1956 United States presidential election

The 1956 United States presidential election was the 43rd quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 6, 1956. The popular incumbent President, Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, successfully ran for re-election. The election was a re-match of 1952, as Eisenhower's opponent in 1956 was Adlai Stevenson, a former Illinois governor whom Eisenhower had defeated four years earlier.

Eisenhower, who had first become famous for his military leadership in World War II, remained widely popular. A heart attack in 1955 provoked speculation that he would not seek a second term, but Eisenhower's health recovered and he was unopposed at the 1956 Republican National Convention. Stevenson remained popular with a core of liberal Democrats, but held no office and had no real base. He defeated Governor W. Averell Harriman and several other candidates on the first presidential ballot of the 1956 Democratic National Convention. Stevenson called for a significant increase in government spending on social programs and a decrease in military spending.

As the country enjoyed peace—Eisenhower had ended the Korean War—and economic growth, few doubted a successful re-election for the charismatic Eisenhower. His voters were less likely to bring up his leadership record. Instead what stood out this time, "was the response to personal qualities—to his sincerity, his integrity and sense of duty, his virtue as a family man, his religious devotion, and his sheer likeableness."[2] The weeks before the election saw two major international crises in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, and Eisenhower's handling of the crises boosted his popularity.

Eisenhower slightly improved upon his 1952 majorities in both the popular and electoral vote. He maintained his 1952 gains among Democrats, especially white urban Southerners and Northern Catholics.[3] Compared to the 1952 election, Eisenhower gained Kentucky, Louisiana, and West Virginia from Stevenson, while losing Missouri. This was the last presidential election before the admissions of Alaska and Hawaii, the last election in which any of the major candidates were born in the 19th century, and the most recent election that was a rematch of a previous election.

1956 United States presidential election

November 6, 1956

All 531 electoral votes of the Electoral College
266 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout60.6%[1] Decrease 2.7 pp
  Dwight David Eisenhower, photo portrait by Bachrach, 1952 AdlaiEStevenson1900-1965
Nominee Dwight D. Eisenhower Adlai Stevenson
Party Republican Democratic
Home state Kansas Illinois
Running mate Richard Nixon Estes Kefauver
Electoral vote 457 73
States carried 41 7
Popular vote 35,579,180 26,028,028
Percentage 57.4% 42.0%

1956 United States presidential election in California1956 United States presidential election in Oregon1956 United States presidential election in Washington (state)1956 United States presidential election in Idaho1956 United States presidential election in Nevada1956 United States presidential election in Utah1956 United States presidential election in Arizona1956 United States presidential election in Montana1956 United States presidential election in Wyoming1956 United States presidential election in Colorado1956 United States presidential election in New Mexico1956 United States presidential election in North Dakota1956 United States presidential election in South Dakota1956 United States presidential election in Nebraska1956 United States presidential election in Kansas1956 United States presidential election in Oklahoma1956 United States presidential election in Texas1956 United States presidential election in Minnesota1956 United States presidential election in Iowa1956 United States presidential election in Missouri1956 United States presidential election in Arkansas1956 United States presidential election in Louisiana1956 United States presidential election in Wisconsin1956 United States presidential election in Illinois1956 United States presidential election in Michigan1956 United States presidential election in Indiana1956 United States presidential election in Ohio1956 United States presidential election in Kentucky1956 United States presidential election in Tennessee1956 United States presidential election in Mississippi1956 United States presidential election in Alabama1956 United States presidential election in Georgia1956 United States presidential election in Florida1956 United States presidential election in South Carolina1956 United States presidential election in North Carolina1956 United States presidential election in Virginia1956 United States presidential election in West Virginia1956 United States presidential election in Maryland1956 United States presidential election in Delaware1956 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania1956 United States presidential election in New Jersey1956 United States presidential election in New York1956 United States presidential election in Connecticut1956 United States presidential election in Rhode Island1956 United States presidential election in Maryland1956 United States presidential election in Vermont1956 United States presidential election in New Hampshire1956 United States presidential election in Maine1956 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1956 United States presidential election in Maryland1956 United States presidential election in Delaware1956 United States presidential election in New Jersey1956 United States presidential election in Connecticut1956 United States presidential election in Rhode Island1956 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1956 United States presidential election in Vermont1956 United States presidential election in New HampshireElectoralCollege1956.svg
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Eisenhower/Nixon, blue denotes those won by Stevenson/Kefauver, orange is the electoral vote for Walter B. Jones by an Alabama faithless elector. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican

Elected President

Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican

Nominations

Republican Party

Republican Party Ticket, 1956
Dwight D. Eisenhower Richard Nixon
for President for Vice President
Dwight David Eisenhower, photo portrait by Bachrach, 1952
VP-Nixon copy
34th
President of the United States
(1953–1961)
36th
Vice President of the United States
(1953–1961)
Campaign

Republican candidates

Early in 1956, there was speculation that President Eisenhower would not run for a second term because of concerns about his health. In 1955, Eisenhower had suffered a serious heart attack. However, he soon recovered, and after being cleared by his doctors, he decided to run for a second term. (In June 1956 he also underwent surgery for ileitis) Given Eisenhower's enormous popularity, he was re-nominated with no opposition at the 1956 Republican National Convention in San Francisco, California.

The only question among Republicans was whether Vice-President Richard Nixon would again be Eisenhower's running mate. There is some evidence that Eisenhower would have preferred a less controversial running mate, such as Governor Christian Herter of Massachusetts. According to some historians (such as Stephen E. Ambrose), Eisenhower privately offered Nixon another position in his cabinet, such as Secretary of Defense. Harold Stassen was the only Republican to publicly oppose Nixon's re-nomination for Vice-President, and Nixon remained highly popular among the Republican rank-and-file voters. Nixon had also reshaped the vice-presidency, using it as a platform to campaign for Republican state and local candidates across the country, and these candidates came to his defense. In the spring of 1956, Eisenhower publicly announced that Nixon would again be his running mate, and Stassen was forced to second Nixon's nomination at the Republican Convention. Unlike 1952, conservative Republicans (who had supported Robert A. Taft against Eisenhower in 1952) did not attempt to shape the platform. At the convention, one delegate voted for a fictitious "Joe Smith" for Vice-President to prevent a unanimous vote.

Democratic Party

Democratic Party Ticket, 1956
Adlai Stevenson II Estes Kefauver
for President for Vice President
AdlaiEStevenson1900-1965
SenatorKefauver(D-TN)
31st
Governor of Illinois
(1949–1953)
U.S. Senator from Tennessee
(1949–1963)
Campaign

Democratic candidates

Candidates gallery

Primaries

1956DemocraticPresidentialPrimaries
Results of the 1956 Democratic Presidential Primaries.

Adlai Stevenson, the Democratic Party's 1952 nominee, fought a tight primary battle with populist Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver for the 1956 nomination. Kefauver won the New Hampshire primary unopposed (though Stevenson won 15% on write-ins). After Kefauver upset Stevenson in the Minnesota primary, Stevenson, realizing that he was in trouble, agreed to debate Kefauver in Florida. Stevenson and Kefauver held the first televised presidential debate on May 21, 1956, before the Florida primary. Stevenson carried Florida by a 52-48% margin. By the time of the California primary in June 1956, Kefauver's campaign had run low on money and could not compete for publicity and advertising with the well-funded Stevenson. Stevenson won the California primary by a 63-37% margin, and Kefauver soon withdrew from the race.

Source

Democratic National Convention

At the 1956 Democratic National Convention in Chicago, Illinois, New York Governor W. Averell Harriman, who was backed by former President Harry S. Truman, challenged Stevenson for the nomination. However, Stevenson's delegate lead was much too large for Harriman to overcome, and Stevenson won the nomination on the first ballot.

The roll call, as reported in Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris, Convention Decisions and Voting Records, pp. 294–298:

Presidential Balloting, DNC 1956
Contender Vote
Adlai Stevenson 905.5
W. Averell Harriman 210
Lyndon B. Johnson 80
Stuart Symington 45.5
Happy Chandler 36.5
James C. Davis 33
John S. Battle 32.5
George Bell Timmerman, Jr. 23.5
Frank Lausche 5.5
Hubert Humphrey crop

Senator Hubert Humphrey from Minnesota

The highlight of the 1956 Democratic Convention came when Stevenson, to create excitement for the ticket, made the surprise announcement that the convention's delegates would choose his running mate. This set off a desperate scramble among several candidates to win the nomination. Potential vice-presidential candidates had only one hectic day to campaign among the delegates before the voting began. The two leading contenders were Senator Kefauver, who retained the support of his primary delegates, and young Senator John F. Kennedy from Massachusetts, who was relatively unknown at that point. Although Stevenson privately preferred Senator Kennedy to be his running mate, he did not attempt to influence the balloting for Kennedy in any way. Kennedy surprised the experts by surging into the lead on the second ballot; at one point, he was only 15 votes shy of winning. However, a number of states then left their "favorite son" candidates and switched to Kefauver, giving him the victory. Kennedy then gave a gracious concession speech. The defeat was a boost for Kennedy's long-term presidential chances: as a serious contender, he gained favorable national publicity, yet by losing to Kefauver he avoided blame for Stevenson's loss to Eisenhower in November. The vote totals in the vice-presidential balloting are recorded in the following table, which also comes from Bain & Parris.

Vice Presidential Balloting, DNC 1956
Ballot 1 2 before shifts 2 after shifts
Estes Kefauver 466.5 551.5 755.5
John F. Kennedy 294.5 618 589
Albert Gore, Sr. 178 110.5 13.5
Robert F. Wagner, Jr. 162.5 9.5 6
Hubert Humphrey 134 74.5 2
Luther H. Hodges 40 0.5 0
P.T. Maner 33 0 0
LeRoy Collins 29 0 0
Clinton Presba Anderson 16 0 0
Frank G. Clement 14 0 0
Pat Brown 1 0 0
Lyndon B. Johnson 1 0 0
Stuart Symington 1 0 0

General election

Campaign

Stevenson campaigned hard against Eisenhower, with television ads for the first time being the dominant medium for both sides. Because Eisenhower's 1952 election victory was due, in large part, to winning the female vote, there was a plethora of "housewife" focused ads. Some commentators at the time also argued that television's new prominence was a major factor in Eisenhower's decision to run for a second term at age 66, considering his weak health after the heart attack in 1955. Television allowed Eisenhower to reach people across the country without enduring the strain of repeated coast-to-coast travel, making a national campaign more feasible.[5]

PresidentialCounty1956
Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of red are for Eisenhower (Republican), shades of blue are for Stevenson (Democratic), and shades of green are for Unpledged Electors/Andrews (Independent/States' Rights).

Stevenson proposed significant increases in government spending for social programs and treaties with the Soviet Union to lower military spending and end nuclear testing on both sides. He also proposed to end the military draft and switch to an "all-volunteer" military. Eisenhower publicly opposed these ideas, even though in private he was working on a proposal to ban atmospheric nuclear testing. Eisenhower had retained the enormous personal and political popularity he had earned during World War II, and he maintained a comfortable lead in the polls throughout the campaign.

Eisenhower was also helped by his handling of two developing foreign-policy crises that occurred in the weeks before the election. In the Soviet-occupied People's Republic of Hungary, many citizens had risen in revolt in the Revolution of 1956 against Soviet domination, but the Soviets responded by invading the country on October 26. Three days later, a combined force of Israeli, British, and French troops invaded Egypt to topple Gamal Abdel Nasser and seize the recently nationalized Suez Canal. The resolution of the latter crisis rapidly moved to the United Nations,[6] and the Hungarian revolt was brutally crushed within a few days by re-deployed Soviet troops. Eisenhower condemned both actions, but was unable to help Hungary; he did, however, forcefully pressure the western forces to withdraw from Egypt.

While these two events led many Americans to rally in support of the president and swelled his expected margin of victory, the campaign was seen differently by some foreign governments.[7] The Eisenhower administration had also supported the Brown v. Board of Education ruling in 1954; this ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court ended legal segregation in public schools. Meanwhile, Stevenson voiced disapproval about federal court intervention in segregation, saying about Brown that "we don't need reforms or groping experiments."[8] This was an about-face from the national Democratic party platform's endorsement of civil rights in the 1948 campaign. Although Eisenhower "avoid[ed] a clear stand on the Brown decision" during the campaign,[9] in the contest with Stevenson, he won the support of nearly 40% of black voters; he was the last Republican presidential candidate to receive such a level of support from black voters.

Results

Eisenhower led all opinion polls by large margins throughout the campaign. On Election Day Eisenhower took over 57% of the popular vote and won 41 of the 48 states. Stevenson won only six Southern states and the border state of Missouri, becoming the first losing candidate since William Jennings Bryan in 1900 to carry Missouri. Eisenhower carried Louisiana, making him the first Republican presidential candidate to carry the state, or any state in the Deep South for that matter, since Rutherford Hayes had done so in 1876 during Reconstruction.

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote
Dwight D. Eisenhower (Incumbent) Republican Pennsylvania 35,579,180 57.37% 457 Richard Nixon California 457
Adlai Stevenson Democratic Illinois 26,028,028 41.97% 73 Estes Kefauver Tennessee 73
(Unpledged electors) (n/a) (n/a) 196,318 0.32% 0 (n/a) (n/a) 0
T. Coleman Andrews States' Rights Virginia 108,956 0.18% 0 Thomas Werdel California 0
Eric Hass Socialist Labor New York 44,300 0.07% 0 Georgia Cozzini Wisconsin 0
Enoch A. Holtwick Prohibition Illinois 41,937 0.07% 0 Edwin M. Cooper California 0
Farrell Dobbs Socialist Workers New York 7,797 0.01% 0 Myra Tanner Weiss California 0
Harry F. Byrd States' Rights Virginia 2,657 <0.01% 0 William E. Jenner Indiana 0
Darlington Hoopes Socialist Pennsylvania 2,128 <0.01% 0 Samuel H. Friedman New York 0
Henry B. Krajewski American Third New Jersey 1,829 <0.01% 0 Anna Yezo New Jersey 0
Gerald L. K. Smith Christian Nationalist Michigan 8 <0.01% 0 Charles Robertson Michigan 0
Walter Burgwyn Jones Democratic Alabama (a) (a) 1 Herman Talmadge Georgia 1
Other 8,691 0.01% Other
Total 62,021,328 100% 531 531
Needed to win 266 266

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. "1956 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 1, 2005.Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved August 1, 2005.

Popular vote
Eisenhower
57.37%
Stevenson
41.97%
Unpledged
0.32%
Others
0.34%
Electoral vote
Eisenhower
86.06%
Stevenson
13.75%
Jones
0.19%
1956 Electoral Map
1956nationwidecountymapshadedbyvoteshare

Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote

Results by state

[10]

States won by Eisenhower/Nixon
States won by Stevenson/Kefauver
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Republican
Adlai Stevenson
Democratic
T. Coleman Andrews/Unpledged Electors[a]
States' Rights
Eric Hass
Socialist Labor
Margin State Total
State electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % #
Alabama 11 195,694 39.39 - 280,844 56.52 10 20,323 4.09 - - - - -85,150 -17.13 496,698 AL
Arizona 4 176,990 60.99 4 112,880 38.90 - 303 0.10 - - - - 64,110 22.09 290,173 AZ
Arkansas 8 186,287 45.82 - 213,277 52.46 8 7,008 1.72 - - - - -26,990 -6.64 406,572 AR
California 32 3,027,668 55.39 32 2,420,135 44.27 - 6,087 0.11 - 300 0.01 - 607,533 11.11 5,466,355 CA
Colorado 6 394,479 59.49 6 263,997 39.81 - 759 0.11 - 3,308 0.50 - 130,482 19.68 663,074 CO
Connecticut 8 711,837 63.72 8 405,079 36.26 - - - - - - - 306,758 27.46 1,117,121 CT
Delaware 3 98,057 55.09 3 79,421 44.62 - - - - 110 0.06 - 18,636 10.47 177,988 DE
Florida 10 643,849 57.27 10 480,371 42.73 - - - - - - - 163,478 14.54 1,124,220 FL
Georgia 12 216,652 32.65 - 441,094 66.48 12 - - - - - - -224,442 -33.83 663,480 GA
Idaho 4 166,979 61.17 4 105,868 38.78 - - - - - - - 61,111 22.39 272,989 ID
Illinois 27 2,623,327 59.52 27 1,775,682 40.29 - - - - 8,342 0.19 - 847,645 19.23 4,407,407 IL
Indiana 13 1,182,811 59.90 13 783,908 39.70 - - - - 1,334 0.07 - 398,903 20.20 1,974,607 IN
Iowa 10 729,187 59.06 10 501,858 40.65 - 3,202 0.26 - 125 0.01 - 227,329 18.41 1,234,564 IA
Kansas 8 566,878 65.44 8 296,317 34.21 - - - - - - - 270,561 31.23 866,243 KS
Kentucky 10 572,192 54.30 10 476,453 45.21 - - - - 358 0.03 - 95,739 9.09 1,053,805 KY
Louisiana 10 329,047 53.28 10 243,977 39.51 - 44,520 7.21 - - - - 85,070 13.78 617,544 LA
Maine 5 249,238 70.87 5 102,468 29.13 - - - - - - - 146,770 41.73 351,706 ME
Maryland 9 559,738 60.04 9 372,613 39.96 - - - - - - - 187,125 20.07 932,351 MD
Massachusetts 16 1,393,197 59.32 16 948,190 40.37 - - - - 5,573 0.24 - 445,007 18.95 2,348,506 MA
Michigan 20 1,713,647 55.63 20 1,359,898 44.15 - - - - - - - 353,749 11.48 3,080,468 MI
Minnesota 11 719,302 53.68 11 617,525 46.08 - - - - 2,080 0.16 - 101,777 7.60 1,340,005 MN
Mississippi 8 60,685 24.46 - 144,498 58.23 8 42,966 17.31 - - - - -83,813 -33.78 248,149 MS
Missouri 13 914,289 49.89 - 918,273 50.11 13 - - - - - - -3,984 -0.22 1,832,562 MO
Montana 4 154,933 57.13 4 116,238 42.87 - - - - - - - 38,695 14.27 271,171 MT
Nebraska 6 378,108 65.51 6 199,029 34.49 - - - - - - - 179,079 31.03 577,137 NE
Nevada 3 56,049 57.97 3 40,640 42.03 - - - - - - - 15,409 15.94 96,689 NV
New Hampshire 4 176,519 66.11 4 90,364 33.84 - 111 0.04 - - - - 86,155 32.27 266,994 NH
New Jersey 16 1,606,942 64.68 16 850,337 34.23 - 5,317 0.21 - 6,736 0.27 - 756,605 30.46 2,484,312 NJ
New Mexico 4 146,788 57.81 4 106,098 41.78 - 364 0.14 - 69 0.03 - 40,690 16.02 253,926 NM
New York 45 4,340,340 61.19 45 2,750,769 38.78 - - - - - - - 1,589,571 22.41 7,092,860 NY
North Carolina 14 575,062 49.34 - 590,530 50.66 14 - - - - - - -15,468 -1.33 1,165,592 NC
North Dakota 4 156,766 61.72 4 96,742 38.09 - 483 0.19 - - - - 60,024 23.63 253,991 ND
Ohio 25 2,262,610 61.11 25 1,439,655 38.89 - - - - - - - 822,955 22.23 3,702,265 OH
Oklahoma 8 473,769 55.13 8 385,581 44.87 - - - - - - - 88,188 10.26 859,350 OK
Oregon 6 406,393 55.25 6 329,204 44.75 - - - - - - - 77,189 10.49 735,597 OR
Pennsylvania 32 2,585,252 56.49 32 1,981,769 43.30 - - - - 7,447 0.16 - 603,483 13.19 4,576,503 PA
Rhode Island 4 225,819 58.26 4 161,790 41.74 - - - - - - - 64,029 16.52 387,609 RI
South Carolina 8 75,700 25.18 - 136,372 45.37 8 88,511 29.45 - - - - -47,863 -15.92 300,583 SC
South Dakota 4 171,569 58.39 4 122,288 41.61 - - - - - - - 49,281 16.77 293,857 SD
Tennessee 11 462,288 49.21 11 456,507 48.60 - 19,820 2.11 - - - - 5,781 0.62 939,404 TN
Texas 24 1,080,619 55.26 24 859,958 43.98 - 14,591 0.75 - - - - 220,661 11.28 1,955,545 TX
Utah 4 215,631 64.56 4 118,364 35.44 - - - - - - - 97,267 29.12 333,995 UT
Vermont 3 110,390 72.16 3 42,549 27.81 - - - - - - - 67,841 44.35 152,978 VT
Virginia 12 386,459 55.37 12 267,760 38.36 - 42,964 6.16 - 351 0.05 - 118,699 17.01 697,978 VA
Washington 9 620,430 53.91 9 523,002 45.44 - - - - 7,457 0.65 - 97,428 8.47 1,150,889 WA
West Virginia 8 449,297 54.08 8 381,534 45.92 - - - - - - - 67,763 8.16 830,831 WV
Wisconsin 12 954,844 61.58 12 586,768 37.84 - 6,918 0.45 - 710 0.05 - 368,076 23.74 1,550,558 WI
Wyoming 3 74,573 60.08 3 49,554 39.92 - - - - - - - 25,019 20.16 124,127 WY
TOTALS: 531 35,579,180 57.37 457 26,028,028 41.97 73 301,417 0.49 - 44,300 0.07 - 9,551,152 15.40 62,021,328 US

Close states (margin of victory less than 1%, totaling 24 electoral votes)

  1. Missouri, 0.22%
  2. Tennessee, 0.62%

Close state (margin of victory less than 5%, totaling 14 electoral votes)

  1. North Carolina, 1.33%

Close states (margin of victory more than 5%, but less than 10%, totaling 46 electoral votes)

  1. Arkansas, 6.64%
  2. Minnesota, 7.60%
  3. West Virginia, 8.16%
  4. Washington, 8.47%
  5. Kentucky, 9.09%

(a) Alabama faithless elector W. F. Turner, who was pledged to Adlai Stevenson and Estes Kefauver, instead cast his votes for Walter Burgwyn Jones, who was a circuit court judge in Turner's home town, and Herman Talmadge, governor of the neighboring state of Georgia.

Because of the admission of Alaska and Hawaii as states in 1959, the 1956 presidential election was the last in which there were 531 electoral votes.

Electoral eccentricities

  • The 1956 election was the last time in which the election was a rematch of the election held four years earlier. (Rematches also occurred in 1800, 1828, 1840, 1892, and 1900. It would not be until 1996 when two major candidates would face each other twice, with Democrat Bill Clinton facing third-party candidate Ross Perot.
  • The 1956 Democratic vice presidential vote was the last time any convention voting went to a second ballot.
  • Missouri was often considered to be a "bellwether" state because it voted for the winner of nearly every Presidential election in the century between 1904 and 2004. 1956 constituted the only exception, as it voted for Stevenson despite Eisenhower"s convincing nationwide victory (albeit by only 3,984 votes out of more than 1.8 million cast; most of this margin being provided by the City of St. Louis). After 1956, the state reverted to "bellwether" status and voted for the presidential winner in every election until 2008 and 2012, when it voted for losing Republican candidates over a victorious Barack Obama.
  • Eisenhower came in third in South Carolina, behind Stevenson and "unpledged electors", the first incumbent to have this status since William Howard Taft in 1912. This next happened to George Bush in 1992 when he finished third place in Maine behind Bill Clinton and Ross Perot.
  • With this election, Eisenhower became the first Republican to carry these states twice in Presidential elections: Arizona, Florida, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia.
  • Eisenhower was the last Republican until Ronald Reagan in 1984 to win every Northeastern state.
  • As of 2016, the 1956 election was the last time the Republican candidate carried all six of the following states in the same election: Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania and Rhode Island,[b] which have all since become solid blue states. Since 1956, the only Republican victories in any of these states have been in 1972 (Richard Nixon won all except Massachusetts), 1980 (Ronald Reagan won Massachusetts, New York and Pennsylvania), 1984 (Reagan won all except Minnesota), 1988 (George H. W. Bush won Maryland and Pennsylvania), and 2016 (Donald Trump won Pennsylvania).
  • This is one of the last elections where the Democrats had their post Civil War dominance of the Deep South; most of these states have become solid red states in the present day.
  • This election marks the first time since 1924 that a sitting Republican president won re-election. Eisenhower was also the first Republican to serve two complete terms since Ulysses S. Grant.
  • This was the last election in which Massachusetts voted Republican until 1980, the last in which Alabama and Mississippi voted Democratic until 1976, the last in which Connecticut, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Texas, and West Virginia voted Republican until 1972, and the last in which Delaware, Illinois, Nevada, New Jersey, and New Mexico voted Republican until 1968.
  • This election is the last time that a Republican won the presidency without winning Missouri, North Carolina, and South Carolina.
  • This is the last election in which Baltimore voted for the Republican presidential candidate, with the city having since returned to its status as a powerful Democratic bastion.
  • This is the last election that San Francisco County, California as well as Alameda County, California voted for a Republican candidate.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Was allied with a slate of unpledged electors in Louisiana, Mississippi and South Carolina
  2. ^ Previous Republicans to carry all these six states have been Abraham Lincoln in 1864, William McKinley in 1896 and 1900, Warren Harding in 1920, Calvin Coolidge in 1924 and Eisenhower in 1952. Theodore Roosevelt in 1904 and William Howard Taft in 1908 carried Maryland by extremely narrow margins, but in those days Maryland had a system of voting for individual electors and most votes were given to the Democrats.

Citations

  1. ^ "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections". The American Presidency Project. UC Santa Barbara.
  2. ^ Angus Campbell; et al. (1960). The American Voter. p. 56.
  3. ^ Robert R. Alford, "The role of social class in American voting behavior." Western Political Quarterly 16.1 (1963): 180-194.
  4. ^ Smith, Jean Edward. Eisenhower In War And Peace, Random House, New York, NY, 2013. p. 703Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
  5. ^ Emmet John Hughes, "52,000,000 TV Sets-How Many Votes?" The New York Times, September 25, 1960, SM23
  6. ^ Borhi, László (1999). "Containment, Rollback, Liberation or Inaction? The United States and Hungary in the 1950s" (PDF). Journal of Cold War Studies. 1 (3): 67–108. doi:10.1162/152039799316976814. Retrieved June 29, 2009. As Vice President Richard Nixon later explained: "We couldn't on one hand, complain about the Soviets intervening in Hungary and, on the other hand, approve of the British and the French picking that particular time to intervene against [Gamel Abdel] Nasser".
  7. ^ "How Britain France and Israel Got Together". Time. November 12, 1956. State Department officials are sure that the British and French callously deceived or misled them from this date onward. On October 23 Pineau dashed over to London, reportedly to tell Eden that Israel was all ready to launch preventive war on Nasser. Ben-Gurion's moment was well chosen because, it was reasoned, 1) the U.S. would not dare move decisively against Israel on the verge of a presidential election, and 2) the Hungarian rebellion, then at its height, would keep Russia's hands tied.
  8. ^ Mickey, Robert (February 19, 2015). Paths Out of Dixie: The Democratization of Authoritarian Enclaves in America's Deep South, 1944-1972. Princeton University Press. p. 187. ISBN 9780691149639.
  9. ^ Schickler, Eric (April 26, 2016). Racial Realignment: The Transformation of American Liberalism, 1932-1965. Princeton University Press. p. 245. ISBN 9781400880973.
  10. ^ "1956 Presidential General Election Data - National". Retrieved March 18, 2013.

References

Further reading

  • Converse, Philip E., Warren E. Miller, Donald E. Stokes, Angus Campbell. The American Voter (1964) the classic political science study of voters in 1952 and 1956
  • Divine, Robert A. (1974). Foreign Policy and U.S. Presidential Elections, 1952–1960. ISBN 0-531-06496-4.
  • Gallup, George H., ed. (1972). The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion, 1935–1971. 3 vols. Random House. ISBN 0-394-47270-5. vol 2
  • Martin, John Bartlow. Adlai Stevenson and the World: The Life of Adlai E. Stevenson (1977).
  • Nichols, David A. Eisenhower 1956: The President's Year of Crisis--Suez and the Brink of War (2012).

External links

1956 United States presidential election in Arizona

The 1956 United States presidential election in Arizona took place on November 6, 1956, as part of the 1956 United States presidential election. Arizona voters chose four representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Arizona was won by incumbent President Dwight D. Eisenhower (R–Pennsylvania), running with Vice President Richard Nixon, with 60.99 percent of the popular vote, against Adlai Stevenson (D–Illinois), running with Senator Estes Kefauver, with 39.90 percent of the popular vote.Eisenhower was the first Republican presidential candidate to ever carry Graham County, which was to become a Republican stronghold after 1964.

1956 United States presidential election in California

The 1956 United States presidential election in California refers to how California participated in the 1956 United States presidential election. California voted for the Republican incumbent, Dwight D. Eisenhower, in a landslide over the Democratic challenger, former Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson.

As of 2016, this is the last presidential election in California where the Republican candidate won the counties of Alameda and San Francisco, both of which have become strongholds of the Democratic Party.

1956 United States presidential election in Colorado

The 1956 United States presidential election in Colorado took place on November 6, 1956, as part of the 1956 United States presidential election. Colorado voters chose six representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Colorado was won by incumbent President Dwight D. Eisenhower (R–Pennsylvania), running with Vice President Richard Nixon, with 59.49% of the popular vote, against Adlai Stevenson (D–Illinois), running with Senator Estes Kefauver, with 39.81% of the popular vote.

1956 United States presidential election in Illinois

The 1956 United States presidential election in Illinois took place on November 6, 1956, as part of the 1956 United States presidential election. Illinois voters chose twenty-seven representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Illinois was won by incumbent President Dwight D. Eisenhower (R–Pennsylvania), running with Vice President Richard Nixon, with 59.52% of the popular vote, against Adlai Stevenson (D–Illinois), running with Senator Estes Kefauver, with 40.29% of the popular vote.

1956 United States presidential election in Kentucky

The 1956 United States presidential election in Kentucky took place on November 6, 1956, as part of the 1956 United States presidential election. Kentucky voters chose ten representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Kentucky was won by incumbent President Dwight D. Eisenhower (R–Pennsylvania), running with Vice President Richard Nixon, with 54.30% of the popular vote, against Adlai Stevenson (D–Illinois), running with Senator Estes Kefauver, with 45.21% of the popular vote.

1956 United States presidential election in Louisiana

The 1956 United States presidential election in Louisiana took place on November 6, 1956, as part of the 1956 United States presidential election. Louisiana voters chose ten representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Louisiana was won by incumbent President Dwight D. Eisenhower (R–Pennsylvania), running with Vice President Richard Nixon, with 53.28% of the popular vote, against Adlai Stevenson (D–Illinois), running with Senator Estes Kefauver, with 39.51% of the popular vote. This is the first time a Republican presidential candidate won Louisiana since Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876.

1956 United States presidential election in Maryland

The 1956 United States presidential election in Maryland took place on November 6, 1956, as part of the 1956 United States presidential election. Maryland voters chose nine representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Maryland was won by incumbent President Dwight D. Eisenhower (R–Pennsylvania), running with Vice President Richard Nixon, with 60.04 percent of the popular vote, against Adlai Stevenson (D–Illinois), running with Senator Estes Kefauver, with 39.96 percent of the popular vote.By winning all 24 county-equivalents, Eisenhower became and remains the solitary presidential candidate to sweep all Maryland’s counties and Baltimore City. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which the City of Baltimore voted for the Republican candidate.

1956 United States presidential election in Minnesota

The 1956 United States presidential election in Minnesota took place on November 6, 1956, in Minnesota as part of the 1956 United States presidential election.

The Republican Party candidate, incumbent President Dwight D. Eisenhower won the state over former Illinois governor Adlai Stevenson by a margin of 101,777 votes, or 7.6%. Eisenhower went on to win the election nationally, with 457 electoral votes and a landslide 15.4% lead over Stevenson in the popular vote. The 1956 presidential election was a rematch of the 1952 election, in which Eisenhower also defeated Stevenson, both nationally and in Minnesota.

The Democratic nomination campaign leading into 1956 presidential election may have had a major role in the end of the political career of Coya Knutson, the first woman to be elected to the United States House of Representatives from Minnesota. The Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party, in a ploy to win a possible vice presidential nomination for its rising star, U.S. Senator Hubert Humphrey, desperately attempted to ensure that Stevenson would win in the DFL Presidential Primary in Minnesota that year. However, Congresswoman Knutson, believing that the agricultural policy positions of U.S. Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee would have been more beneficial to her constituents, instead endorsed and campaigned on behalf of Kefauver. In part due to Knutson's efforts, Kefauver won the March 20th Minnesota Presidential Primary; as a result, when Stevenson was ultimately nominated, Kefauver was chosen as his running mate.

Two years later, shortly before the 1958 DFL state convention, a letter signed but not written by Knutson's husband was circulated to reporters. The contents of the letter played on anxieties over deviations from the rigid gender roles of the time, and its publication by newspapers essentially ensured Knutson's defeat in her bid for re-election that year. It has been alleged by several individuals, including Concordia College political science professor Harding Noblitt, Knutson biographer Gretchen Beito, and numerous people who were close to Knutson, that either DFL state leadership or local operatives wrote the letter and bribed Knutson's husband to sign it, as a means to exact retribution against the Congresswoman for denying Humphrey a shot at the vice presidential nomination in 1956.

1956 United States presidential election in Nebraska

The 1956 United States presidential election in Nebraska took place on November 6, 1956, as part of the 1956 United States presidential election. Nebraska voters chose six representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Nebraska was won by incumbent President Dwight D. Eisenhower (R–Pennsylvania), running with Vice President Richard Nixon, with 65.51% of the popular vote, against Adlai Stevenson (D–Illinois), running with Senator Estes Kefauver, with 34.49% of the popular vote.With 65.51% of the popular vote, Nebraska would prove to be Eisenhower's fourth strongest state after Vermont, Maine and New Hampshire.

1956 United States presidential election in Nevada

The 1956 United States presidential election in Nevada took place on November 6, 1956, as part of the 1956 United States presidential election. Nevada voters chose three representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Nevada was won by incumbent President Dwight D. Eisenhower (R–Pennsylvania), running with Vice President Richard Nixon, with 57.97% of the popular vote, against Adlai Stevenson (D–Illinois), running with Senator Estes Kefauver, with 42.03% of the popular vote.

1956 United States presidential election in New York

The 1956 United States presidential election in New York took place on November 6, 1956. All contemporary 48 states were part of the 1956 United States presidential election. New York voters chose forty five electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

New York was won by incumbent Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who was running against former Democratic Governor of Illinois Adlai Stevenson. Eisenhower ran with incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon, and Stevenson ran with Tennessee Senator, and principal opponent during the 1956 Democratic Primaries, Estes Kefauver.

Eisenhower received 61.19% of the vote to Stevenson's 38.78%, a margin of 22.41%.

New York weighed in for this election as 4% more Republican than the national average. This election was very much of a re-match from the previous presidential election four years earlier, which featured approximately the same major candidates. The presidential election of 1956 was a very partisan election for New York, with 99.8% of the electorate voting for either the Democratic Party or the Republican Party. The widely popular Eisenhower took every county in the State of New York outside of New York City, dominating upstate by landslide margins and also sweeping suburban areas around NYC. Stevenson narrowly won New York City overall by carrying the boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn, and the Bronx, while Eisenhower won Queens and Staten Island.

Eisenhower won the election in New York by a 22-point sweep-out landslide. The presidential election of 1956 is one of the final years in American politics with a Civil War Democratic stronghold in the Deep South. This was also one of the first elections in New York (and nationally) where most campaign finance went to television ads. Stevenson campaigned on a platform of expansion of government social programs founded under former President Franklin D. Roosevelt, scaling back the Cold War with the Soviet Union, and ending the U.S. draft, seeking an 'all volunteer armed forces.' While Stevenson's policies were largely popular with many people living in the United States at the time, Eisenhower's post World War II star-power and strong stance against peace-talks with the Soviet Union, won him a landslide victory across the United States, including in New York.

Eisenhower had first won election to the White House in 1952 as a war hero, a political outsider, and a moderate Republican who pledged to protect and support popular New Deal Democratic policies, finally ending 20 years of Democratic control of the White House. Once in office, Eisenhower governed as a moderate progressive, approving infrastructure spending projects like the Interstate Highway System and supporting high tax rates on the rich, as well as taking a progressive stand on issues related to the Civil Rights Movement. Thus Eisenhower was able to win over many more normally Democratic-leaning liberal and moderate voters in the Northeast than he already had in 1952, and thus every Northeastern state swung in his favor in 1956, including New York.

1956 was the last election in which a Republican presidential candidate took more than 60% of the vote in New York State, as well as the last election in which New York State was more Republican than the national average.

1956 United States presidential election in North Carolina

The 1956 United States presidential election in North Carolina took place on November 6, 1956, as part of the 1956 United States presidential election. North Carolina voters chose fourteen representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

North Carolina was won by Adlai Stevenson (D–Illinois), running with Senator Estes Kefauver, with 50.66% of the popular vote against incumbent President Dwight D. Eisenhower (R–Pennsylvania), running with Vice President Richard Nixon, with 49.34% of the popular vote.

1956 United States presidential election in Ohio

The 1956 United States presidential election in Ohio took place on November 6, 1956 throughout all 48 states, which was part of the 1956 United States presidential election. Voters chose 25 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for President and Vice President.

Ohio was won by the Eisenhower/Nixon ticket.

1956 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania

The 1956 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania took place on November 6, 1956 as part of the 1956 United States presidential election. Voters chose 32 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Pennsylvania strongly voted for the Republican nominee, President Dwight D. Eisenhower, over the Democratic nominee, former Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson. Pennsylvania was the home state of President Eisenhower, as he moved to the Gettysburg area after World War II. Eisenhower won Pennsylvania by a solid 13.19 percentage point margin, and carried every county except Philadelphia and four heavily unionized coal counties in the southwestern "Black Country".

1956 United States presidential election in Tennessee

The 1956 United States presidential election in Tennessee took place on November 6, 1956, as part of the 1956 United States presidential election. Tennessee voters chose eleven representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Tennessee was won by incumbent President Dwight D. Eisenhower (R–Pennsylvania), running with Vice President Richard Nixon, with 49.21% of the popular vote, against Adlai Stevenson (D–Illinois), running with Senator Estes Kefauver, with 48.60% of the popular vote.

1956 United States presidential election in Washington (state)

The 1956 United States presidential election in Washington took place on November 6, 1956, as part of the 1956 United States presidential election. Washington voters chose nine representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Washington was won by incumbent President Dwight D. Eisenhower (R–Pennsylvania), running with Vice President Richard Nixon, with 53.91 percent of the popular vote, against Adlai Stevenson (D–Illinois), running with Senator Estes Kefauver, with 45.44 percent of the popular vote.

1956 United States presidential election in West Virginia

The 1956 United States presidential election in West Virginia took place on November 6, 1956, as part of the 1956 United States presidential election. West Virginia voters chose eight representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

West Virginia was won by incumbent President Dwight D. Eisenhower (R–Pennsylvania), running with Vice President Richard Nixon, with 54.08% of the popular vote, against Adlai Stevenson (D–Illinois), running with Senator Estes Kefauver, with 45.92% of the popular vote.

1956 United States presidential election in Wisconsin

The 1956 United States presidential election in Wisconsin was held on November 6, 1956. Wisconsin voters chose twelve electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Republican Party candidate Dwight D. Eisenhower won the state with 62% of the popular vote, winning Wisconsin's twelve electoral votes. As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Portage County, Ashland County, Milwaukee County, and Dane County voted for the Republican candidate. This is also the last election as of 2016 that the Republican won the state by a double-digit margin.

1956 United States presidential election in Wyoming

The 1956 United States presidential election in Wyoming took place on November 6, 1956, as part of the 1956 United States presidential election. Wyoming voters chose three representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Wyoming was won by incumbent President Dwight D. Eisenhower (R–Pennsylvania), running with Vice President Richard Nixon, with 60.08% of the popular vote, against Adlai Stevenson (D–Illinois), running with Senator Estes Kefauver, with 39.92% of the popular vote.

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