were hanged after the Yassıada jurisdiction.

Adnan Menderes VI. Yasama Dönemi
Fatin Rüştü Zorlu
Hasan Polatkan

The minister of the interior, Namık Gedik, committed suicide while he was detained in the Turkish Military Academy. President Celal Bayar, prime minister Adnan Menderes and several other members of the administration were put on trial before a court appointed by the junta on the island Yassıada in the Sea of Marmara. The politicians were charged with high treason, misuse of public funds and abrogation of the constitution.

The tribunals ended with the execution of Adnan Menderes, Minister of Foreign Affairs Fatin Rüştü Zorlu and Minister of Finance Hasan Polatkan on İmralı island on 16 September 1961.

Aftermath

Constitutional referendum was held on 9 July 1961. A new constitution was drawn up to replace the one from 1924. It was approved by 61.7% of voters, with an 81.0% turnout.[10]

A month after the execution of Menderes and other members of the Turkish government, general elections were held on 15 October 1961. The administrative authority was returned to civilians, but the military continued to dominate the political scene until October 1965.[7] General İsmet İnönü held the office of Prime Minister for the third time from 1961 to 1965. Turkish Army Colonel Talat Aydemir organised two failed coups d'etat in February 1962 and May 1963. In the first free elections after the coup, in 1965, Süleyman Demirel was elected and held the office until 1971, when he was removed by another coup.

See also

References

  1. ^ Gunn, Christopher (Spring 2015). "The 1960 Coup in Turkey: A U.S. Intelligence Failure or a Successful Intervention?". Journal of Cold War Studies. 17 (2): 103. doi:10.1162/JCWS_a_00550.
  2. ^ "Military interventions in Turkey". Retrieved 17 August 2014.
  3. ^ Çavdar, Tevfik (1996). "Birinci Bölüm". Türkiye'nin Demokrasi Tarihi 1950-1995 (in Turkish) (2nd ed.).
  4. ^ "Darbe olmasaydı Menderes Moskova'ya gidecekti". Zaman Gazetesi (in Turkish). 24 May 2008. Archived from the original on 1 September 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  5. ^ "Menderes'i Nato Astırdı". Habertürk (in Turkish). 28 May 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  6. ^ Dilipak, Abdurrahman (1991). Ihtilaller Donemi. Istanbul: Dogan Ofset. p. 70.
  7. ^ a b http://www.allaboutturkey.com/darbe.htm
  8. ^ Mümtaz'er, Türköne (27 May 2010). "27 Mayıs'ın hesabı". Zaman Gazetesi (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  9. ^ "Cunta, en büyük tasfiyeyi yargıda ve orduda yaptı". Zaman Gazetesi (in Turkish). 31 May 2010. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013. Retrieved 2 May 2013.
  10. ^ Dieter Nohlen, Florian Grotz & Christof Hartmann (2001) Elections in Asia: A data handbook, Volume I, p254 ISBN 0-19-924958-X

External links

11th Parliament of Turkey

The 11th Grand National Assembly of Turkey existed from 27 October 1957 to 27 May 1960.

There were 610 MPs in the parliament. While The Democrat Party (DP) won wast majority the opposition was represented by the Republican People’s Party (CHP) with 173 seats, the Republican Nation Party (CMP) and Liberty Party (HP) each with 4 seats and 2 Independents.

23rd government of Turkey

The 23rd government of Turkey (25 December 1957 – 27 May 1960) was a government in the history of Turkey. It is also called the fifth Menderes government.

24th government of Turkey

The 24th government of Turkey (30 May 1960 – 5 January 1961) was a government in the history of Turkey. It is also called the first Gürsel government.

26th government of Turkey

The 26th government of Turkey (20 November 1961 – 25 June 1962), also known as the first coalition government of Turkey and the eight government of İsmet İnönü, was the first civilian government following the 1960 Turkish coup d'état. The prime minister, İsmet İnönü, was the leader of the Republican People's Party (CHP) and a former president of Turkey. The CHP was joined in coalition by the Justice Party (AP).

28th government of Turkey

The 28th government of Turkey (25 December 1963 – 20 February 1965) is the third coalition government of Turkey. The prime minister, İsmet İnönü, was the leader of Republican People's Party (CHP) and a former president.

Aksiyon

Aksiyon (English: Action) was a Turkish news magazine. The magazine was close to the Gulen movement. It was established by Feza Publications in 1994. In 2008 it was described by its Today's Zaman sister newspaper as "the most widely read Turkish weekly magazine" (its nearly 40,000 circulation accounted for over half the weekly news magazine market). Its circulation had increased from around 15,000 in 2001. It broke some major stories including (May 1996) a secret military agreement between Turkey and Israel; and comments by Major Şefik Soyuyüce admitting the use of students to create a crisis in preparation for the 1960 Turkish coup d'état.Past editors of Aksiyon were İbrahim Karayeğen (2002–2004), Mehmet Yılmaz (2004–2008) and Bülent Korucu (from 2008). Contributors included İdris Gürsoy, Zafer Özcan, Mehmet Baransu and Aydoğan Vatandaş.

The magazine was a member of BPA Worldwide. Competitors included Tempo.

Committee of Inquest

Committee of Inquest (Turkish: Tahkikat komisyonu) was a political committee in Turkey which is usually considered as one of the reasons of the 1960 Turkish coup d'état

Constituent Assembly of Turkey

The Constituent Assembly of Turkey (also called the chamber of deputies) existed from 6 January 1961 to 24 October 1961. It was established by the military rule of 1960 Turkish coup d'état. About half of the members were appointed by the military rule and the rest were the elected members. Among the elected members there were Republican People’s Party (CHP) and Republican Nation Party members as well as various NGO members. But the former Democrat Party (DP) members were not allowed in the parliament.

Hüsamettin Cindoruk

Ahmet Hüsamettin Cindoruk (born 1933) is a Turkish politician and the 17th Speaker of the Parliament of Turkey between 1991-1995. He was also the acting president of Turkey in 1993 and the leader of two political parties, notably of the True Path Party.

List of mayors of Alanya

This is a list of mayors of Alanya, Turkey. Since becoming a "Belediye" (municipality) in 1872, Alanya has had eighteen mayors. Briefly following the 1960 Turkish coup d'état the city had an appointed mayor.

Ahmet Asim Bey (1901 - 1904)

Hacı Hafız Kadri (1904 - 1905)

Ahmet Talat (1905 - 1927)

Hüsnü Şifa (1927 - 1930)

Hüseyin Hacikadiroğlu (1930 - 1936)

Hüseyin Okan (1936 - 1942)

Şükrü Ulusoy (1942 - 1950)

Mithat Görgün (1950 - 1959)

Yahya Barcin (1959 - 1960)

İzzet Azakoğlu (1963 - 1973)

Eşref Kahvecioğlu (1973 - 1980)

Şevket Tokuş (1980 - 1982)

Sıtkı Ulu (1982 - 1984)

Müstakbel Dim (1984 - 1989)

Cengiz Aydoğan (1989 - 1999)

Mustafa Bekar (1999 - 1999)

Hasan Sipahioğlu (1999 - 2014)

Adem Murat Yücel (2014–present)

List of presidents of Turkey

The following is a complete list of people who held the office of President of Turkey. There have been twelve heads of state since the inception of the republican period in 1923, following the Turkish War of Independence.

For a list of rulers of the predecessor Ottoman Empire, see List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire.

Mahmut Tolon

Dr. Tolon is a farmer, physician and demographer. He was born on 22 July 1950 in Istanbul. He is the second son of Dr. Nurullah Ihsan Tolon and Mihrizafer Tolon (Kostem).

He attended Ankara Koleji 1955-1964 and Nicolaus Cusanus Gymnasium in Bad Godesberg, Bonn 1964-1968. During his medical studies at the University of Kiel and University of Bonn he participated in "externships" at the University of Sydney and Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia and Utah, USA with German Academic Exchange Service scholarships. He earned his doctorate (Dr. med.) with a dissertation on UV irradiation of airborne bacteria at the University of Bonn in Germany under the supervision of doctorate advisor Prof. Dr. Edgar Thofern. In Kiel Prof. Fritz Baade de:Fritz Baade was his mentor. He was also influenced by and later became the physician of Celal Bayar and Samed Ağaoğlu, both imprisoned with his father after the 1960 Turkish coup d'état. He worked with Prof. Bohle on Nephropathology in Tübingen and received his degrees in Internal Medicine and Nephrology while at the Lübeck medical faculty.

He is the founder of Biosan outpatient clinic in 1986, a Turco-Germanic joint venture pioneering in extracorporeal kidney stone treatment, ESWL, in Istanbul and Izmir, Turkey. He remained active on the board of Biosan until 2000.

In 1990 Dr. Tolon was the first Turkish doctor to receive an invitation from the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing because of his work on ESWL. In the 1990s he also worked on erosion with Prof. Agadjan Babayev [1] in the Turkmenian Academy of Sciences in Ashgabad.

He has been actively farming since 1992 in Manisa, Akhisar in the Aegean region of Turkey (olives, almonds). Mahmut Tolon currently lives in Urla (District), İzmir, near the ancient site of Limantepe-Klazomenai, teaches a post-graduate course on longevity and co-existence of cultures at Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir and lectures about evolution/Charles Darwin.

His works include:

- 2007 "Bias is Beautiful, or Swan Song for Common Sense" a compelling solution to help cultures come together and find answers to difficult global problems. Where he proposes a parental license and the right of one child for each human.

- 2004 Scientific work on fasting among others with Prof. Herman Chernoff.

- 1993 Poems von einem Gastarbeiter under the pseudonym B.N. Deniz, Germany

- 1993 Keçi ve Zina (Goat and adultery- Essays), Turkey

- 1975 the publication of Dr. Paul Ehrlich's bestseller The Population Bomb in Turkish.

- Various columns in Milliyet and Cumhuriyet

- Various international scientific articles, specifically about UV irradiation and extra-corporeal kidney and gallstone treatments.

National Unity Committee

The National Unity Committee (Turkish: Milli Birlik Komitesi, MBK) was a military committee formed following the 1960 Turkish coup d'état. It dissolved with the 1961 general election.

Necati Çelim

Nuh Necati Çelim (1909, Köşk, Aydın Province, Ottoman Empire – 5 March 1986, Izmir, Turkey) was a Turkish politician, physician, and Member of Parliament (MP) for the Democratic Party (Demokrat Parti). He represented the Aydın Province in the 10th and 11th Turkish parliaments from 1954 to 1960. He was sentenced to death in the Yassıada trials undertaken after the 1960 Turkish coup d'état, but his sentence was later commuted to life in prison. He was given a six-month release in September 1964 due to health problems, and in 1965, he was released from the Kayseri prison along with the rest of the Democratic Party MPs remaining in prison.

Republican Villagers Nation Party

Republican Villagers Nation Party (Turkish: Cumhuriyetçi Köylü Millet Partisi, or CKMP), alternatively translated Republican Peasants' Nation Party, was a former political party in Turkey.

Turkish coup d'état

Turkish coup d'état may refer to:

1960 Turkish coup d'état

1971 Turkish military memorandum

1980 Turkish coup d'état

1993 alleged Turkish military coup

1997 Turkish military memorandum

2003 Sledgehammer (coup plan)

2004 Sarıkız, Ayışığı, Yakamoz and Eldiven

2007 E-memorandum

2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt

2016 Turkish purges

Ulbricht Doctrine

The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could occur only if both states fully recognised each other's sovereignty. That contrasted with the Hallstein Doctrine, a West German policy which insisted that West Germany was the only legitimate German state.

East Germany gained acceptance of its view from fellow Communist states, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria, which all agreed not to normalise relations with West Germany until it recognised East German sovereignty.

West Germany eventually abandoned its Hallstein Doctrine, instead adopting the policies of Ostpolitik. In December 1972, a Basic Treaty between East and West Germany was signed that reaffirmed two German states as separate entities. The treaty also allowed the exchange of diplomatic missions and the entry of both German states to the United Nations as full members.

İlhan Erdost

İlhan Erdost (17 December 1944, Tokat - 7 November 1980, Ankara) was a Turkish publisher.

Erdost started working after elementary school, because of his family’s poverty and World War II. Thereafter, he settled in Ankara with his older brother Muzaffer İlhan Erdost. He started school again there. He adopted Kemalist thinking in his years at high school. After the 1960 Turkish coup d'état, when he was 16, his opinions turned towards the left. Erdost, after high school, entered Ankara University Faculty of Law. At the same time, he worked for Sol Yayınları (Sol Publications), but was not able to finish school. After his brother Muzaffer Erdost was imprisoned on 12 March 1971, he assumed the responsibility of Sol Publications and Onur Publications. In the meantime he married his wife Gül Erdost.

After the 1980 coup d'état, he was charged with having and printing banned publications and was taken into custody. The particular book that occasioned the arrest was Dialectics of Nature by Friedrich Engels. He was beaten to death by soldiers on 7 November 1980 in Mamak Prison.

Leman Sam’s song “Ağıt” was composed for İlhan Erdost. His older brother Muzaffer Erdost, after İlhan Erdost’s death, changed his name to Muzaffer İlhan Erdost.

İsmail Rüştü Aksal

İsmail Rüştü Aksal (1911 – September 13, 1989) was a civil servant and politician in Turkey.

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