1958 Lebanon crisis

The 1958 Lebanon crisis was a Lebanese political crisis caused by political and religious tensions in the country that included a U.S. military intervention. The intervention lasted for around three months until President Camille Chamoun, who had requested the assistance, completed his term as president of Lebanon. American and Lebanese government forces successfully occupied the port and international airport of Beirut. With the crisis over, the United States withdrew.

Background

Universal Newsreel showing President Eisenhower speaking of the crisis and marines boarding a ship in Lebanon

In July 1958, Lebanon was threatened by a civil war between Maronite Christians and Muslims. Tensions with Egypt had escalated earlier in 1956 when pro-western Christian President Camille Chamoun did not break diplomatic relations with the Western powers that attacked Egypt during the Suez Crisis, angering Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser. These tensions were further increased when Chamoun showed closeness to the Baghdad Pact. Nasser felt that the pro-western Baghdad Pact posed a threat to Arab nationalism. As a response, Egypt and Syria united into the United Arab Republic (UAR). Lebanese Sunni Prime Minister Rashid Karami supported Nasser in 1956 and 1958.

Lebanese Muslims pushed the government to join the newly created United Arab Republic, while the Christians wanted to keep Lebanon aligned with Western powers. A Muslim rebellion that was allegedly supplied with arms by the UAR through Syria caused President Chamoun to complain to the United Nations Security Council. The United Nations sent a group of inspectors that reported that it didn't find any evidence of significant intervention from the UAR.

The toppling of a pro-Western government in Iraq's 14 July Revolution, along with the internal instability, caused President Chamoun to call for American assistance.

Operation Blue Bat

USMC-Lebanon82-4
US Marines on patrol in Beirut, summer of 1958

U.S. President Eisenhower responded by authorizing Operation Blue Bat on July 15, 1958. This was the first application of the Eisenhower Doctrine, under which the U.S. announced that it would intervene to protect regimes it considered threatened by international communism. The goal of the operation was to bolster the pro-Western Lebanese government of President Camille Chamoun against internal opposition and threats from Syria and Egypt. The plan was to occupy and secure Beirut International Airport, a few miles south of the city, then to secure the port of Beirut and approaches to the city.

The chain of command for Operation Blue Bat was as follows: the Eisenhower administration at the strategic level; Specified Command, Middle East (SPECCOMME, a 'double-hat' for Commander in Chief, U.S. Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean) at the operational level; the Sixth Fleet, with aircraft carriers USS Saratoga, USS Essex, and USS Wasp, cruisers USS Des Moines and USS Boston, and two destroyer squadrons. At the end of June, Essex and Boston were anchored at Piraeus, Greece, while Des Moines, from which Vice Admiral Charles R. Brown was flying his flag, was at Villefranche-sur-Mer.[1] Land forces included the 2nd Provisional Marine Force (Task Force 62) and the Army Task Force 201 at the tactical level.[2] Each of these three components influenced Operations Plan 215-58 and its execution.

The operation involved more than 14,000 men, including 8,509 United States Army personnel, a contingent from the 1st Airborne Battle Group, 187th Infantry from the 24th Infantry Division (based in West Germany) and 5,670 officers and men of the United States Marine Corps (the 2nd Provisional Marine Force, of Battalion Landing Teams 1/8 and 2/2 under Brigadier General Sidney S. Wade).The 2nd Battalion 8th Marines arrived on July 16 after a 54-hour airlift from Cherry Point, North Carolina [3] They were supported by a fleet of 70 ships and 40,000 sailors.[4] On July 16, 1958, Admiral James L. Holloway, Jr., CINCNELM and CINCSPECCOMME, flew in from London to Beirut airport and boarded USS Taconic, from which he commanded the remainder of the operation.[5] The U.S. withdrew its forces on October 25, 1958.

President Eisenhower sent diplomat Robert D. Murphy to Lebanon as his personal representative. Murphy played a significant role in convincing both sides of the conflict to reach a compromise by electing moderate Christian general Fuad Chehab as incoming President, while allowing Chamoun to continue in power until the end of his term on September 22.

Prime Minister Rashid Karami formed a national reconciliation government after the 1958 crisis ended.

See also

References

  1. ^ Bryson, 1980, 128
  2. ^ Scott Jackman, Political Success in War: A Criterion for Success, DTIC
  3. ^ For more on the naval and Marine Corps forces involved, see Thomas A. Bryson, Tars, Turks, and Tankers: The Role of the United States Navy in the Middle East, Scarecrow Press, Inc., Metuchen, NJ, and London, 1980, 126–140.
  4. ^ "Amphibious Warfare History". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
  5. ^ Bryson, 1980, 131.

Further reading

Books and studies

  • Mohammed Shafi Agwani, The Lebanese Crisis, 1958: A Documentary Study, 1965.
  • Erika G. Alin, The United States and the 1958 Lebanon Crisis, American Intervention in the Middle East, 1994.
  • Pierrick el Gammal, Politique intérieure et politique extérieure au Liban de 1958 à 1961 de Camille Chamoun à Fouad Chehab, Sorbonne University (Paris), 1991. (French)
  • Irene L. Gendzier, Notes from the Minefield: United States Intervention in Lebanon and the Middle East 1945–1958, 1997
  • Agnes G. Korbani, U.S. Intervention in Lebanon, 1958–1982 : presidential decisionmaking, 1991.
  • Nawaf Salam, L’insurrection de 1958 au Liban, Sorbonne University (Paris), 1979. (French)
  • Jack Schulimson, Marines in Lebanon 1958, Historical Branch, G-3 Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, Department of the Navy, United States Marine Corps, 1966, 60 p.
  • Salim Yaqub, Containing Arab Nationalism, The Eisenhower Doctrine and the Middle East, 2003.
  • The Lebanon Operation. Contingency Operations. United States Army Center of Military History. Historical Manuscript Collection 2–3.7 AC.F Tab D. Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010.

Articles

  • Gerges, Fawaz A. (1993). "The Lebanese Crisis of 1958: The Risks of Inflated Self-Importance". Beirut Review: 83–113.
  • Lesch, David W. (1996). "Prelude to the 1958 American Intervention in Lebanon". Mediterranean Quarterly. 7 (3): 87–108.
  • Little, Douglas (1996). "His Finest Hour? Eisenhower, Lebanon, and the 1958 Middle East Crisis". Diplomatic History. 20 (1): 27–54. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1996.tb00251.x.
  • Ovendale, Ritchie (1994). "Great Britain and the Anglo-American Invasion of Jordan and Lebanon in 1958". The International History Review. 16 (2): 284–304. doi:10.1080/07075332.1994.9640677.
  • Tinguy, Edouard de (2007). "The Lebanese crisis of 1958 and the U.S military intervention". Revue d'Histoire Diplomatique (in French). Paris: A. Pédone. 4.

External links

1935 Yazidi revolt

The 1935 Yazidi revolt took place in Iraq in October 1935. The Iraqi government, under Yasin al-Hashimi, crushed a revolt by the Yazidi people of Jabal Sinjar against the imposition of conscription. The Iraqi army, led by Bakr Sidqi, reportedly killed over 200 Yazidi and imposed martial law throughout the region. Parallel revolts opposing conscription also broke out that year in the northern (Kurdish populated) and mid-Euphrates (majorly Shia populated) regions of Iraq.

The Yazidis of Jabal Sinjar constituted the majority of Iraqi Yazidi population - the third largest non-Muslim minority within the kingdom, and the largest ethno-religious group in the province of Mosul. In 1939, the region of Jabal Sinjar was once again put under military control, together with the Shekhan District.

Ainab

Ainab (Arabic: عيناب‎), is a town on the western slopes of Mount Lebanon overlooking Beirut. It is in the Aley District of the Mount Lebanon Governorate 25 kilometres (16 mi) from Beirut, on the road South from Aley.

Arab League

The Arab League (Arabic: الجامعة العربية‎ al-Jāmiʻah al-ʻArabīyah), formally the League of Arab States (Arabic: جامعة الدول العربية‎ Jāmiʿat ad-Duwal al-ʿArabīyah), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia. It was formed in Cairo on 22 March 1945 with six members: Egypt, Iraq, Transjordan (renamed Jordan in 1949), Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria. Yemen joined as a member on 5 May 1945. Currently, the League has 22 members, but Syria's participation has been suspended since November 2011, as a consequence of government repression during the Syrian Civil War.The League's main goal is to "draw closer the relations between member States and co-ordinate collaboration between them, to safeguard their independence and sovereignty, and to consider in a general way the affairs and interests of the Arab countries".Through institutions, such as the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO) and the Economic and Social Council of the Arab League's Council of Arab Economic Unity (CAEU), the Arab League facilitates political, economic, cultural, scientific, and social programmes designed to promote the interests of the Arab world. It has served as a forum for the member states to coordinate their policy positions, to deliberate on matters of common concern, to settle some Arab disputes and to limit conflicts such as the 1958 Lebanon crisis. The League has served as a platform for the drafting and conclusion of many landmark documents promoting economic integration. One example is the Joint Arab Economic Action Charter, which outlines the principles for economic activities in the region.

Each member state has one vote in the League Council, and decisions are binding only for those states that have voted for them. The aims of the league in 1945 were to strengthen and coordinate the political, cultural, economic and social programs of its members and to mediate disputes among them or between them and third parties. Furthermore, the signing of an agreement on Joint Defence and Economic Cooperation on 13 April 1950 committed the signatories to coordination of military defence measures. In March 2015, the Arab League General Secretary announced the establishment of a Joint Arab Force with the aim of counteracting extremism and other threats to the Arab States. The decision was reached while Operation Decisive Storm was intensifying in Yemen. Participation in the project is voluntary, and the army intervenes only at the request of one of the member states. The growing militarization of the region and the increase in violent civil wars as well as terrorist movements are the reason behind the creation of the JAF, financed by the rich Gulf countries.In the early 1970s, the Economic Council of the League of Arab States put forward a proposal to create the Joint Arab Chambers of Commerce across the European states. That led, under the decree of the League of Arab States no. K1175/D52/G, to the decision by the Arab governments to set up the Arab British Chamber of Commerce which was mandated to "promote, encourage and facilitate bilateral trade" between the Arab world and its major trading partner, the United Kingdom.

Austen Lake

Austen Lake (May 23, 1895 – June 9, 1964) was an American author, war correspondent during World War II, and a sports and general columnist for the Boston Evening Transcript and the Boston Record-American-Sunday Advertiser, in a career spanning more than 40 years until his death in 1964. "Galley Slave" (1965) is an anthology of his columns including writings on his many visits to Ireland. He played professional football for Buffalo and Philadelphia and had a tryout to play catcher for the New York Yankees before going to Europe during World War I where he served with the French Ambulance Corps before the United States entered the war. When the United States entered the war, he became a member of the newly formed United States Tank Corps, earning five battle stars and becoming a life member of "The Little Red Tank Society", a group formed by America's first tankers. During the years of World War II, he was a war correspondent, covering the London Blitz, the Normandy invasion, and the liberation of Paris. After D-Day, he went on to cover the exploits of the 4th Armored Division. After the war, he covered the 1958 Lebanon crisis and wrote a popular series on Ireland. During his college years, he was a football star at Lafayette College, afterwards studying portraiture at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Known throughout his life as "Duke", he died at the age of 69.

Bkerké

Bkerké (Arabic: بكركي, also Bkerke or Bkirki) is the episcopal see of the Maronite Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch of the Maronite Church in Lebanon, located 650 m above the bay of Jounieh, northeast of Beirut, in Lebanon.

Though now exclusively used by the church, the area was owned by the noble Khazen family. The clergy use it under a special waqf.

Donaldson Air Force Base

Donaldson Air Force Base is a former facility of the United States Air Force located south of Greenville, South Carolina. It was founded in 1942 as Greenville Army Air Base; it was deactivated in 1963 and converted into a civilian airport. It is currently an active airfield known as Donaldson Center Airport.

It was used by the United States Army Air Forces' Third Air Force as a B-25 Mitchell medium bomber training airfield during World War II. It was home to C-124 Globemaster II transports and called "The Airlift Capital of the World" for its role in the Berlin airlift, Korean War, and Cold War, being assigned to both Tactical Air Command (TAC) and the Military Air Transport Service (MATS).

Internal Security Forces

The Internal Security Forces Directorate (Arabic: المديرية العامة لقوى الأمن الداخلي‎, translit. al-Mudiriyya al-'aamma li-Qiwa al-Amn al-Dakhili; French: Forces de Sécurité Intérieure; abbreviated ISF) is the national police and security force of Lebanon.

Modern police were established in Lebanon in 1861, with creation of the Gendarmerie. In April 2005, Ashraf Rifi became head of the ISF, replacing Ali Hajj. Rifi then started to recruit younger members to become part of Lebanese Intelligence. His term ended in April 2013, and he was replaced by Roger Salem, and Ibrahim Basbouss subsequently. On March 8, 2017, the Lebanese Cabinet appointed Imad Othman director-general of the ISF. He took command the following day.The number of personnel reached 30,000 people by 2000 and has grown to over 40,000 by 2013.

Lebanese Chileans

Lebanese Chileans, are immigrants to Chile from Lebanon. Most are Christian and they arrived in Chile in the mid-19th to early-20th centuries to escape from poverty.

Ethnically Lebanese Chileans are often called "Turks", (Spanish: Turcos) a term believed to derive from the fact that they arrived from present day Lebanon, which at that time was occupied by the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Most arrived as members of the Eastern Orthodox church and the Maronite church, but became Roman Catholic. A minority are Muslim.

The Greek Orthodox Christians built the Antiochian Orthodox Archdiocese of Santiago and All Chile in Santiago in 1917. It is a cathedral of the Church of Antioch with six parishes.

Lebanese Ecuadorians

Lebanese Ecuadorians are Ecuadorians who are descended from migrants from Lebanon. There are approximately 98,000 Lebanese people and their descendants living in Ecuador.

Lebanese people in Senegal

There is a significant community of Lebanese people in Senegal.

Lebanese people in South Africa

Lebanese people in South Africa have a population exceeding 5,100 and other estimates report a total of 20,000 Lebanese in South Africa. In addition, an increasing number of Lebanese students seeking education and career opportunities opted for the country in light of its relatively reputable institutions across the Middle East. Most of the Lebanese people in South Africa live mainly in the cities of Johannesburg and Cape Town.

List of years in Lebanon

This is a list of years in Lebanon.

NDF Rebellion

The NDF Rebellion was an uprising in the Yemen Arab Republic by the National Democratic Front, under Yahya Shami, between 1978 and 1982. The rebellion began in 1978, following the death of Ahmad al-Ghashmi and the rise to power of Ali Abdullah Saleh. The NDF was supported in its rebellion by the PDRY and Libya. The NDF enjoyed various successes throughout the war, although it was weakened by the peace treaty between North and South Yemen following the 1979 border war.There were several attempts at ceasefires between the government and the NDF. Kuwait managed to facilitate the signing of a ceasefire between the government and the NDF on 26 November 1981, although hostilities re-erupted in December 1981. Later, the Palestinian Liberation Organization was able to mediate a ceasefire agreement on 3 April 1982, however hostilities began again later the same April, with the NDF capturing Juban. Government forces in turn attacked NDF positions in Juban in May 1982.

PDRY support for the NDF diminished under the Presidency of the less overtly militant Ali Nasir Muhammad, and PDRY support for the NDF finally ended in May 1982. The NDF was eventually defeated by a rejuvenated YAR Army in conjunction with the pro-government Islamic Front, allowing the YAR government to finally establish control over the North-South border region.

Nineteenth Air Force

The Nineteenth Air Force (19 AF) is an active Numbered Air Force of the United States Air Force. During the Cold War it was a component of Tactical Air Command, with a mission of command and control over deployed USAF forces in support of United States foreign policy initiatives. The command was reactivated in 1993 under Air Education and Training Command with a mission of conducting AETC's flying training.

19th Air Force was inactivated on 9 July 2012 as a cost-cutting measure by the Secretary of the Air Force, but was reactivated on 1 October 2014 when it was determined that the cost-cutting measures did not reap the savings expected. AETC commander General Robin Rand directed the reactivation to consolidate the management of the AETC flying mission again under a Numbered Air Force instead of the AETC Headquarters.

Sidney S. Wade

Sidney Scott Wade (September 30, 1909 – November 24, 2002) was a highly decorated officer of the United States Marine Corps who attained the rank of major general. He is most noted as commanding general of all Marine forces during 1958 Lebanon crisis and previously as commanding officer of the 1st Marine Regiment during Korean War. Wade later served as commanding general of the Force Troops, Fleet Marine Force Atlantic and MCRD San Diego.

Tom Fenton

Thomas Trail Fenton (born 8 April 1930) is a former television correspondent who retired in 2004 after a 34-year career with CBS News.

Fenton graduated from Dartmouth College in 1952 with a B.A. in English and was an officer in the United States Navy from 1952 to 1961, serving on destroyers in the Atlantic and Mediterranean. His Navy service placed him in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba in 1952, and in the Mediterranean Sea during the 1958 Lebanon Crisis.

Ulbricht Doctrine

The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could occur only if both states fully recognised each other's sovereignty. That contrasted with the Hallstein Doctrine, a West German policy which insisted that West Germany was the only legitimate German state.

East Germany gained acceptance of its view from fellow Communist states, such as Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria, which all agreed not to normalise relations with West Germany until it recognised East German sovereignty.

West Germany eventually abandoned its Hallstein Doctrine, instead adopting the policies of Ostpolitik. In December 1972, a Basic Treaty between East and West Germany was signed that reaffirmed two German states as separate entities. The treaty also allowed the exchange of diplomatic missions and the entry of both German states to the United Nations as full members.

Yemeni–Adenese clan violence

Yemeni–Adenese clan violence refers to sectarian violence in Yemen and Aden during 1956-60, resulting in some 1,000 deaths.

Civil conflicts in Lebanon
1910s
1920s
1930s
1940s
1950s
1960s
1970s
1980s
1990s
2000s
2010s

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.