1956 Democratic National Convention

The 1956 Democratic National Convention nominated former Governor Adlai Stevenson of Illinois for President and Senator Estes Kefauver of Tennessee for Vice President. It was held in the International Amphitheatre on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois August 13–August 17, 1956. Unsuccessful candidates for the presidential nomination included Governor W. Averell Harriman of New York, Senator Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas, and Senator Stuart Symington of Missouri.

As the unsuccessful 1952 Democratic Party presidential nominee, Stevenson had the highest stature of the active candidates and was easily renominated on the first ballot. Former President Harry S. Truman, whose support for Stevenson in '52 helped secure him the nomination, was opposed to his renomination in 1956, instead favoring Harriman. It did no good, as Truman was no longer a sitting President, and Stevenson was nominated on the first ballot.

After Stevenson decided not to reselect his 1952 running mate John Sparkman, the convention was marked by a "free vote" for the vice presidential nomination in which the winner, Kefauver, defeated Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts. The vice presidential nomination vote, which required three separate ballots, was (as of 2016) the last multi-balloted contest held at a quadrennial political convention of any major U.S. political party for the presidency or vice presidency.

The Democratic convention preceded the 1956 Republican convention in the Cow Palace, San Francisco, California. At the GOP gathering, President Dwight D. Eisenhower was nominated for reelection.

1956 Democratic National Convention
1956 presidential election
AdlaiEStevenson 3x4 (B)
SenatorKefauver(D-TN) (3x4)
Nominees
Stevenson and Kefauver
Convention
Date(s)August 13–17, 1956
CityChicago, Illinois
VenueInternational Amphitheatre
Keynote speakerGov. Frank G. Clement of Tennessee
Candidates
Presidential nomineeAdlai Stevenson of Illinois
Vice Presidential nomineeEstes Kefauver of
Tennessee
Downtown Chicago at night (August 11, 1956)
Chicago skyline on the night of August 11, 1956 (two days before the opening session of the convention)
John F. Kennedy nominates Adlai Stevenson 1956
Senator John F. Kennedy nominates Stevenson as the Democratic candidate for president.
John Daly Quincy Howe ABC Presidential convention 1956
John Daly and Quincy Howe providing ABC's coverage of the convention
Eleanor Roosevelt at the Democratic Nationall Convention in Chicago, Illinois - NARA - 195997 (cropped2)
Eleanor Roosevelt attending the convention

The 1956 Democratic Platform

With regard to the growing Civil Rights Movement, the platform called for voting rights, equal employment opportunities, and the desegregation of public schools. Relative to the Republicans, the Democrats favored greater reliance on the United Nations, multilateral disarmament, more spending for programs relating to social welfare and agriculture, "a full and integrated program of development, protection, management and conservation of natural resources," and the use of peaceful atomic energy.

The presidential vote

Candidates:

Happy Chandler - Harris and Ewing Crop

Governor Happy Chandler of Kentucky

John S. Battle

Former Governor John S. Battle of Virginia

The roll call, as reported in Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris, Convention Decisions and Voting Records, pp. 294–298:

Presidential Balloting, DNC 1956
Contender Vote
Former Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson 905.5 (65.9%)
New York Governor W. Averell Harriman 210 (15.31%)
Senate Majority Leader Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas 80 (5.83%)
Missouri Senator Stuart Symington 45.5 (3.32%)
Kentucky Governor Happy Chandler 36.5 (2.66%)
Georgia Congressman James C. Davis 33 (2.41%)
Former Virginia Governor John S. Battle 32.5 (2.37%)
South Carolina Governor George Bell Timmerman 23.5 (1.71%)
Ohio Governor Frank J. Lausche 5.5 (0.4%)

Vice-presidential nomination

The highlight of the 1956 Democratic Convention came when Stevenson, in an effort to create excitement for the ticket, made the surprise announcement that the convention's delegates would choose his running mate. This set off a desperate scramble among several candidates to win the nomination. A good deal of the excitement of the vice-presidential race came from the fact that the candidates had only one hectic day to campaign among the delegates before the voting began. The two leading contenders were Senator Kefauver, who retained the support of his primary delegates, and John F. Kennedy, who, as a first term Senator from Massachusetts, was relatively unknown at that point. Kennedy surprised the experts by surging into the lead on the second ballot; at one point he was only 15 votes shy of winning. However, a number of states then left their "favorite son" candidates and switched to Kefauver, giving him the victory. Kennedy then gave a gracious concession speech. The narrow defeat raised his profile and helped Kennedy's long-term presidential chances, yet by losing to Kefauver he avoided any blame for Stevenson's expected loss to Eisenhower in November. As of 2017, this was the last time any presidential or vice presidential nomination of either the Democratic or Republican parties, went past the first ballot.

Candidates

The vote totals in the vice presidential balloting are recorded in the following table, which also comes from Bain & Parris.

Vice Presidential Balloting, DNC 1956
Contender: Ballot 1 2 before shifts 2 after shifts
Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver 466.5 551.5 755.5
Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy 294.5 618 589
Tennessee Senator Albert Gore, Sr. 178 110.5 13.5
New York City Mayor Robert F. Wagner, Jr. 162.5 9.5 6
Minnesota Senator Hubert Humphrey 134 74.5 2
North Carolina Governor Luther Hodges 40 0.5 0
Pitt Tyson Maner of Alabama 33 0 0
Florida Governor LeRoy Collins 29 0 0
New Mexico Senator Clinton Anderson 16 0 0
Tennessee Governor Frank G. Clement 14 0 0
California Attorney General Pat Brown 1 0 0
Texas Senator Lyndon B. Johnson 1 0 0
Missouri Senator Stuart Symington 1 0 0

Election outcome

On November 6, Adlai Stevenson and Estes Kefauver lost the election to President Eisenhower and Vice President Nixon in a landslide.

See also

External links

Preceded by
1952
Chicago, Illinois
Democratic National Conventions Succeeded by
1960
Los Angeles, California

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