1960 Democratic National Convention

The 1960 Democratic National Convention was held in Los Angeles, California, on July 11–July 15, 1960. It nominated Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts for President and Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas for Vice President.

In the general election, the Kennedy–Johnson ticket won an electoral college victory and a narrow popular vote plurality (slightly over 110,000 nationally) over the Republican candidates Vice President Richard M. Nixon and UN Ambassador Henry C. Lodge II.

Due to its size, the Biltmore Hotel was selected to serve as the headquarters hotel for the Democratic National Committee. It also housed command-posts for the campaigns of the various candidates seeking the nomination, temporary studio spaces for the television networks, and workspaces for select print journalists.[1]

1960 Democratic National Convention
1960 presidential election
John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait (cropped 3x4) A
37 Lbj2 3x4
Nominees
Kennedy and Johnson
Convention
Date(s)July 11–15, 1960
CityLos Angeles, California
VenueLos Angeles Memorial Sports Arena
Candidates
Presidential nomineeJohn F. Kennedy of Massachusetts
Vice Presidential nomineeLyndon B. Johnson of Texas

Prologue

Los angeles memorial sports arena3
The Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena (pictured in 2007) was the site of the 1960 Democratic National Convention

The major candidates for the 1960 Democratic presidential nomination were Kennedy, Governor Pat Brown of California, Senator Stuart Symington of Missouri, Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas, former Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson,[2] Senator Wayne Morse of Oregon, and Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota. Several other candidates sought support in their home state or region as "favorite son" candidates without any realistic chance of winning the nomination. Symington, Stevenson, and Johnson all declined to campaign in the presidential primaries. While this reduced their potential delegate count going into the Democratic National Convention, each of these three candidates hoped that the other leading contenders would stumble in the primaries, thus causing the convention's delegates to choose him as a "compromise" candidate acceptable to all factions of the party.

Kennedy was initially dogged by suggestions from some Democratic Party elders (such as former President Harry S. Truman, who was supporting Symington) that he was too youthful and inexperienced to be president; these critics suggested that he should agree to be the running mate for another Democrat. Realizing that this was a strategy touted by his opponents to keep the public from taking him seriously, Kennedy stated frankly, "I'm not running for vice-president, I'm running for president."[3]

1960 Dem Primaries
1960 Democratic primaries results

The next step was the primaries. Kennedy's Roman Catholic religion was an issue. Kennedy first challenged Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey in the Wisconsin primary and defeated him. Kennedy's attractive sisters, brothers, and wife Jacqueline combed the state looking for votes, leading Humphrey to complain that he "felt like an independent merchant competing against a chain store."[4] However, some political experts argued that Kennedy's margin of victory had come almost entirely from Catholic areas, and thus Humphrey decided to continue the contest in the heavily Protestant state of West Virginia. The first televised debate of 1960 was held in West Virginia, and Kennedy outperformed Humphrey.[5] Humphrey's campaign was low on funds and could not compete for advertising and other "get-out-the-vote" drives with Kennedy's well-financed and well-organized campaign. In the end, Kennedy defeated Humphrey with over 60% of the vote, and Humphrey ended his presidential campaign. West Virginia showed that Kennedy, a Catholic, could win in a heavily Protestant state. Although Kennedy had only competed in nine presidential primaries,[6] Kennedy's rivals, Johnson and Symington, failed to campaign in any primaries. Even though Stevenson had twice been the Democratic Party's presidential candidate and retained a loyal following of liberals, his two landslide defeats to Republican Dwight Eisenhower led most party leaders and delegates to search for a "fresh face" who could win a national election. Following the primaries, Kennedy traveled around the nation speaking to state delegations and their leaders. As the Democratic Convention opened, Kennedy was far in the lead, but was still seen as being just short of the delegate total he needed to win.

In the week before the convention opened, Kennedy received two new challengers when Lyndon B. Johnson, the powerful Senate Majority Leader from Texas, and Adlai Stevenson II, the party's nominee in 1952 and 1956, announced their candidacies. Johnson challenged Kennedy to a televised debate before a joint meeting of the Texas and Massachusetts delegations; Kennedy accepted. Most observers felt that Kennedy won the debate, and Johnson was not able to expand his delegate support beyond the South. Stevenson was popular among many liberal delegates, especially in California, but his two landslide defeats in 1952 and 1956 led party leaders to search for a "fresh face" who had a better chance of winning.

Two Johnson supporters, including John B. Connally, brought up the question of Kennedy's health. Connally said that Kennedy had Addison's disease. JFK press secretary Pierre Salinger of California denied the story. A Kennedy physician, Janet Travell, released a statement that the senator's adrenal glands were functioning adequately and that he was no more susceptible to infection than anyone else. It was also denied that Kennedy was on cortisone.[7]

Platform

The Democratic platform in 1960 was the longest yet.[8] They called for a loosening of tight economic policy: "We Democrats believe that the economy can and must grow at an average rate of 5 percent annually, almost twice as fast as our annual rate since 1953...As the first step in speeding economic growth, a Democratic president will put an end to the present high-interest-rate, tight-money policy."[9] Other planks included national defense, disarmament, civil rights, immigration, foreign aid, the economy, labor and tax reform. Senator Sam Ervin of North Carolina attempted to soften the party's plank on civil rights. A speech by Hawaii delegate Patsy Mink persuaded two-thirds of the party to keep their progressive stance on the issue.[8][10]

Presidential nomination

On July 13, 1960, the third day of the convention, Kennedy gained a narrow majority on the first ballot, with campaign manager Robert Kennedy securing critical delegates at the last minute. The final tally was:

John F. Kennedy Democratic presidential candidate 1960 Los Angeles
Kennedy arrives at the convention after being named the Democratic party's presidential candidate, July 13, 1960.
Democratic National Convention presidential vote, 1960
Candidate Votes Percentage
John F. Kennedy 806 52.89%
Lyndon B. Johnson 409 26.84%
Stuart Symington 86 5.64%
Adlai Stevenson 79.5 5.25%
Robert B. Meyner 43 2.82%
Hubert Humphrey 41 2.76%
George A. Smathers 30 1.97%
Ross Barnett 23 1.51%
Herschel Loveless 2 0.13%
Pat Brown 1 0%
Orval Faubus 1 0%
Albert Rosellini 1 0%
Abstentions 1.0 0.00%

Kennedy was the first senator since 1920 to be nominated for the presidency by either the Democrats or the Republicans.[8] On the last day of the convention, Kennedy delivered his acceptance speech from the adjacent Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. In Kennedy's acceptance speech he spoke about how Americans may be hesitant about him, because of his faith. In his speech he said, "I am fully aware of the fact that the Democratic party, by nominating someone of my faith, has taken on what many regard as a new and hazardous risk." He goes on to breakdown the hesitance some may have about his Catholic faith, "And you have, at the same time, placed your confidence in me, and my ability to render a free, fair, judgment...and to reject any kind of religious pressure or obligation that might directly or indirectly interfere with my conduct of the Presidency in the national interest."[11]

Vice-presidential nomination

LBJ at Democratic Natl Convention 1960 ppmsca.03127
Johnson speaks to a crowd at the Biltmore Hotel

After Kennedy secured the Democratic nomination, he asked Johnson to be his running mate, a move that surprised many, and for several decades, there was much debate about why it was offered to Johnson and why he had accepted. Some speculated that it was a courtesy move for Johnson, who was the Senate Majority Leader, and that Kennedy was surprised when Johnson accepted; Kennedy had preferred Stuart Symington of Missouri or Henry "Scoop" Jackson of Washington as his running mate.

A related story is that after Johnson accepted the offer, Robert Kennedy went to Johnson's hotel suite to dissuade Johnson from becoming the vice-presidential nominee.[12] Johnson was offended that "JFK's kid brother" would brashly urge him to stay off the ticket. In response to his blunt confrontation with Robert Kennedy, Johnson called JFK to confirm that the vice-presidential nomination was his, which JFK confirmed. Milton DeWitt Brinson, a North Carolina delegate, asked Senator Sam Ervin to get down on his knees and beg Johnson if need be to convince him to take the nomination. The record shows that the North Carolina delegation was instrumental in his decision to run. Johnson and Robert Kennedy became so embittered and the episode marked the beginning of the personal and political feud that would have grave implications for the Democratic Party in the 1960s.

Kennedy-Johnson bumper sticker in 2014 DSCN1403
More than a half century after the formation of the Kennedy-Johnson ticket, an admirer in 2014 still displays a campaign sticker on his vehicle in Del Rio, Texas.

In 1993, Evelyn Lincoln, JFK's personal secretary (both before and during his presidency), described how the decision was made in a videotaped interview. She said she was the only witness to a private meeting between John and Robert Kennedy in a suite at the Biltmore Hotel where they made the decision. She said she went in and out of the room as they spoke and, when she was in the room, she heard them say that Johnson had tried to blackmail JFK into offering him the vice presidential nomination with evidence of his womanizing provided by FBI director J. Edgar Hoover, discuss possible ways to avoid making the offer, and conclude JFK had no choice. This portion of the videotape of Lincoln's interview was included in The History Channel's documentary series The Men Who Killed Kennedy, in concluding Episode 9, "The Guilty Men", produced and aired in 2003.[13]

Kennedy announced Johnson as his choice of running-mate on the afternoon of July 14.[14] Johnson was nominated by acclamation that evening.[15] The Chicago Tribune reported that there were shouts of protest from the galleries against the motion to suspend the rules to nominate Johnson, and again when he was acclaimed.[16] Johnson is recorded as receiving 100% of the vote.[17]

In culture

The convention was the setting for Norman Mailer's famous profile of Kennedy, "Superman Comes to the Supermarket," published in Esquire.[18]

DemConv1960 (cropped)
DemConv1960 (cropped)
Preceded by
1956
Chicago, Illinois
Democratic National Conventions Succeeded by
1964
Atlantic City, New Jersey

See also

References

  1. ^ Oliphant, Thomas; Wilkie, Curtis (2017). Road to Camelot. Simon & Schuster.
  2. ^ "The Democratic Governors In 1960 Their Big Year". Time. July 6, 1959. Retrieved November 4, 2008.
  3. ^ Zeleny, Jeff; Bosman, Julie (March 11, 2008). "Obama Rejects Idea of Back Seat on Ticket". The New York Times.
  4. ^ Humphrey, Hubert H. (1992). Kennedy also defeated Morse in the Maryland and Oregon primaries. The Education of a Public Man, p. 152. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-1897-6.
  5. ^ "Our Campaigns – Event – Kennedy-Humphrey Primary Debate – May 4, 1960". Ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved November 4, 2008.
  6. ^ "Another Race To the Finish". The News & Observer. November 2, 2008. Archived from the original on January 15, 2009. Retrieved December 3, 2015.
  7. ^ Geoffrey Perrett, Jack: A Life Like No Other, New York: Random House, 2002, pp. 253–254
  8. ^ a b c "Democratic National Political Conventions 1832–2008" (PDF). Library of Congress. 2008. pp. 19–20. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2009.
  9. ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 293. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.
  10. ^ Mink, Patsy. "undated handwritten notes for speech given in support of civil rights plank at the Democratic National Convention, Los Angeles, California, July 12, 1960". Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved January 6, 2009.
  11. ^ Kennedy, John F. (August 1, 1960). "The Democratic National Convention Acceptance Address". Vital Speeches of the Day. 26: 610–612.
  12. ^ Nash, Knowlton (1984). History on the Run: The Trenchcoat Memoirs of a Foreign Correspondent. Toronto, Canada: McClelland & Stewart. pp. 103–104. ISBN 0-7710-6700-3.
  13. ^ The History Channel (2003). The Men Who Killed Kennedy, Episode 9: The Guilty Men (television documentary series)
  14. ^ White, Theodore (1961). The Making of the President 1960. Giant Cardinal. p. 212.
  15. ^ Lawrence, W. H. (July 15, 1960). "Johnson is Nominated for Vice President; Kennedy Picks Him to Placate the South". New York Times. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  16. ^ Edwards, Willard (July 15, 1961). "It's Kennedy and Johnson". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  17. ^ Our Campaigns - US Vice President - D Convention Race - Jul 11, 1960
  18. ^ Mclellan, Dennis (July 2, 2008). "Clay Felker, 82; editor of New York magazine led New Journalism charge". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 30, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2008.

External links

Multimedia
1960 Democratic Party presidential primaries

The 1960 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1960 U.S. presidential election. Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1960 Democratic National Convention held from July 11 to July 15, 1960, in Los Angeles, California.

1960 Democratic Party vice presidential candidate selection

This article lists those who were potential candidates for the Democratic nomination for Vice President of the United States in the 1960 election. After winning the presidential nomination on the first ballot of the 1960 Democratic National Convention, Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy turned his attention to picking a running mate. Kennedy chose Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson, who had finished second on the presidential ballot, as his running mate. Johnson, a Protestant Texan, provided geographical and religious balance to a ticket led by a Catholic Northeasterner, but many liberals did not like the pick. Many were surprised both that Kennedy made the offer and that Johnson accepted the offer, as the two had been rivals for the 1960 presidential nomination. According to some accounts, Kennedy had offered the position to Johnson as a courtesy and expected Johnson to decline the offer; when Johnson accepted, Kennedy sent his brother, Robert F. Kennedy, to talk Johnson out of accepting the offer. However, Kennedy may have made the offer in earnest due to Johnson's appeal in the south, Johnson's friendly relationship with Speaker of the House Sam Rayburn, and Kennedy's desire to remove Johnson as Senate Majority Leader in favor of the more liberal Mike Mansfield. Regardless, Johnson decided that accepting the offer would be better for his political career and better position himself to become president, and so he chose to become Kennedy's running mate. The Democratic convention confirmed Johnson as the vice presidential nominee, although the delegation from Washington, D.C. attempted to select Minnesota Governor Orville Freeman instead.The Kennedy-Johnson ticket narrowly defeated incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon and his running mate, former Massachusetts Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, in the 1960 election. Johnson ascended to the presidency in 1963 upon the assassination of Kennedy.

Adlai Stevenson II

Adlai Ewing Stevenson II (; February 5, 1900 – July 14, 1965) was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat.

A member of the Democratic Party, Stevenson served in numerous positions in the federal government during the 1930s and 1940s, including the Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA), Federal Alcohol Administration, Department of the Navy, and the State Department. In 1945, he served on the committee that created the United Nations, and he was a member of the initial U.S. delegations to the UN. He was the 31st Governor of Illinois from 1949 to 1953, and received the Democratic Party's nomination for president in the 1952 and 1956 elections.

In both the 1952 and 1956 elections, Stevenson was defeated in landslides by Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower. He sought the Democratic presidential nomination for a third time at the 1960 Democratic National Convention, but was defeated by Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts. After his election, President Kennedy appointed Stevenson as the United States Ambassador to the United Nations. He served from 1961 until his death. He died on July 14, 1965, from heart failure (after a heart attack) in London, following a United Nations conference in Switzerland. Following public memorial services in New York City, Washington, DC, and his childhood hometown of Bloomington, Illinois, he was buried in his family's section in Bloomington's Evergreen Cemetery.

Noted historian Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., who served as one of his speechwriters, described Stevenson as a "great creative figure in American politics. He turned the Democratic Party around in the fifties and made JFK possible...to the United States and the world he was the voice of a reasonable, civilized, and elevated America. He brought a new generation into politics, and moved millions of people in the United States and around the world." Journalist David Halberstam wrote that "Stevenson's gift to the nation was his language, elegant and well-crafted, thoughtful and calming." His biographer Jean H. Baker stated that Stevenson's memory "still survives...as an expression of a different kind of politics - nobler, more issue-oriented, less compliant to the greedy ambitions of modern politicians, and less driven by public opinion polls and the media." W. Willard Wirtz, his friend and law partner, once said "If the Electoral College ever gives an honorary degree, it should go to Adlai Stevenson."

Allan Turner Howe

Allan Turner Howe (September 6, 1927 – December 14, 2000) was a U.S. Representative from Utah.

Born in South Cottonwood near Murray, Utah, Howe attended public schools before receiving a B.S. from the University of Utah in 1952 and a J.D.L. from the same university in 1954. He served in the United States Coast Guard from 1946 to 1947.

He held a number of legal and governmental jobs, including as deputy Salt Lake County attorney, South Salt Lake city attorney, administrative assistant and field representative to U.S. Senator Frank E. Moss from 1959 to 1964, assistant attorney general of Utah from 1965 to 1966, administrative assistant to Governor Calvin L. Rampton from 1966 to 1968, and executive director of the Four Corners Regional Development Commission from 1968 to 1972. He also practiced law in Salt Lake City, served as a delegate to Utah State Democratic conventions from 1954 to 1960 and was an alternate delegate to the 1960 Democratic National Convention.

Howe was elected as a Democrat to the Ninety-fourth Congress in 1974.

After being arrested for soliciting an undercover police officer posing as a prostitute, he lost reelection to Republican Dan Marriott in 1976.

Carl Lauri

Carl Lauri was a Democratic member of the Wisconsin Senate, representing the 25th district from 1955 to 1963.According to the Wisconsin Blue Book (1962), he was born in Superior, Wisconsin, and graduated from Superior State College in 1954. He formerly worked as a railroad clerk, and was a veteran of World War II. He was a delegate to the 1960 Democratic National Convention. He was also the chairman of the 10th District Democratic Party, and a member of the State Democratic Administrative Committee. Elected to the Senate in 1954; re-elected in 1958.Lauri died in 1990.,

Edna F. Kelly

Edna Kelly (née Flannery; August 20, 1906 – December 14, 1997) was an American politician who served as a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from New York.

Kelly was born in East Hampton, New York. She graduated from Hunter College in 1928. She was a delegate to the 1948 Democratic National Convention, 1952 Democratic National Convention, 1956 Democratic National Convention, 1960 Democratic National Convention, and 1968 Democratic National Convention. She was elected to Congress in 1949 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Andrew L. Somers and served from November 8, 1949 until January 3, 1969. She was part of the Democratic National Committee from 1956 until 1968.

Throughout her 19-year career in the House, Kelly was recognized for her expertise in foreign affairs, serving as the chair of the Subcommittee on Europe and retiring from Congress as the third ranking member of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. During her tenure, Kelly was responsible for measures that settled displaced people after World War II and refugees for Russia and Eastern Europe. She also helped to create the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.Early in the 1950s, she was among the first in Congress to advocate for a tax reduction for low-income single parents left with the sole responsibility of caring for their dependent children. Congresswoman Kelly called attention to the inequity in the Tax Code that permitted business deductions for entertainment, but none for child care. Her proposal became part of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.Kelly can also be credited with promoting the first equal pay for equal work bill, which she introduced in 1951. It was a landmark effort, which established a new era in the fight for women's equality. She was in attendance when President John F. Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act into law June 10, 1963.She received numerous awards, including the Mother Gerard Phelan Award from Marymount College; an honorary doctorate from Russell Sage College; and her alma mater Hunter College's highest honor, the Centennial Medal.She was married to New York City Court Justice Edward L. Kelly of Brooklyn, who died in 1942.Kelly died in Alexandria, Virginia of cancer and a series of strokes at the age of 91. She had two children, eight grandchildren and 17 great-grandchildren.

Edward C. Boyle

Edward Carol Boyle (December 24, 1904 - June 29, 1981) was the Allegheny County District Attorney in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania from January 3, 1956 until January 6, 1964. Mr. Boyle attended Duquesne University School of Law Class of 1928. He was a member of the Democratic Party, serving as a delegate at the 1960 Democratic National Convention. From 1949 until 1953 he served as U.S. Attorney for the Western District of Pennsylvania.

Electoral history of John F. Kennedy

Electoral history of John F. Kennedy, 35th President of the United States (1961–1963); United States Senator (1953–1960) and United States Representative (1947–1953) from Massachusetts.

Massachusetts's 11th congressional district, 1946 (Democratic primary):

John F. Kennedy – 22,183 (42.41%)

Michael J. Neville – 11,341 (21.68%)

John F. Cotter – 6,677 (12.76%)

Joseph Russo – 5,661 (10.82%)

Catherine E. Falvey – 2,446 (4.68%)

Joseph Lee – 1,848 (3.53%)

Joseph Russo – 799 (1.53%)

Michael DeLuca – 536 (1.03%)

Francis N. Rooney – 521 (1.00%)

Robert B. DiFruscio – 298 (0.57%)Massachusetts's 11th congressional district, 1946:

John F. Kennedy (D) – 69,093 (71.87%)

Lester Bowen (R) – 26,007 (27.05%)

Philip Geer (Prohibition) – 1,036 (1.08%)Massachusetts's 11th congressional district, 1948:

John F. Kennedy (D) - 106,366 (100.00%)Massachusetts's 11th congressional district, 1950:

John F. Kennedy (D) (inc.) – 87,699 (82.28%)

Vincent J. Celeste (R) – 18,302 (17.17%)

Martha E. Geer (Prohibition) – 582 (0.55%)Massachusetts United States Senate election, 1952:

John F. Kennedy (D) – 1,211,984 (51.35%)

Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (R) – 1,141,247 (48.35%)

Thelma Ingersoll (Socialist Labor) – 4,683 (0.20%)

Mark R. Shaw (Prohibition) – 2,508 (0.11%)Democratic presidential primary in Massachusetts, 1956:

John W. McCormack – 26,128 (47.92%)

Adlai Stevenson II – 19,024 (34.89%)

Estes Kefauver – 4,547 (8.34%)

Dwight D. Eisenhower – 1,850 (3.39%)

John F. Kennedy – 949 (1.74%)

W. Averell Harriman – 394 (0.72%)

Frank J. Lausche – 253 (0.46%)

Others – 1,379 (2.53%)(All candidates ran as write-ins)

1956 Democratic presidential primaries:

Adlai Stevenson II – 3,069,504 (50.70%)

Estes Kefauver – 2,283,172 (37.71%)

Unpledged delegates – 380,300 (6.28%)

Frank J. Lausche – 278,074 (4.59%)

John W. McCormack – 26,128 (0.43%)

Dwight D. Eisenhower – 6,358 (0.11%)

W. Averell Harriman – 3,368 (0.06%)

Robert Meyner – 1,129 (0.02%)

John F. Kennedy – 949 (0.02%)

Harry S. Truman – 728 (0.01%)

Stuart Symington – 402 (0.01%)

Paul A. Dever – 207 (0.00%)

Lyndon B. Johnson – 2 (0.00%)

Others – 3,610 (0.06%)1956 Democratic National Convention (Vice Presidential tally):

First ballot:

Estes Kefauver – 466.5

John F. Kennedy – 294.5

Albert Gore, Sr. – 178

Robert F. Wagner, Jr. – 162.5

Hubert Humphrey – 134

Luther Hodges – 40

P. T. Maner – 33

LeRoy Collins – 29

Clinton Anderson – 16

Frank G. Clement – 14

Pat Brown – 1

Lyndon B. Johnson – 1

Stuart Symington – 1Second ballot:

John F. Kennedy – 618

Estes Kefauver – 551.5

Albert Gore, Sr. – 110.5

Hubert Humphrey – 74.5

Robert F. Wagner, Jr. – 9.5

Luther Hodges – 0.5Third ballot:

Estes Kefauver – 755.5

John F. Kennedy – 589

Albert Gore, Sr. – 13.5

Robert F. Wagner, Jr. – 6

Hubert Humphrey – 2Massachusetts United States Senate election, 1958:

John F. Kennedy (D) (inc.) – 1,362,926 (73.20%)

Vincent J. Celeste (R) – 488,318 (26.23%)

Lawrence Gilfedder (Socialist Labor) – 5,457 (0.29%)

Mark R. Shaw (Prohibition) – 5,335 (0.29%)1960 Democratic presidential primaries:

John F. Kennedy – 1,847,259 (31.43%)

Pat Brown – 1,354,031 (23.04%)

George H. McLain – 646,387 (11.00%)

Hubert Humphrey – 590,410 (10.05%)

George Smathers – 322,235 (5.48%)

Michael DiSalle – 315,312 (5.37%)

Unpledged delegates – 241,958 (4.12%)

Albert S. Potter – 208,057 (3.54%)

Wayne Morse – 147,262 (2.51%)

Adlai Stevenson II – 51,833 (0.88%)1960 Democratic National Convention (Presidential tally):

John F. Kennedy – 806 (52.89%)

Lyndon B. Johnson – 409 (26.84%)

Stuart Symington – 86 (5.64%)

Adlai Stevenson II – 80 (5.25%)

Robert Meyner – 43 (2.82%)

Hubert Humphrey – 42 (2.76%)

George Smathers – 30 (1.97%)

Ross Barnett – 23 (1.51%)

Herschel C. Loveless – 2 (0.13%)

Pat Brown – 1 (0.07%)

Orval E. Faubus – 1 (0.07%)

Albert Rosellini – 1 (0.07%)United States presidential election, 1960:

John F. Kennedy/Lyndon B. Johnson (D) – 34,220,984 (49.7%) and 303 electoral votes (22 states carried)

Richard Nixon/Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (R) – 34,108,157 (49.5%) and 219 electoral votes (26 states carried)

Harry F. Byrd/Strom Thurmond (I) – 286,359 (0.4%) and 14 electoral votes (2 states carried)

Harry F. Byrd/Barry Goldwater (I) – 1 electoral vote (Oklahoma faithless elector)

Orval E. Faubus/James G. Crommelin (States' Rights) – 44,984 (0.1%)

Electoral history of Lyndon B. Johnson

Electoral history of Lyndon B. Johnson, the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969), 37th Vice President of the United States (1961–1963); United States Senator (1949–1961) and United States Representative (1937–1949) from Texas.

Texas's 10th congressional district special election, 1937

Lyndon B. Johnson (D) - 8,280 (27.65%)

Morton Harris (D) - 5,111 (17.07%)

Polk Shelton (D) - 4,420 (14.76%)

Sam V. Stone (D) - 4,048 (13.52%)

C. N. Avery (D) - 3,951 (13.19%)

Houghton Brownell (D) - 3,019 (10.08%)

Ayers Ross (D) - 1,088 (3.63%)Texas's 10th congressional district election, 1938

unopposedTexas's 10th congressional district election, 1940

unopposedTexas United States Senate special election, 1941:

W. Lee O'Daniel (D) - 175,590 (30.49%)

Lyndon B. Johnson (D) - 174,279 (30.26%)

Gerald C. Mann (D) - 140,807 (24.45%)

Martin Dies, Jr. (D) - 80,653 (14.01%)

Samuel N. Morris (D) - 1,654 (0.29%)

Joe Thompson (D) - 429 (0.07%)

Politte Elvins (R) - 273 (0.05%)

W. R. Jones (I) - 257 (0.05%)

Joseph C. Bean (D) - 242 (0.04%)

W. W. King (D) - 238 (0.04%)

Arlon Davis (D) - 174 (0.03%)

Guy B. Fisher (D) - 141 (0.02%)

John C. Williams (D) - 128 (0.02%)

W. E. Gilliland (D) - 96 (0.02%)

Starl G. Newsome, Jr. (D) - 96 (0.02%)

A. E. Calvin (D) - 94 (0.02%)

Basil Muse Hatfield (D) - 83 (0.01%)

Bubba Hicks (D) - 77 (0.01%)

Enoch Fletcher (R) - 71 (0.01%)

W. C. Welch (D) - 69 (0.01%)

Floyd E. Ryan (D) - 61 (0.01%)

Walter A. Schultz (D) - 61 (0.01%)

A. E. Harding (D) - 59 (0.01%)

Robert Grammer Head (D) - 58 (0.01%)

Homer Brooks (Communist) - 52 (0.01%)

O. F. Health, Sr. (D) - 51 (0.01%)

John Romulus Brinkley (D) - 36 (0.01%)

Edwin Waller III (D) - 28 (0.01%)

Charles L. Somerville (D) - 20 (0.00%)Texas's 10th congressional district election, 1942

unopposedTexas's 10th congressional district election, 1944

unopposedTexas's 10th congressional district election, 1946

unopposedTexas United States Senate election, 1948 (Democratic primary):

Coke Stevenson - 477,077 (39.68%)

Lyndon B. Johnson - 405,617 (33.73%)

George Peddy - 237,195 (19.73%)Texas United States Senate election, 1948 (Democratic primary runoff):

Lyndon B. Johnson - 494,191 (50.00%)

Coke Stevenson - 494,104 (50.00%)Texas United States Senate election, 1948:

Lyndon B. Johnson (D) - 702,985 (66.22%)

Jack Porter (R) - 349,665 (32.94%)

Samuel N. Morris (Prohibition) - 8,913 (0.84%)Texas United States Senate election, 1954:

Lyndon B. Johnson (D) (inc.) - 538,417 (84.59%)

Carlos G. Watson (R) - 95,033 (14.93%)

Fred T. Spangler (Constitution) - 3,025 (0.48%)1956 Democratic National Convention (Presidential tally):

Adlai Stevenson - 906 (65.89%)

W. Averell Harriman - 210 (15.27%)

Lyndon B. Johnson - 80 (5.82%)

Stuart Symington - 46 (3.35%)

Happy Chandler - 37 (2.69%)

John S. Battle - 33 (2.40%)

James C. Davis - 33 (2.40%)

George Bell Timmerman - 24 (1.75%)

Frank J. Lausche - 6 (0.44%)1956 Democratic National Convention (Vice Presidential tally):First ballot:

Estes Kefauver - 466.5

John F. Kennedy - 294.5

Albert Gore, Sr. - 178

Robert F. Wagner, Jr. - 162.5

Hubert Humphrey - 134

Luther Hodges - 40

P. T. Maner - 33

LeRoy Collins - 29

Clinton Anderson - 16

Frank G. Clement - 14

Pat Brown - 1

Lyndon B. Johnson - 1

Stuart Symington - 11960 Democratic National Convention (Presidential tally):

John F. Kennedy - 806 (52.89%)

Lyndon B. Johnson - 409 (26.84%)

Stuart Symington - 86 (5.64%)

Adlai Stevenson II - 80 (5.25%)

Robert Meyner - 43 (2.82%)

Hubert Humphrey - 42 (2.76%)

George Smathers - 30 (1.97%)

Ross Barnett - 23 (1.51%)

Herschel C. Loveless - 2 (0.13%)

Pat Brown - 1 (0.07%)

Orval E. Faubus - 1 (0.07%)

Albert Rosellini - 1 (0.07%)1960 Democratic National Convention (Vice Presidential tally):

Lyndon B. Johnson - 1,521 (100.00%)United States presidential election, 1960:

John F. Kennedy/Lyndon B. Johnson (D) - 34,220,984 (49.7%) and 303 electoral votes (22 states carried)

Richard Nixon/Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. (R) - 34,108,157 (49.5%) and 219 electoral votes (26 states carried)

Harry F. Byrd/Strom Thurmond (I) - 286,359 (0.4%) and 14 electoral votes (2 states carried)

Harry F. Byrd/Barry Goldwater (I) - 1 electoral vote (Oklahoma faithless elector)

Orval E. Faubus/James G. Crommelin (States' Rights) - 44,984 (0.1%)Texas United States Senate election, 1960:

Lyndon B. Johnson (D) (inc.) - 1,306,625 (57.98%)

John Tower (R) - 926,653 (41.12%)

Bard A. Logan (Constitution) - 20,506 (0.91%)1964 Democratic presidential primaries:

Pat Brown - 1,693,813 (27.26%)

Lyndon B. Johnson (inc.) - 1,106,999 (17.82%)

Sam Yorty - 798,431 (12.85%)

George Wallace - 798,431 (12.85%)

John W. Reynolds - 522,405 (8.41%)

Albert S. Porter - 493,619 (7.94%)

Matthew E. Welsh - 376,023 (6.05%)

Daniel Brewster - 267,106 (4.30%)

Jennings Randolph - 131,432 (2.12%)

Unpledged - 81,614 (1.31%)

Robert F. Kennedy - 36,258 (0.58%)

Lar Daly - 15,160 (0.24%)

Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. - 8,495 (0.14%)

Albert J. Easter - 8,275 (0.13%)

Adlai Stevenson II - 800 (0.01%)

Hubert Humphrey - 548 (0.01%)1964 Democratic National Convention (Presidential tally):

Lyndon B. Johnson (inc.) - 2,316 (100.00%)United States presidential election, 1964:

Lyndon B. Johnson/Hubert Humphrey (D) - 43,127,041 (61.1%) and 486 electoral votes (44 states and D.C. carried)

Barry Goldwater/William E. Miller (R) - 27,175,754 (38.5%) and 52 electoral votes (6 states carried)1968 Democratic presidential primaries:

Eugene McCarthy - 2,914,933 (38.73%)

Robert Kennedy - 2,305,148 (30.63%)

Stephen M. Young - 549,140 (7.30%)

Lyndon B. Johnson (inc.) - 383,590 (5.10%)

Thomas C. Lynch - 380,286 (5.05%)

Roger D. Branigin - 238,700 (3.17%)

George Smathers - 236,242 (3.14%)

Hubert Humphrey - 166,463 (2.21%)

Unpledged - 161,143 (2.14%)

Scott Kelly - 128,899 (1.71%)

George Wallace - 34,489 (0.46%)

Richard Nixon (write-in) - 13,610 (0.18%)

Ronald Reagan (write-in) - 5,309 (0.07%)

Ted Kennedy - 4,052 (0.05%)

Paul C. Fisher - 506 (0.01%)

John G. Crommelin - 186 (0.00%)

Elmer Cravalho

Elmer Franklin Cravalho (February 19, 1926 – June 27, 2016) was an American politician and teacher. A member of the Democratic Party, Cravalho served as the first Mayor of Maui from 1969 to 1979 and the first Speaker of the Hawaii House of Representatives following statehood.Cravalho is the descendant of Portuguese immigrants who settled in Hawaii.Born in Paia, Hawaii, Cravalho received his bachelor's degree in education from University of Hawaii, in 1947. He taught school and was a school principal. Later, he was in the insurance and banking business. He was also involved with the credit union movement, farming, and ranching.Cravalho began his political career in 1955 as a member of Hawaii's territorial House of Representatives. He served as the first House Speaker (1959–1967) following statehood, a delegate to the 1960 Democratic National Convention, Maui mayor and chairman of the Maui Board of Water Supply.

Much of Maui's development can be traced to Cravalho's term as mayor. In the 1970s, he was responsible for developing the waterline from Wailuku to Wailea, which enabled the development of Kihei.

Cravalho had a part in the formation of Maui Economic Opportunity Inc., a private, nonprofit organization chartered in 1965 to help low-income elderly, children and youth, persons with disabilities, immigrants, other disadvantaged people and the general public to help themselves.

Cravalho left office suddenly in 1979, just months after winning re-election for a second term in the 1978 election. Democrat Hannibal Tavares won a special election in October 1979 to complete the remainder of Cravalho's term. Cravalho died on June 27, 2016.

Gerald Desmond

Gerald "Jerry" Desmond ((1915-04-12)April 12, 1915 – January 31, 1964(1964-01-31) (aged 48)) was a prominent Democratic politician and civic leader in Long Beach, California who served as a Long Beach City Councilmember and as Long Beach City Attorney.

Desmond was born in Long Beach, California on April 12, 1915. He was the second oldest son of Walter Desmond (1876–1951), a religious Irish Catholic lawyer from Boston who came to California in 1905 and opened a law office in Long Beach. Walter Desmond was later appointed a Superior Court Judge and was one of the first judges to assign weekend jail time so offenders could work during the week.Desmond attended Long Beach City College, where, in 1932, he met his future wife, Virginia Slater. He briefly attended California State University, Long Beach, but soon transferred to Cal Berkeley. After graduation, along with Virginia, he attended law school at his father's alma mater, Harvard. In 1937 he and Virginia were married, and eventually had five children.

When World War II began in 1941, Desmond worked in the U.S. Attorney's Office. As a result, he would not have had to go into the service, but he was eager to join and enlisted in the U.S. Navy. He was in the supply corps, and then he was transferred to fraud investigation. The Navy sent him to Harvard Business School to train him to prepare for disposing of surplus disposal after the war, but never worked in this field. While he was investigating fraud, he traveled a lot. The Desmonds rented a house in Long Beach and Gerald went to New York, where he was stationed. He never went overseas. After the war, he came back to Long Beach and opened a private law practice.Desmond became active in local government and served on the City Council. He was a delegate to the 1960 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles. Later in 1960, he was elected City Attorney and served in that position until his death in 1964 at the age of 48.

The Gerald Desmond Bridge, which opened in 1968 and connects Terminal Island and Long Beach, was named in his honor.

Hoover vs. The Kennedys

Hoover vs. The Kennedys: The Second Civil War is a four-hour 1987 made-for-television mini-series depicting the political struggles between FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover and President John F. Kennedy and Attorney-General Robert F. Kennedy. The film takes place between the 1960 Democratic National Convention in July 1960 and the Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy in June 1968, with the majority of the mini-series focusing on the Kennedy Administration (1961–1963).

Other sub-plots include Bobby Kennedy's frustration with his elder brother's politically risky womanizing and his often turbulent relationship with Hoover and the Civil Rights leadership of the era. The mini-series also touches on the alleged bargains Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. made with Mafia figures in order to get his son elected to the U.S. Presidency.

Hoover vs. The Kennedys was primarily filmed on location in and around Toronto, Ontario.Produced by: Paul Saltzman Daniel Selznick and Joe Glickman

Written by: Lionel E. Siegel and Michael O'Herlihy

J. Thomas Jewell

Joseph Thomas Jewell, Sr., known as J. Thomas Jewell (March 6, 1909 – December 10, 1993), was a Democrat from New Roads in Pointe Coupee Parish, Louisiana, who served in the Louisiana House of Representatives from 1936 to 1968. In the 1960-1964 term, the second tenure of Governor Jimmie Davis, he was the House Speaker.Jewell was a delegate to the 1960 Democratic National Convention, which met in Los Angeles, California, to nominate the Kennedy-Johnson ticket, an easy winner in the race for Louisiana's then ten electoral votes in the general election against Republican nominee Richard M. Nixon and a slate of unpledged electors, including future Governor David C. Treen.

Speaker Jewell, as did most elected officials in the Deep South at the time, opposed school desegregation. On November 14, 1960, six days after the election of John F. Kennedy as president, Jewell told his legislative colleagues:

The courts are traditionally the guardian of liberty. They have the right to pass upon the actions of the lawmakers of Louisiana and every other state. They can render opinions regarding the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress itself. But no power on earth – including the federal court – can assume unto itself the right to prejudge the actions of the Legislature.

Jewell and his wife, the former Dorothy Morgan (1909-2008), had a son, J. Thomas Jewell, Jr. (1937-2002), who died of pancreatic cancer at his residence in New Roads. The junior Jewell was retired as a landman for the Warren American Oil Company in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Joe Robbie

Joseph Robbie (July 7, 1916 – January 7, 1990) was an American attorney, politician, and the principal founder of the Miami Dolphins.

LeRoy Collins

Thomas LeRoy Collins (March 10, 1909 – March 12, 1991) was an American attorney and politician, the 33rd Governor of Florida, serving a special term in 1955, and being elected to a four-year term in 1956, serving through 1961. He was previously elected to several terms in the Florida House of Representatives and Senate. He was the first governor of the South to promote the moral necessity of ending segregation. Counseling "progress under law", he took a moderate course during the civil rights movement and is remembered as a voice for civil rights.

Maurice G. Burnside

Maurice Gwinn Burnside (August 23, 1902 – February 2, 1991) was a professor, tobacco warehouse manager, and U.S. Representative from Huntington, West Virginia.Burnside was born near Columbia, Richland County, South Carolina in 1902. He attended the public schools of South Carolina and attended The Citadel, Charleston, South Carolina from 1920-1922. Burnside graduated from Furman University, Greenville, South Carolina in 1926, received his M.A. from the University of Texas, Austin, Texas in 1928 and his Ph.D. from Duke University, Durham, North Carolina in 1937. Burnside was an instructor for Greenville High School, Greenville, South Carolina from 1931-1932. He was a member of the staff of Duke University Library, Durham, North Carolina from 1933-1935. He was an instructor at the Alabama Polytechnic Institute (Auburn University), Auburn, Alabama from 1936-1937. Burnside was professor at Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia from 1937-1948. He was a member of the Parole and Probation Examination Board of West Virginia from 1939–1941 and chairman of Workers Education for West Virginia from 1942-1945.

Burnside was elected as a Democrat to the Eighty-first and Eighty-second Congresses (January 3, 1949 - January 3, 1953) and an unsuccessful candidate for reelection to the Eighty-third Congress in 1952. He was branch chief of the National Security Agency, Washington, D.C. in 1953. Burnside was elected to the Eighty-fourth Congress (January 3, 1955 - January 3, 1957) and an unsuccessful candidate for election to the Eighty-fifth Congress in 1956. He became a business executive and public advocate. He was a delegate to the 1960 Democratic National Convention and legislative liaison to the Department of Defense from 1961-1968. Burnside was an avid gardener and duplicate bridge player. He died in Wilson, North Carolina in 1991 and his remains were cremated.

Robert Dyk

Robert P. "Bob" Dyk (March 6, 1937 – March 23, 2008) was an American journalist, reporter and correspondent. Dyk worked for CBS News, ABC News and WMTW-TV during his career.Dyk's career in network news began at CBS News as an editorial assistant at the 1960 Democratic National Convention. He moved to ABC News in 1978. He was sent to Tehran, Iran, by ABC to cover the takeover of the United States embassy and the ensuing Iran hostage crisis following the Iranian Revolution in 1979. During his career at CBS and ABC, Dyk also reported in the death of Winston Churchill, the Lebanon Civil War and riots in Los Angeles.Dyk left network television and moved to Maine in 1987. He continued to work in television as a local anchorman and reporter for WMTW-TV.Dyk died of cancer at the 71 on March 22, 2008, at his home in Falmouth, Maine.

Robert W. Crown

Robert Warren Crown (January 23, 1922 – May 21, 1973) served in the California legislature and, during World War II, he served in the United States Army in an infantry combat platoon leader in France. He won nine elections in a row, and also served as a delegate at the 1960 Democratic National Convention. He was a progressive Democrat, noted for his opposition to the death penalty.In 1973, he was struck and killed by a car while on his regular early morning jog.Crown Memorial State Beach on the island of Alameda is named after him in recognition of his work to preserve the area.

The Presidential Papers

The Presidential Papers is a collection of essays, interviews, poems, open letters to political figures, and magazine pieces written by Norman Mailer, published in 1963 by G.P. Putnam's Sons. It is, by Mailer's own admission, similar in structure and purpose to Advertisements for Myself, albeit with a relatively stronger focus on contemporary politics, although many other topics are touched upon. The book covers such topics as scatology, totalitarianism, aesthetics, fascism, the 1960 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles, Jean Genet's 1958 play The Blacks, juvenile delinquency, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Fidel Castro, masturbation, and others.

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